ES_Week_Eleven - Climate Change cont 2 approaches Mitigation reduce magnitude of change GHG reduction GHG capture Adaptation minimize impact on human

ES_Week_Eleven - Climate Change cont 2 approaches...

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Climate Change cont. - 2 approaches - Mitigation - reduce magnitude of change - GHG reduction - GHG capture - Adaptation - minimize impact on human population - Seawalls, pumps, change in agricultural techniques - In order to survive we have to do both - Reduce carbon footprint - Transportation - fuel-efficient vehicles, public transportation, biking - Electricity use and source - use renewable resources - Vegetarianism - has lower carbon footprint, but more importantly buy local - Mitigation will require approaches across scales (local, state, national, international) - Lots of cumulative small scale actions help - Carbon pricing - Compensate for the lack of external costs in pricing - Carbon tax - tax carbon content of fossil fuels - Carbon trading - # of carbon permits allocated to industry (selling, auctioning, assigning) - Some producers are cleaner than others/reduce more cheaply - Can sell extra permits to other producers - Role of government - Ideological debate over level of government intrusion - Gridlock in Congress over climate issues - Obama took executive action to make the Clean Power Plan - Trump administration undid this, also Republican Congress - International Efforts - 1992 - UN Framework Convention on climate change - Wanted to reduce GHG to 1990 level by the year 2000 - Was voluntary action, not required - 1997 - Kyoto Protocol - Was trying to hit 1990 levels by the year 2008-2012 - Entered into effect in 2005 - took this long for minimum amount of countries to ratify - U.S. only developed country not to ratify - Congress objected, developed countries had to reduce but developing countries did not (including China and India) - Since Kyoto protocol, we have seen reductions relative to 1990 levels - Great Recession - And 1990 levels were pre-Soviet Union collapse - U.S., China, and India all have increased GHG emissions - Subsequent attempts to renegotiate have had limited success - Kyoto Protocol applies to ~15% of GHGs globally
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- 2015 - Paris Accord - Tried to address developing country issue of the Kyoto Protocol - U.S. pledged to have a 28% reduction in carbon emissions by 2025 - China pledged to halt emissions growth by 2030 - Trump has issued intent to withdraw from this beginning in 2020 - List of countries in the world that haven’t signed or ratified - U.S. - Nicaragua - Syria - North Korea did sign, along with Iran - Can we reduce GHGs without suffering economic harm?
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