Lecture 13-Populations

Lecture 13-Populations - Populations and Intraspecific...

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Unformatted text preview: Populations and Intraspecific Competition Elements of Ecology: Chapters 9-11 Populations • Population = a group of individuals that regularly share genes • Also can be a group of members of the same species that live in the same area How abundant are organisms? • Abundance: number of individuals in the population • Population density = number of organisms in a given area How abundant are organisms? • Crude density = number of organisms in a given area not accounting for distribution differences • Not all organisms in a population are distributed evenly Spatial Distribution of Individuals in a Population http://www.uwyo.edu/dbmcd/popecol/feblects/Fig6.3Dispersion.jpg Spatial Distribution of Individuals in a Population • Random: – An individual has an equal probability of occurring anywhere in the area – Due to neutral interactions between individuals and environment Spatial Distribution of Individuals in a Population • Uniform: – Individuals are uniformly distributed throughout the environment – Due to local depletion of resources (nutrient/water limitation in plants) or antagonistic interactions among individuals (territoriality) Spatial Distribution of Individuals in a Population • Clumped: – Individuals occur in groups – Due to patchy habitat (animals congregate around a patch of good food) or social groupings (animals are attracted to each other) How abundant are organisms? • Ecological density: takes uneven distribution into account • Number of individuals per available living space, not just number per hectare • Hard to estimate Sampling a Quadrat http://www.epa.gov/r10earth/offices/oea/ieu/quadrat_on%20beachw_ID.jpg http://myweb.dal.ca/sh417565/Images/Lions%20Bay%20Volunteers%20and%20Quadrat.jpg Sampling along a transect line http://www.bcg.org.au/cb_pages/images/images/EFPteammember_640.jpg Sampling along a transect line http://www.marine.uq.edu.au/images/teaching/study_shortcourse2.jpg Aerial Survey (Direct Count) of Sudan Wildlife http://images.google.com/imgres? imgurl=http://img.timeinc.net/time/daily/2007/0707/wherds_0702.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1635827, 00.html&h=460&w=670&sz=240&hl=en&start=12&tbnid=yBbsiE2pxBysKM:&tbnh=95&tbnw=138&prev=/images%3Fq%3Daerial %2Bwildlife%2Bsurvey%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den Aerial Survey (Direct Count) of Manatees http://www.learner.org/jnorth/images/graphics/manatee/aerial_LeePark.jpg Aerial Survey of Sharks in Brisbane, Australia http://swimatyourownrisk.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2007/05/shark-beaches-03-g.jpg Lincoln (Peterson) Index • N = total population (what you want to find out) • M = known number of marked animals • n = total animals captured in the second trapping • R = marked animals re-captured in the second trapping http://wfcb.ucdavis.edu/www/Faculty/Doug/Sierra%20Mammals/Sierra %20Mammals/images/eartag.jpg http://www.philadelphiazoo.org/PhiladelphiaZoo/files/1f/1f80dad2-9e45-4c3e-af99- d17e82253eda.jpg http://www.parkreports.com/parksblog/wp-content/photos/turtle_tag.JPG Lincoln (Peterson) Index...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2011 for the course BIOS 230 taught by Professor Gibbons during the Spring '08 term at Ill. Chicago.

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Lecture 13-Populations - Populations and Intraspecific...

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