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Lecture 13-Populations

Lecture 13-Populations - Populations and Intraspecific...

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Populations and Intraspecific Competition Elements of Ecology: Chapters 9-11
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Populations Population = a group of individuals that regularly share genes Also can be a group of members of the same species that live in the same area
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How abundant are organisms? Abundance: number of individuals in the population Population density = number of organisms in a given area
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How abundant are organisms? Crude density = number of organisms in a given area not accounting for distribution differences Not all organisms in a population are distributed evenly
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Spatial Distribution of Individuals in a Population http://www.uwyo.edu/dbmcd/popecol/feblects/Fig6.3Dispersion.jpg
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Spatial Distribution of Individuals in a Population Random: An individual has an equal probability of occurring anywhere in the area Due to neutral interactions between individuals and environment
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Spatial Distribution of Individuals in a Population Uniform: Individuals are uniformly distributed throughout the environment Due to local depletion of resources (nutrient/water limitation in plants) or antagonistic interactions among individuals (territoriality)
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Spatial Distribution of Individuals in a Population Clumped: Individuals occur in groups Due to patchy habitat (animals congregate around a patch of good food) or social groupings (animals are attracted to each other)
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How abundant are organisms? Ecological density: takes uneven distribution into account Number of individuals per available living space, not just number per hectare Hard to estimate
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Sampling a Quadrat http://www.epa.gov/r10earth/offices/oea/ieu/quadrat_on%20beachw_ID.jpg http://myweb.dal.ca/sh417565/Images/Lions%20Bay%20Volunteers%20and%20Quadrat.jpg
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Sampling along a transect line http://www.bcg.org.au/cb_pages/images/images/EFPteammember_640.jpg
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Sampling along a transect line http://www.marine.uq.edu.au/images/teaching/study_shortcourse2.jpg
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Aerial Survey (Direct Count) of Sudan Wildlife http://images.google.com/imgres? imgurl=http://img.timeinc.net/time/daily/2007/0707/wherds_0702.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1635827, 00.html&h=460&w=670&sz=240&hl=en&start=12&tbnid=yBbsiE2pxBysKM:&tbnh=95&tbnw=138&prev=/images%3Fq%3Daerial %2Bwildlife%2Bsurvey%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den
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Aerial Survey (Direct Count) of Manatees http://www.learner.org/jnorth/images/graphics/manatee/aerial_LeePark.jpg
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Aerial Survey of Sharks in Brisbane, Australia http://swimatyourownrisk.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2007/05/shark-beaches-03-g.jpg
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Lincoln (Peterson) Index N = total population (what you want to find out) M = known number of marked animals n = total animals captured in the second trapping R = marked animals re-captured in the second trapping http://wfcb.ucdavis.edu/www/Faculty/Doug/Sierra%20Mammals/Sierra %20Mammals/images/eartag.jpg http://www.philadelphiazoo.org/PhiladelphiaZoo/files/1f/1f80dad2-9e45-4c3e-af99- d17e82253eda.jpg http://www.parkreports.com/parksblog/wp-content/photos/turtle_tag.JPG
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Lincoln (Peterson) Index N n M = R Re-arrange to get: N = nM R
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