What is philosophy

What is philosophy - What is Philosophy? Something like:...

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What is Philosophy? Something like: applying critical thinking to ‘important’ topics
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important = who knows? (but think: questions about religion, questions about what we know, and, most importantly for our purposes, questions about ethics ) Critical thinking = something roughly like: formulating and criticizing arguments So we need to know something about arguments, how to formulate and criticize them
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Arguments are composed of statements, the ‘premise(s)’ and the ‘conclusion’ Premise(s) = the statement or statements that are offering the support for the conclusion (the reasons) Conclusion = the statement that is being supported by the premises (the point you’re trying to prove) Ex All dogs are animals You are legally blind Jack is a dog You never drive the speed limit ___________ _________________ Jack is an animal It’s morally wrong for you to drive
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Two kinds of arguments Deductive arguments : arguments where IF the premises are true the conclusion MUST be true Inductive arguments : arguments where IF the premises are true the conclusion PROBABLY is true
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Examples of deductive arguments: P1. If Arkansas beats Alabama, then AR will win the NC P2. Arkansas beats Alabama C1. Arkansas will win the NC P1. Either you will pass this class or fail this class P2. You will not pass this class C1. You will fail this class
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Examples of inductive arguments P1. My car has transmission problems P2. You car is just like mine. C1. So it probably has transmission problems, too P1. All previous American presidents were male C1. The next American president will be male P1. The sun has risen in the East for the last million days C1. So the sun will rise in the East tomorrow
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Ok, how to evaluate arguments? What makes them good or bad? For
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This note was uploaded on 10/14/2011 for the course PHIL 2103 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Arkansas.

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What is philosophy - What is Philosophy? Something like:...

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