IntlSecurity 6CubanMissileCrisis

IntlSecurity 6CubanMissileCrisis - 6:CubanMissileCrisis...

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6: Cuban Missile Crisis Democratic Containment (JFK&LBJ): Flexible Response and  Nuclear Options LBJ takes office in 1963 when Kennedy is assassinated Democratic party was very critical of Nuclear Mass Retaliation and   Containment Policy (Kennedy vs Nixon) First presidential race with televised debates Eisenhower wants to stand back Kennedy wants to expand Distinctive Features of Flexible Response A.  Force buildup:  1.  Conventional  -  prepared to build up smaller scale militaries to be  able to fight guerillas in the 3 rd  world. “Special forces units” 2.  Nuclear -   want to expand the number and variety of nuclear  weapons that the US had at its disposal. IBMS SLBMS ( long range  that could be launched from submarines) even though Kennedy knew  there was no missile gap B.  Pentagon’s Management Revolution:   Robert McNamara  – Harvard Business School. CEO of Ford Motor  Corporation. Brings Private Sector school of thought “American Whiz Kids” into  the office. Rational Plans to cope with contingencies Flexible Response in Practice: Nuclear Options A.  Concerns about Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) War plan called for launching weapons as soon as possible Advisors had concerns about this
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6: Cuban Missile Crisis Necessary to have an actual plan about how to use this 1.  ethics:   massacre 100s of millions of people because they live under  dictatorship (they didn’t even vote for their leaders). Innocent people don’t  deserve to die Herman Kahn –  Rand corporation nuclear strategist See  Doctor Strange Love   2.  budgets:   McNamera said this is giving a blank check to the Pentagon.  More weapons = bigger budgets 3.  political control:  no flexibility for the President. This SIOP took the  decisions out of the hands of the President once the decision was made to use  nuclear weapons 4.  accidental war:   lack of safeguards to prevent devastating accidents  and the start of a war. Of the six safety switches, 5 had failed.  How would we know that this was a non-hostile event?  If President takes perceptive action could SIOP put us in war. Many false alarms Early generation computer failures B.  Changes in US Nuclear Posture 1.  revise targeting plans –  revise SIOP. Have a more refined war plan.  Divide Soviet into targets. Categorize targets, counter value targets (populations  last) 2.  more flexible arsenal – improve its survivability.  Therefore you  don’t need to use so much at the beginning.   
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