Chapter 2 Notes - Chapter 2/Chapter 3 Notes: Changes in...

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Chapter 2/Chapter 3 Notes: Changes in Arterial Blood Pressure at Rest Changes in arterial blood pressure at rest Although arterial pressure oscillates over time, mean pressure remains constant Changes in Body Core Temperature During Exercise Changes in body core temperature during submaximal exercise Body temperature reaches a plateau (steady state) Homeostasis: Dynamic Constancy Control Systems of the Body Intracellular control systems – Protein breakdown and synthesis – Energy production – Maintenance of stored nutrients Organ systems – Pulmonary and circulatory systems Replenish oxygen and remove carbon dioxide
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Non-Biological Control System A thermostat-controlled heating/cooling system An increase in temperature above the set point signals the air conditioner to turn on. A decrease in room temperature below the set point results in turning on the furnace. Biological Control System Series of interconnected components that maintaina physical or chemical parameter at a near constant value Components – Sensor or receptor : -Detects changes in variable – Control center: -Assesses input and initiates response – Effector: -Changes internal environment back to normal
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Nature of the Control Systems Components of a Biological Control System Components of a biological control system Examples of Homeostatic Control Regulation of body temperature – Thermal receptors send message to brain – Response by skin blood vessels and sweat glands regulates temperature Regulation of blood glucose – Requires the hormone insulin – Diabetes (Failure of blood glucose control system) Regulation of cellular homeostasis – Stress proteins (heat shock proteins) Repair damaged proteins to restore homeostasis in response to changes in temperature, pH, and free radicals Examples of Homeostatic Control Negative Feedback Response reverses the initial disturbance in homeostasis Example: – Increase in extracellular CO2 triggers a receptor – Sends information to respiratory control center – Respiratory muscles are activated to increase breathing – CO2 concentration returns to normal Most control systems work via negative feedback
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Regulation of Body Temperature Negative feedback mechanism to regulate body temperature Examples of Homeostatic Control Regulation of Blood Glucose Illustration of the regulation of blood glucose concentration Negative Feedback: The pancreas acts as both the sensor and effector organ Positive Feedback Response increases the original stimulus Example: Enhancement of labor contractions – Head of the baby moves into the birth canal – Stimulates receptors in cervix – Sends message to brain – Release of oxytocin from pituitary gland – Oxytocin promotes increased uterine contractions – Stronger contractions until birth occurs ture of the Control Systems
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“Gain” of a control system Degree to which a control system maintains homeostasis (i.e., the capability)
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This note was uploaded on 10/06/2011 for the course KIN 325K taught by Professor Dingwell during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 2 Notes - Chapter 2/Chapter 3 Notes: Changes in...

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