MKT 460 Exam 3 review - MKT 460: Exam 3 Review Causal...

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MKT 460: Exam 3 Review Causal Research: Determine cause and effect relationships Usually experiments: field experiments, test markets, lab experiments Manipulation and control of variables Highly structured design – emphasis on “control” groups Key question: When have we identified a true causal effect? (X is the only thing causing Y to happen) Association does not imply causation Establishing causality: 3 elements of evidence for causality: 1) concomitant variation – if x changes, y changes 2) precedence – x must happen before y 3) systematic elimination of other possible factors – eliminate other reasons that cause y The causal effect of some intervention is the difference in outcomes with and without the intervention Experiments in marketing: We can’t run the “ideal” experiment. Instead we focus on experiments that are possible to execute and then make additional assumptions that – if valid – guarantees that we have uncovered a causal effect Usually take the form of a comparison between a test and (at least one) control group. Usually run as field experiments Draw random sample from customer pool. Test group gets new marketing plan. Control group gets old marketing plan. Nature of experimentation Experimentation involves the manipulation of one or more variables (cause) by the experimenter in such a way that its effect on one or more other variables can be measured Independent variables (predictors): variables being manipulated Dependent (or criterion) variables : variables that will reflect the impact of the independent variable Treatment group : portion of sample (or population) exposed to the manipulation of the independent variable Control group : independent variable is unchanged Thinking about error: reliability and validity Observed score = true score + systematic error + random error Reliability : extent to which we can be certain that the observed score is free from random error “Will I get the same result if I measure again?” Validity: Internal validity – ability to draw conclusions about variable being measured. Ability of the experiment to unambiguously show a cause and effect relationship “Am I measuring what I think I’m measuring?” External validity – ability to draw conclusions about a larger population. Extent to which the results of the experiment can be generalized from the experimental environment to the real world “Can I generalize the results?” Notation X = exposure of a sample to the independent variable (what we manipulate –/“treatment”) O = observation of measurement of the dependent variable (what we measure/want to affect) Movement through time is represented by the horizontal arrangement of Xs and Os from left to right How can experiments eliminate validity issues? “One-group only-after” – causal effect of X (treatment) = “after outcome”
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MKT 460 Exam 3 review - MKT 460: Exam 3 Review Causal...

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