ap04_sg_b_ushistory

ap04_sg_b_ushistory - AP® United States History 2004...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® United States History 2004 Scoring Guidelines Form B The materials included in these files are intended for noncommercial use by AP teachers for course and exam preparation; permission for any other use ® must be sought from the Advanced Placement Program . Teachers may reproduce them, in whole or in part, in limited quantities, for face-to-face teaching purposes but may not mass distribute the materials, electronically or otherwise. This permission does not apply to any third-party copyrights contained herein. These materials and any copies made of them may not be resold, and the copyright notices must be retained as they appear here. The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 4,500 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves over three million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. For further information, visit www.collegeboard.com Copyright © 2004 College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, AP Vertical Teams, APCD, Pacesetter, Pre-AP, SAT, Student Search Service, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Educational Testing Service and ETS are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service. Other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. For the College Board’s online home for AP professionals, visit AP Central at apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 How and for what reasons did United States foreign policy change between 1920 and 1941? Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1920-1941 to construct your response. The 8-9 Essay • Contains a well-developed thesis that effectively addresses changes in United States foreign policy between 1920 and 1941 and the reasons for them. • Presents a strong analysis of changes in both the 1920s and 1930s. • Uses effectively a substantial number of documents. • Supports thesis with substantial and relevant outside information. • May contain minor errors. • Is clearly organized and well written. The 5-7 Essay • Contains a thesis that discusses changes in United States foreign policy between 1920 and 1941 and the reasons for them. • Discusses events in both the 1920s and 1930s but allows for some imbalance in coverage. • Uses effectively some documents. • Supports thesis with some outside information. • May have errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Shows acceptable organization and writing; language errors do not interfere with the comprehension of the essay. The 2-4 Essay • Contains a limited or undeveloped thesis. • Responds to the question in a general manner; simplistic treatment of changes in United States foreign policy. • Merely refers to, quotes, or briefly cites documents. • Contains little outside information or information that is inaccurate or irrelevant. • Merely refers to, quotes, or briefly cites documents. • May have minor errors. • May be poorly organized and/or written. The 0-1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. • Has little or no understanding of the documents, or ignores them completely. • Has a substantial factual error. • Is poorly organized, and/or poorly written. -- blank or completely off task Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 2 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Document Information and Inferences Document A: President Harding’s speech, 1920 Information: Opposition to League of Nations Isolationist sentiment Rejects “obligations” Threatens American sovereignty Inferences: Return to “normalcy,” a popular position Rejection of Wilsonian vision of a new world order Republican rebuff of Democratic Party Likely is speaking to an isolationist audience Document B: Secretary of State Hughes, November 1921 Information: Precursor to Washington Naval Conference Calls for arms limitation Armaments race is costly Inferences: Looks to international cooperation Reflects the costliness of World War I Harding administration is looking ahead to cut taxes and reduce federal debt Wishes to head off a costly and destabilizing armaments race with Japan and Britain Document C: Edwin James, New York Times, Oct. 1930 Information: U.S. talks isolationist, but is playing an active political and economic role in the world U.S. is influential in matters concerning it U.S. economic might recognized Inferences: The U.S. cannot avoid involvement in international affairs even though its role differs from Wilson’s vision Recognition that Republican Party has followed an independent course that reflected its own interest Economic rivalry and political tensions are increasing Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 3 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Document Information and Inferences (cont’d.) Document D: Butchery in Nanking, New York Times, Dec. 1937 Information: “Rape of Nanking” Atrocities everywhere in the city Inferences: Japanese imperial designs becoming more obvious Panay incident had occurred just a week earlier Japanese methods foreshadow Japanese treatment of American prisoners during World War II U.S. citizens may need to leave China Show how ineffectual President FDR’s “Quarantine Speech” in Oct. 1937 has been Document E: Republican Party platform, 1940 Information: Republican Party still basically isolationist in its worldview Supports military preparedness New Deal is criticized for lack of military preparedness Republican Party reflects the “hemispheric defense” position of former President Hoover Inferences: “American First” sentiment is strong in the GOP Nominee Wendell Willkie later voices certain views that contrasted with those expressed in his party’s platform Republican Party is not pacifist and is willing to defend the country when attacked Document E: Democratic Party platform, 1940 Information: Democrats will not participate in a foreign war Need military strength so that no nation would attack U.S. Will defend the Monroe Doctrine Party platform is similar to that of the GOP in foreign affairs Document F: Advertisement in St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Sept. 1940 Information: FDR circumvents Congress in concluding the Destroyers-for-Bases deal FDR seems little different than a dictator War may come as a result of FDR’s executive agreement The U.S. may lose its freedom Inferences: European events are threatening to pull the U.S. into war Presidents should rely on Congressional action, not executive agreements Presidents should take a hardheaded approach to the “national interest.” Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 4 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Document Information and Inferences (cont’d.) Document G: Chicago Daily News cartoon, Nov. 1940 Information: Many signs suggest isolationist sentiment The U.S. is retreating to a “hemispheric defense” policy Europe not important to U.S interests Caption cautions: “Pattern for Disaster” Inferences: The U.S. should follow an appeasement policy Caption suggests that appeasement leads to “Munich” The Daily News cartoonist understands what unfolding events in Europe mean for the U.S. Cartoon is criticizing a narrow conception of national defense America First Committee should reconsider its position Document H: President Roosevelt’s press conference, Dec. 1940 Information: President Roosevelt determines that helping other nation’s militarily is an effective way to protect America’s interests Uses the garden hose analogy in arguing for aid to other nations Inferences: The U.S. should aid friendly nations like Britain with a lead-lease arrangement Britain is virtually bankrupt and is standing alone against the Nazis Roosevelt has just won election to a third term and can afford a more aggressive response to German attacks in Europe Cash-and-carry requirements of the Neutrality Acts harmed our friends Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 5 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Outside Information for Overseas DBQ, 2004 Republican return to “normalcy,” 1921 “Isolationist” term not fully adequate for the 1920s Played active role in world affairs, but not through alliances Washington Naval Conference, 1921 Five-Power Pact of 1922 Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 Dawes Plan renegotiated German debt Heavy economic investments in Latin America during 1920s Presidents Hoover and Roosevelt repudiated Roosevelt Corollary American manufacturers, such as in automobiles, were capturing a larger share of European market Problematic tariff policies: Fordney-McCumber Act, 1922; Smoot-Hawley, 1930 Good Neighbor” Policy Japan invades Manchuria, 1931 Roosevelt scuttles the World Economic Conference, 1933 U.S. recognizes the Soviet Union, 1933, largely in hopes of new trade relationships Isolationist sentiment increases as events in Europe sour and Nye Committee investigations suggest corporate war profiteering during WWI U.S. Neutrality Acts, late 1930s FDR’s “Quarantine Speech,” October 1937 Panay incident, 1937 Munich Conference, 1938 Germany overruns western Europe and invades USSR, 1940 and 1941 Destroyers-for-bases deal, 1940 Lend-Lease plan, 1941 Pearl Harbor, December 1941 Good Neighbor Policy Oil Embargo of Japan, 1941 “Rape of Nanking” Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 6 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 To what extent was the election of 1800 aptly named the “Revolution of 1800”? Respond with reference to TWO of the following areas: Economics Foreign policy Judiciary Politics The 8-9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that, with reference to two areas, analyses why the 1800 election is aptly called the “Revolution of 1800.” • Supports the thesis with substantial relevant information. • Has an understanding of the impact of the 1800 election. • Reasonably balanced treatment of both areas. • Is well-organized. • May contain minor errors. The 5-7 Essay • Has a thesis that, with reference to two areas, discusses why the 1800 election is aptly called the “Revolution of 1800.” • Supports the thesis with some information. • Aware that the 1800 election brought changes in politics or policy. • May be imbalanced in the treatment of the two areas. • Has acceptable organization. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. The 2-4 Essay • Poorly developed or no thesis. • Provides few relevant facts. • Little, if any, understanding of the “Revolution of 1800.” • May have major imbalance. • May be poorly organized. • May contain major errors that detract from the essay. The 0-1 Essay • No understanding. • Numerous errors. -- blank or completely off task Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 7 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 (cont’d.) Fact Sheet Economics • Jefferson wrote the farmers were the most productive and trustworthy citizens, but recognized that machine-based manufacturing was necessary • Slashed navy budget by one half in pursuit of an austerity program (conflict with Barbary pirates soon led to an increase; and once again to downsizing) • Reduced size of the army to 3,350 officers and enlisted men in an austerity program; also to avoid “standing army” • Embargo Act, 1807, passed essentially to force Britain to abandon seizure of American seamen; had deleterious economic consequences • Secretary of Treasury Albert Gallatin issued “Report on Roads and Canals” (1808). Eventually led to completion of the National Road. Foreign Policy • Western expansion was center stage in Jefferson’s vision for the United States • The Louisiana Purchase followed in 1803 • Opened the way for the Lewis and Clarke expedition of 1804-1806 • Remained aloof from the Napoleonic wars • Embargo Act, 1807 Judiciary • Successfully pushed for the repeal of the Judiciary Act, 1802; halted Federalist effort to expand their control over the federal court system • Jefferson failed in an attempt to have arch-Federalist Samuel Chase removed from the Supreme Court • Marbury v. Madison, 1803, established precedent for judicial review • Overall, Justice Marshall’s Supreme Court issued decisions that strengthened the federal government over the states Politics • Brought an end to repressive policies of the Federalists, according to Jefferson • With the ballot box, Americans avoided bloody revolution that the Kentucky Resolutions predicted • Jefferson: “We are all Federalists; we are all Republicans” • Men could be trusted with their own self government • Democratic-Republicans take the presidency from the Federalists • Democratic-Republicans win next several elections Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 8 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 To what extent and in what ways did the roles of women change in American society between 1790 and 1860? Respond with reference to TWO of the following areas: Domestic Economic Political Social The 8-9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that, with reference to two areas, analyzes the changing roles of women in American society between 1790 and 1860. • Supports the thesis with substantial relevant information. • Aware that significant changes were occurring in the roles of women. • Reasonably balanced treatment of the two areas. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. The 5-7 Essay • Has a thesis that, with reference to two areas, discusses the changing roles of women in American society between 1790 and 1860. • Supports thesis with some relevant information. • Aware of women’s changing roles. • May be imbalanced in the treatment of two areas. • Has acceptable organization. • May contain errors that do not detract from the quality of the essay. The 2-4 Essay • Poorly developed or no thesis. • Provides few relevant facts. • Little, if any, understanding of the roles of women. • May have major imbalance. • May be poorly organized. • May contain major errors that detract from the essay. The 0-1 Essay • No understanding. • Numerous errors. -- blank or completely off task Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 9 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 (cont’d.) Fact Sheet Domestic • Barbara Welter’s “cult of true womanhood” underscores middle-class model of domesticity as “normal” for all women; piety, purity, domesticity, and submissiveness (to husbands) • Catherine Beecher’s American Women’s Home and A Treatise on Domestic Economy guide for middle-class “true woman”; special role, but equally important with role of men • Godey’s Lady’s Book magazine provides “domestic” hints and outlets for women writers; advocate of women as wives/mothers Economic • Married women’s Property Acts … women’s right to retain wages earned after marriage and from inheritance • Lowell “mill girls” as example of increasing number of working class women in industrial production • Professionalization of occupations actually decreased roles of women, i.e., midwifery role replaced by men who had access to higher education and licensing regulations • Increasing division between economic status of middle class and working class women • Teaching become “women’s profession”; women writers find publishing outlets, especially in “women’s magazines” (Fannie Fern); Harriet Beecher Stowe and Margaret Fuller recognized as accomplished writers Political • No change in women’s right to vote, though New Jersey’s Constitution, for a short time, did not distinguish between men and women and the right to vote • Political role of women restricted to influencing men as Linda Kerber’s “Republican Mother” suggests • As more men were granted the right to vote, actual status of women decreases • Important roles in advocating political rights for women at women’s rights conventions beginning with Seneca Falls, NY 1848 (demands for across the board equal rights for women) • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott; Susan B Anthony joined the women’s rights movement shortly thereafter Social • Active in reform movements and women’s public roles changed thereby: anti-slavery and abolition movements (Abigail Kelley, Grimke sisters, Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman (public roles for African American women) • Academies for women’s education established after 1790; Emma Willard and Mary Lyon established, essentially, secondary education opportunities for girls, young women • Names: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Lucretia Mott, Abigail Kelley, Judith Sargeant Murray, Catherine Beecher, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Fannie Fern, Sarah Bagley, Angelina and Sarah Grimke, Margaret Fuller, Dorothea Dix Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 10 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 4 Analyze the primary causes of the population shift from a rural to an urban environment in the United States between 1875 and 1925. The 8-9 Essay • Clear thesis that demonstrates an understanding of the population shift from a rural to an urban environment in the United States between 1875 and 1925. • Strong, balanced discussion of the causes of the shift in population, two or more examples. • Good supporting evidence. • Adequate organization and writing. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. The 5-7 Essay • Thesis that demonstrates some knowledge of the population shift from a rural to an urban environment in the United States between 1875 and 1925. • Discussion of the causes of the shift in population; maybe imbalanced. • Adequate organization and writing. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. The 2-4 Essay • Vague thesis that demonstrates minimal understanding of population shifts. • Superficial discussion of possible causes. • Little supporting evidence. • May be poorly organized and/or written. • May contain major errors. The 0-1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. • Contains substantial factual errors. • Is poorly organized and/or written. -- blank or completely off task Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 11 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 4 (cont’d.) Fact Sheet • • • • • • • • • • Rapid expansion of steam railroad network Appearance and widespread use of electric trolleys and interurbans, especially after 1897 Development and expansion of automobiles Decline in agricultural prices between 1885-1898 and after 1921 Impact of weevils and blue mold on Southern agriculture, especially after 1915 Increased agricultural mechanization and improved agricultural productivity Job opportunities in Northern industrial centers during World War I Drought, especially on Great Plains, during the 1890s and 1910s, forcing farmers to leave Millions of “new immigrants,” beginning in mid-1880s, from Eastern and Southern Europe, who settled in urban centers Attractions of urban culture; the “pull of the city,” including Horatio Alger stories Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 12 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 5 “Between 1960 and 1975, there was great progress in the struggle for political an social equality.” Assess the validity of this statement with respect to TWO of the following groups during that period. African Americans Asian Americans Latinos Native Americans Women The 8-9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that, with respect to two groups, analyzes progress in the struggle for political and social equality between 1960 and 1975. • Supports the thesis with substantial relevant information. • Has an understanding of significant change through time. • Reasonably balanced treatment of two groups. • Is well-organized. • May contain minor errors. The 5-7 Essay • Has a thesis that, with respect to two groups, discusses progress in the struggle for political and social equality between 1960 and 1975. • Supports the thesis with some information. • Aware that changes occurred. • May be imbalanced in the treatment of the two groups. • Has acceptable organization. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. The 2-4 Essay • Poorly developed or no thesis. • Provides few relevant facts. • Little, if any, understanding of the struggles for equality. • May have major imbalance in treatment of the two groups. • May be poorly organized. • May contain major errors that detract from the essay. The 0-1 Essay • No understanding. • Numerous errors. -- blank or completely off task Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 13 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 5 (cont’d.) Fact Sheet • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Civil Rights Acts of 1964, 1965, and 1968 Equal Pay Act, 1963 Griswold decision, 1965 Roe v. Wade (1973) Title 9 of the Education Amendments of 1972 Equal Employment Opportunities Commission Tribally Controlled Community College, Elementary and High School Assistance Act, 1978 Area Redevelopment Act and Administration and Economic Development Administration, 1960s (part of War on Poverty program) Affirmative action Second Battle of Wounded Knee Feminine Mystique, 1963 Black Panthers Martin Luther King, Jr. Appointment of Thurgood Marshall to U.S. Supreme Court Freedom Riders Birth control pill widely available Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 14 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2009 for the course OC 9876 taught by Professor Dq during the Spring '09 term at UC Merced.

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