ap06_sg_us_history_form_b

ap06_sg_us_history_form_b - AP® United States History 2006...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® United States History 2006 Scoring Guidelines Form B The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, AP Central, APCD, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Vertical Teams, Pre-AP, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Admitted Class Evaluation Service, CollegeEd, connect to college success, MyRoad, SAT Professional Development, SAT Readiness Program, and Setting the Cornerstones are trademarks owned by the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1—Document-Based Question Analyze developments from 1941 to 1949 that increased suspicion and tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1941–1949 to construct your response. The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-constructed thesis analyzing developments between 1941 and 1949 that increased tensions and suspicions between the United States and the Soviet Union. • Employs a significant number of documents to illustrate the developments contributing to the increasing suspicions and mistrust between 1941 and 1949. • Provides substantial, relevant outside information on the developments contributing to the heightening suspicions and mistrust between 1941 and 1949. • Effectively analyzes the impact of particular developments that increased tensions and suspicions between 1941 and 1949. • Is well organized and well written. • May contain minor errors. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis, which may be partially articulated, addressing the developments between 1941 and 1949 that increased suspicions and tensions between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. • Employs a reasonable array of documents to illustrate the developments contributing to the increasing suspicions and mistrust between 1941 and 1949. • Provides ample, relevant outside information on the developments contributing to the heightening suspicions and mistrust between 1941 and 1949. • Analyzes to some extent the ways that particular developments contributed to the heightening of suspicions and mistrust between 1941 and 1949. • Has acceptable organization and writing. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Presents a thesis that may be simplistic, confused, or undeveloped in terms of addressing the events that increased suspicions and mistrust between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. between 1941 and 1949; or presents no thesis. • Uses a few of the documents to discuss developments that increased the suspicions and mistrust between 1941 and 1949. • Includes little relevant outside information on the developments increasing the suspicions and mistrust between 1941 and 1949. • Has little analysis regarding developments that heightened suspicions and mistrust between 1941 and 1949. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain major errors. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or restates the question. • Refers to few, if any, of the documents. • Includes no relevant, outside information from 1941–1949. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 2 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1—Document-Based Question (continued) • • • Contains no analysis. Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. May contain numerous errors, both major and minor. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 3 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Document Information and Inferences Document A: Senator Harry S Truman to a newspaper reporter, June 1941 Document Information: • Truman, still a U.S. Senator, expresses a distrust of the Soviet Union on par with the dislike of Germany. • Sees the Soviet Union and Germany as potential enemies. Document Inferences: • Russia has just entered the war following Germany’s invasion. Document B: The United States ambassador to the Soviet Union to Secretary of State Cordell Hull, August 10, 1943 Document Information: • Warns that unless the U.S. and Britain open a second front, the U.S.S.R. will have a rightful claim in the public mind to playing a major role in determining the peace. Document Inferences: • Recognizes that international relations depends as much on image as on actions. • In the midst of war, tensions are expressed in terms of which nation will emerge as world leader after the war. • Soviet pressure for a second front will, in fact, be addressed at the Tehran conference three months later, when Britain and the U.S. pledge to open a second front within six months. Document C: Joseph Stalin, February 6, 1945 Document Information: • Churchill sees the Soviet occupation of Poland as a question of honor. • Stalin sees the occupation of Poland as a matter of security as well as of honor for the U.S.S.R. Document Inferences: • At the Yalta Conference, Churchill wanted to ensure free elections in Poland. • Stalin’s statement illustrates the misunderstandings that existed. • Stalin’s statement implies his conclusion that Churchill did not understand the deep-seated fears that the Russians had regarding Germany. • There were misunderstandings that were giving rise to mistrust and suspicions on both sides. Document D: George Kennan, State Department official, September 1946 Document Information: • Kennan is suspicious of Soviet motives and regards their actions as not always rational, not always open to reason. • Kennan argues for an assertive U.S. policy that seizes the initiative to frame the issues and prevent the Soviet Union from taking actions contrary to the principles of the United Nation. • Kennan hopes that eventually the Soviet government will make the necessary policy changes. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 4 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document Inferences: • Kennan’s argument becomes the basis for his famous Containment policy statement. • Eight months later President Truman announces what comes to be known as the Truman Doctrine for the containment of communist expansion in the eastern Mediterranean. • The Cold War is under way. Document E: V. M. Molotov, Soviet foreign minister, “The Task of Our Time: Unite Against the Enslavement of the People,” broadcast to Russian people, November 6, 1947 Document Information: • Molotov sees the West as duplicitous, reneging on its promises made at Yalta and Potsdam, which had united the three Allies against Germany. Document Inferences: • Broadcast was made following the announcement of the Truman Doctrine in March 1947, the Marshall Plan in June, and the publication of Kennan’s Containment Policy essay in July. • Illustrates distrust expressed by a Soviet leader and the build up of tensions. • The implication is that the U.S.S.R. feels compelled to take preventive (or aggressive) action in response. • Three months later (February 1948) the communists takeover Czechoslovakia, and four months later (June 1948) impose the Berlin Blockade. Document F: The New York Times, February 25, 1948 Document Information: • Announces that Czechoslovakia had become a communist state. Document Inferences: • The Czech communists, backed by the Soviet Union, take over the government of Czechoslovakia. • Reinforces Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe. • Soviet establishment of a wall of Eastern European countries as a buffer against the West. Document G: David Low cartoon in the London Evening Standard, March 1948 Document Information: • Anti-Soviet cartoon. • Portrays the plotting of Stalin to conquer the rest of Europe. Document Inferences: • Published after the Soviet takeover of Czechoslovakia in February. • Depicts Stalin’s possible reaction to the Marshall Plan and U.S. involvement in the reconstruction of Western Europe. • The cartoon conveys the heightened distrust of Russian leaders and the perceived threats behind Russia’s actions, all of which made more concrete the threats and tensions that sparked the Cold War. • The character spinning the globe in the cartoon is Molotov. • Photo on desk is of George C. Marshall, U.S. Secretary of State. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 5 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document H: Gallup Polls conducted in the United States, August 1945–May 1948 Document Information: • Four polls show that initial war-time trust toward the U.S.S.R. turned to mistrust and suspicion of the U.S.S.R. as a rival power. • August 1945 poll shows that more than 50 percent of Americans think the Russians can be trusted to cooperate with the U.S. • Seven months later (March 1946) there is a dramatic reversal, with a majority holding that Russia will not cooperate. • By July 1946, 60 percent of Americans think the U.S.S.R. wants to become a ruling power. • By May 1948, 69 percent believe that U.S. policy is too soft toward the U.S.S.R. Document Inferences: • The heightened tensions, suspicions, and fears that came to be associated with the Cold War can be seen in the dramatic shifts in public opinion from trusting the U.S.S.R. as the war ended to the growing suspicions and increased distrust three months after the Czech takeover was allowed to take place unchallenged. • The Czech takeover prompted Americans to see U.S. policy as too soft. • A month later (June 1948), the Russians impose the Berlin Blockade. • The U.S., unwilling to cave in, initiates the 11-month Berlin Airlift—one of the major diplomatic and strategic victories of the Cold War. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 6 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Chronology of Additional Outside Information 1941: August: Roosevelt and Churchill sign the Atlantic Charter. They agree to defeat Germany before turning to Japan, and they plan for a new world organization, affirming their commitment to selfdetermination for all nations. U.S. agrees to escort American goods bound for England as far as Iceland. March: U.S. enacts Lend–Lease Program to provide assistance to Great Britain. Germany invades the U.S.S.R., opening the Eastern Front. 1942: Climax of Eastern Front at Stalingrad between the fall of 1942 and Germany’s surrender there in February 1943. October–November. Allies land in north African ports. Axis forces defeated as far east as Egypt between November 1942 and May 1943. 1943: January: Churchill, Stalin, and FDR meet in Casablanca and agree to demand an unconditional surrender by the Axis powers. Late November, Tehran: Responding to Stalin’s concerns that a Western front had not been started in order to relieve the Germans’ pressure in the east, Churchill and FDR agree to commence one within six months. Russian counter-attacks against the Germans, especially at Kursk, July 1943, and Russia’s steady advance westward, are made possible by the enormous infusion of American supplies to the Russians, part of an expansion of Lend–Lease to the U.S.S.R. (along with Russia’s shift of industrial production to far eastern communities). 1944: June: Operation Overlord, D-Day, and the Normandy invasion opens the Western front while Soviet troops move into the Balkans and Poland. July: Bretton Woods Conference creates the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank; Soviet Union chooses not to attend. 1945: Early February, Yalta: FDR is determined to get the Russians to come into the war against Japan by invading Manchuria, while Stalin gives weak pledges about permitting democratic elections in Eastern Europe. The levels of distrust increase as victory and postwar issues approach. April: FDR dies. July, Potsdam: President Truman, deeply distrustful of the Russians, is concerned about postwar Europe and agrees to the expulsion of Germans from the east while securing U.S. control of postwar Japan. August: U.S. drops atomic bombs with the intent, some have argued, to intimidate Soviet leaders and end the war against Japan before Russia could enter. U.S. refuses to renew Lend–Lease program with U.S.S.R. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 7 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Chronology of Additional Outside Information (continued) 1946: February: Kennan writes his “long telegram” challenging the Soviet expansionist ideology and the need for firm opposition. March: Churchill speaks of the Iron Curtain falling across Eastern Europe. 1946-47: Russia pushes to place communist governments in control across Eastern Europe, while continuing to resist membership in international organizations. Truman is concerned about Soviet aggression and economic competition and fears for the future of the once-more independent nations of Eastern Europe. Truman ignores Russia’s attempt to conciliate the U.S. by leaving Manchuria and accepting American control of Japan. 1947: March: Truman Doctrine is announced to bolster economic power against communist subversion and aggression, as in Greece and Turkey. June: The Marshall Plan is announced for the economic reconstruction of Western Europe in order to stave off class conflicts that might open the way for communist governments in the West. July: Kennan’s essay in Foreign Affairs spells out the need for a policy of containment to limit Soviet expansion, especially as communist governments are established in Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, and, in February 1948, Czechoslovakia. 1948: June: Further escalating the Cold War, the Russians impose a blockade on the roads to Berlin, and the U.S .responds with the Berlin Airlift for 11 months until the Russians back down and reopen the roads. 1949: NATO: In response to the threats implicit in the Cold War, 10 European nations, Canada, and the U.S. establish the North American Treaty Organization (NATO) to collectively resist Soviet aggression in Europe. These moves represent the U.S.’s first peace time rearmament and its novel entry into mutual defense pacts against the threat of Soviet aggression—a far cry from prewar isolationism. The U.S.S.R. sets off its first atomic bomb. September, communists complete their takeover of (mainland) China, forcing Nationalists to flee to Formosa (Taiwan); communism still seen as a monolithic movement. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 8 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 “The United States Constitution of 1787 represented an economic and ideological victory for the traditional American political elite.” Assess the validity of that statement for the period 1781 to 1789. The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis assessing the validity of the statement that the 1787 U.S. Constitution represented an economic and ideological victory for the traditional American political elite, based on the elite’s responses to developments between 1781 and 1789. • Provides substantial, relevant information sustaining the assessment of the statement that the Constitution represented an economic and ideological victory for the elite, based on the elite’s responses to developments between 1781 and 1789. • Provides effective analysis that sustains the assessment that the Constitution represented an economic and ideological victory for the elite, based on the elite’s responses to developments between 1781 and 1789; may treat one aspect of the victory more than the other. • Is well organized and well written. • May contain minor errors. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis, which may be partially developed, assessing the validity of the statement that the 1787 U.S. Constitution represented an economic and ideological victory for the traditional American elite, based on the elite’s responses to developments between 1781 and 1789. • Provides ample, relevant information from 1781 to 1789 addressing the extent to which provisions in the Constitution represented an economic and ideological victory for the American elite; may not be balanced between economics and ideology but should address both. • Analyzes to some extent provisions in the Constitution that represented an economic and ideological victory for the elite, based on the elite’s responses to developments between 1781 and 1789. • Has acceptable organization and writing. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Presents a thesis that may be confused, simplistic, or undeveloped in terms of assessing the validity of the statement that the 1787 U.S. Constitution represented an economic and ideological victory for traditional American elites; or presents no thesis. • Includes little relevant information on provisions in the Constitution that address the extent to which those provisions represented an economic and ideological victory for American elites, based on developments between 1781–1789; may be uneven or include only economics or only ideology • Contains little analysis assessing the validity of the statement that the Constitution represented an economic and ideological victory for American elites. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain major errors. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or restates the question. • Includes no relevant information from developments between 1781–1789 or from the U.S. Constitution concerning the extent to which it represented an economic and ideological victory for American elites. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 9 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 (continued) • • • Contains no analysis of the extent to which the Constitution represented an economic and ideological victory for American elites. Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. May contain numerous errors, both major and minor. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 10 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 Fact Sheet Background developments to which the elites were responding: Strong state governments, weak Confederation; Articles of Confederation had: • No executive or judiciary • No power to tax • No power to call out the militia • No power to regulate interstate commerce or control foreign commerce • No means to deal with fugitive persons (slaves or others) • Great difficulty enacting amendments to fundamental law Successes • Peace treaty • Land Ordinance • Northwest Ordinance Failures • Unable to respond to domestic disturbances, such as Shays’ Rebellion • Lack of tax revenues and power to tax • Inability to remove British from western forts • Loss of access to lower Mississippi River • Sectional rivalries that led to impasses, such as the Jay–Gardoqui Treaty • Difficulties in securing commercial treaties • Some states unable to pay war-time debts • Inflationary pressure from state printing of paper currency Economic components in the Constitution of 1787 that reflected the economic objectives that the elite expressed or sought during the 1781–1789 period: Recognition and support for the institution of slavery • “Fugitive slave clause” applicable to indicted felons (e.g., Shays) and traitors, as well as slaves • Three-fifth’s compromise regarding slaves in congressional reapportionment • No curtailment of slave trade for twenty years Federal control over interstate and foreign commerce and treaty making Power to levy import duties, imposts, etc., though no power of direct taxation Protection of creditors and businesses across state and national borders Prohibited the issuance of paper money but granted power to coin money No federal encumbrances or punishments for former loyalists Seen as supporting economic and property interests © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 11 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 Fact Sheet (continued) Ideological components in the Constitution that reflected the ideological objectives expressed or sought by the elite, or which they came to recognize during the 1781–1789 period. Establishment of a republic that limits the power of the states “We the People”—sovereignty in the hands of the citizens Specific general power to preserve domestic tranquility (response to Shays’ Rebellion) More amendable fundamental law Three branches, checks and balances, and no parliamentary government structure Supremacy of federal law and treaties over state and local laws Efficacy of a large republic for controlling factions Power to raise an army and (by the president) call forth the militia; but no standing army Power to negotiate international agreements from a position of strength as a nation state, not a confederation No explicit right of revolution or secession Unintended consequences No term limits No religious oath or religious qualification for holding office No qualifications for office holding besides age, residence, and citizenship No titles of nobility © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 12 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 In what ways and to what extent was industrial development from 1800 to 1860 a factor in the relationship between the northern and the southern states? The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis assessing the ways and extent to which industrial development from 1800 to 1860 was a factor affecting the relationship between northern and southern states. • Supports the thesis with substantial, relevant information concerning the ways and extent to which industrial development from 1800 to 1860 was a factor affecting the relationship between northern and southern states. • Effectively analyzes the ways and extent to which industrial development from 1800 to 1860 was a factor affecting the relationship between northern and southern states; may not be balanced between “ways” and “extent” but both must be addressed. • Is well organized and well written. • May contain minor errors. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis, which may be partially developed, analyzing the ways and extent to which industrial development from 1800 to 1860 was a factor affecting the relationship between northern and southern states. • Provides ample, relevant information concerning the ways and extent to which industrial development from 1800 to 1860 was a factor affecting the relationship between northern and southern states. • Analyzes to some degree the ways and extent to which industrial development from 1800 to 1860 was a factor affecting the relationship between northern and southern states; may not be balanced between “ways” and “extent.” • Has acceptable organization and writing. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Presents a thesis that may be confused, simplistic, or undeveloped in terms of analyzing the ways and extent to which industrial development from 1800 to 1860 was a factor affecting the relationship between northern and southern states; or presents no thesis. • Includes little relevant information on the ways and extent to which industrial development from 1800 to 1860 was a factor affecting the relationship between northern and southern states. • Contains little analysis regarding the ways and extent to which industrial development from 1800 to 1860 was a factor affecting the relationship between northern and southern states; may deal only with “ways” or only “extent.” • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain major errors. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or restates the question. • Includes no relevant information concerning industrial development from 1800 to 1860. • Contains no analysis of industrial development between 1800 and 1860. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 13 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 (continued) • • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. May contain numerous errors, both major and minor. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 14 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 Fact Sheet Economic Issues • Growth of industrial production in consumer goods in the North, such as textiles, lumber products, boots and shoes, and flour milling, added to the southern dependence on northern shippers, merchants, middlemen, creditors, and importers; students may mention various New England systems: putting-out, Waltham, Lowell, Fall River, etc. • Expansion of heavy industry in the North far more than in the South (iron works, in particular, along with coal mining, in contrast to Virginia’s Tredegar Iron Works, which relied on industrial slavery). • Southerners depended more on export of agricultural goods (King Cotton) than did northerners. • With more industry, Northeast and Old Northwest more connected by transportation innovations, increasing the isolation of the South from other regions, a pattern that would reappear with discussions of a transcontinental railroads in the 1850’s (Kansas–Nebraska Act)—railroads plus roads, canals, and steamships. • Immigrants (especially the Irish and Germans) were drawn to the North more than to the South for jobs and land, free of competition with slavery, which increased the population disparity between the North and South; with each census count, the number of congressional representatives from the North exceeded the number from the South. • Greater increases in urban populations in the North versus preponderance of small farmers and slave-based plantations in the South, which increased economic and cultural differences between the North and South. • Investors increasingly focused on the North and reduced investments in the South, increasing the economic disparities between the two regions. • Panic of 1857 fell more heavily on the North than the South; southern intellectuals saw in the Panic the moral and economic superiority of the South. Political Issues • Henry Clay’s American System reflected the increasing diversity of interests between the regions. • The South favored, after 1816, lower tariffs while the North increasingly favored higher ones— e.g., Tariff of 1816 versus those of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations), 1832, 1833 (Compromise Tariff), and Walker Tariff of 1846. • Nullification Crisis of 1832 (related to the Tariff of 1832) reflected the growing disparities between the regions. • Regional split over economic interests, expansion and territorial governments, slave-related regulations, and the persisting profitability of slavery polarized political parties in the South and North. This widened the regional gulf over economic policies and the expansion of slavery, including growing southern support for reopening the international slave trade. • A number of political developments reflected the growing sectional strains as a result of the divergent economies, for example: o Webster–Hayne Debate o Fragmentation and realignment of political parties, especially beginning with the formation of the Republican Party © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 15 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 4 For whom and to what extent was the American West a land of opportunity from 1865 to 1890? The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis assessing for whom and to what extent the American West was a land of opportunity from 1865 to 1890. • Provides substantial, relevant information supporting the assessment concerning for whom and to what extent the West was a land of opportunity from 1865 to 1890. • Effectively analyzes for whom and to what extent the West was a land of opportunity from 1865 to 1890. • Is well organized and well written. • May contain minor errors. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis, which may be partially developed, assessing for whom and to what extent the West was a land of opportunity from 1865 to 1890. • Provides ample, relevant information supporting the assessment concerning for whom and to what extent the West was a land of opportunity from 1865 to 1890. • Analyzes to some degree for whom and to what extent the West was a land of opportunity from 1865 to 1890. • Has acceptable organization and writing. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Presents a thesis that may be confused, simplistic, or undeveloped in terms of assessing for whom and to what extent the West was a land of opportunity from 1865 to 1890; or presents no thesis. • Includes little relevant information regarding for whom and to what extent the West was a land of opportunity from 1865 to 1890. • Contains little analysis regarding for whom and to what extent the West was a land of opportunity from 1865 to 1890. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain major errors. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or restates the question. • Includes no relevant information regarding the West as a land of opportunity. • Contains no analysis regarding the West as a land of opportunity. • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain numerous errors, both major and minor. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 16 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 4 Information List For whom? • Homesteaders via 1862 Homestead Act • Farmers • Miners and prospectors • Loggers • Buffalo hunters • Cowboys and ranchers • Mormon settlers and farmers • Railroad builders and investors • Real estate investors and speculators • Mining, ranching, and agricultural corporations • Unskilled workers, such as on farms and railroads • Merchants and peddlers • Military career officers • Women seeking economic opportunities (including prostitutes) or spouses • Missionaries • Hutterites and other religious sects (besides Mormons) • Gamblers and bandits • African and white Americans • Immigrants, such as o Chinese o Irish o Mexican o Norwegian o Swedish o Danish o Italian o English o German o Basque o Cornish o French o Polish But not indigenous peoples, such as tejanos, californios, nuevo mexicanos, and Native Americans © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 17 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 4 Information List (continued) To what extent? Could be relative to (infers some degree of comparison): • Other groups and individuals • Newcomers’ ambitions • Resources, capital, and skills brought with the newcomers or borrowed or acquired by them • Newcomers’ willingness to take business risks • Extent of discrimination encountered, especially against nonwhites, Mexicans, and certain immigrant populations • Land laws permitting homesteading and amount of good lands available • Extent of sympathetic or hostile local governments • Extent of unions and farmers’ alliances © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 18 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 5 How did TWO of the following help shape American national culture in the 1920’s? Advertising Entertainment Mass production The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that describes how TWO of the factors listed shaped American national culture in the 1920’s. • Develops the thesis with substantial, relevant supporting information concerning how TWO of the factors listed shaped American national culture in the 1920’s. • Provides effective analysis of how TWO of the factors listed shaped American national culture in the 1920’s. • Is well organized and well written; should be generally balanced between the two factors. • May contain minor errors that do not detract from the overall quality of the essay. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis, which may be partially developed, that describes how TWO of the factors listed shaped American national culture in the 1920’s. • Supports the thesis with some relevant information concerning how TWO of the factors listed shaped American national culture in the 1920’s; may not be balanced in the treatment of the two factors. • Provides some analysis of how TWO of the factors listed shaped American national culture in the 1920’s. • Has acceptable organization and writing. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Presents a thesis that may be confused, simplistic, or undeveloped in terms of describing how TWO of the factors listed shaped American national culture in the 1920’s; or presents no thesis. • Includes little relevant information, or lists facts with little or no application to the thesis, or discusses only ONE of the listed factors. • Has little analysis regarding how any of the factors listed shaped American national culture in the 1920’s. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain major errors. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or restates the question. • Includes no relevant information concerning any of the three factors listed. • Has no analysis of any of the three factors listed. • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. • May contain substantial factual errors. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 19 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 5 Fact Sheet Advertising Glorification of consumption • Spending becomes a cultural ideal rather than thrift—emergence and acceptance of installment buying • Consumption becomes a cultural ideal rather than production • Possession of goods replaces cultural ideals of character, religion, and social standing • Culture of obsolescence becomes more accepted Impact on women • Alters the image of beauty; sells idea that beauty can be purchased (make-up, etc.). • Leads to changes in household labor through advertising of labor-saving household devices; housewives are less defined as workers and more as consumers. • Makes sexuality, smoking, and drinking more acceptable for women. Changes in the technologies and structures of advertising • Madison Avenue exploits Freud’s understanding of the centrality of sex and sexuality. • Focus is on creating dissatisfactions with one’s body, image, and status; preying on insecurities. • Creates new expectations. • Cult of celebrity enhanced by use of celebrity endorsements. Search for “single markets” • Brand names, movement to national markets for brand goods, efforts to create brand loyalties Advertising companies multiply; advertising accounts for 3 percent of Gross National Product (GNP) by 1929. Bruce Barton, in The Man Nobody Knows, describes Jesus as a master salesman. Entertainment Movies, radio, phonograph, juke box, jazz and the Black cultural renaissance, cars, professional sports, national news magazines Impacts: • Media influences national trends • Changes courting rituals, home life • Raises issues regarding use of leisure time • Diffuses secular ideas and values • Changes the image of women: o Flappers, open sexuality, smoking, dancing, drinking o Emphasis on glamour; more independence • Broadcasts the culture of consumption • Promotes the cult of celebrity Postwar cynicism of the Lost Generation spread through novels and other writings • F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Gertrude Stein, Sinclair Lewis, H. L. Mencken There are countervailing trends as well—some media rail against declining morality, attempt to reinforce traditional morality through movies, etc. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 20 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 5 Fact Sheet (continued) Mass production More affordable consumer products Mass distribution accelerates the push for single markets, national brand names, and brand loyalties Middle class salaries increase, prices fall Auto production, particularly, stimulates other industries—steel, petroleum, rubber, glass, chemicals, etc. Impact on workers • Further deskilling as a result of further mechanization of production • Declining need for cheap immigrant labor • Declining union membership Telephone sales reach new highs Large-scale, industrialized agriculture influences availability of goods Labor-saving devices—more time for leisure, higher housecleaning standards, and women’s housework replacing servants Businessmen as celebrities; big business as cultural icon Frederick Taylor, Taylorism, and the cult of efficiency © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 21 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2009 for the course OC 9876 taught by Professor Dq during the Spring '09 term at UC Merced.

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