ap07_sg_us_history

ap07_sg_us_history - AP® United States History 2007...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® United States History 2007 Scoring Guidelines The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1—Document-Based Question Analyze the ways in which technology, government policy, and economic conditions changed American agriculture in the period 1865–1900. In your answer be sure to evaluate farmers’ responses to these changes. The 8–9 Essay • Contains a well-developed thesis that examines the ways in which technology, government policy, and economic conditions changed American agriculture between 1865 and 1900, and evaluates farmers’ responses to those changes. • Presents an effective analysis of the ways in which technology, government policy, and economic conditions changed American agriculture between 1865 and 1900, and evaluates farmers’ responses to those changes. o Addresses technology, government policy, and economic conditions and evaluates farmers’ responses to those changes. o Analysis of farmers’ responses may be implicit and/or embedded in analysis of the other three factors. o Analysis of technology, government policy, and economic conditions may be imbalanced or overlapping. • Effectively uses a substantial number of documents. • Supports thesis with substantial and relevant outside information. • May contain minor errors. • Is clearly organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that addresses the ways in which technology, government policy, and economic conditions changed American agriculture between 1865 and 1900, and discusses farmers’ responses to those changes. • Has limited analysis of the ways in which technology, government policy, and economic conditions changed American agriculture between 1865 and 1900, and limited discussion of farmers’ responses to those changes. o Discussion of farmers’ responses may be implicit and/or embedded in the analysis of the other three factors. o Analysis of technology, government policy, and economic conditions may be imbalanced. o May not address all aspects of change. • Effectively uses some documents. • Supports thesis with some relevant outside information. • May have errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Shows acceptable organization and writing; language errors do not interfere with the comprehension of the essay. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1—Document Based Question (continued) The 2–4 Essay • Contains a limited or undeveloped thesis. • Deals with the question in a general manner; simplistic, superficial treatment of the subject. o Little or no consideration of farmers’ responses. o May address only one category (technology or government policy or economic conditions). • Merely paraphrases, quotes, or briefly cites documents. • Contains little outside information or information that is inaccurate or irrelevant. • May have major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or written. The 0–1 Essay • Contains no thesis or a thesis that does not address the question. • Exhibits inadequate or incorrect understanding of the question. • Has little or no understanding of the documents or ignores them completely. • Has numerous errors. • Written so poorly that it inhibits understanding. The — Essay • Blank or completely off task. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences Document A: Agricultural Prices in Dollars per Unit, 1865–1900 Document Information: • Shows falling prices for wheat, cotton, and corn between 1865 and 1900. • Shows increasing production of wheat, cotton, and corn between 1865 and 1900. • Shows periodic variation in prices and production of wheat, cotton, and corn between 1865 and 1900. Document Inferences: • American agriculture was under increasing economic stress as a result of overproduction and falling prices between 1865 and 1900. • Boom and bust economic cycles (panic and prosperity) occurred between 1865 and 1900. • Improved farm machinery, irrigation, and chemical fertilizers led to increased production. • Farmers in distress led to the emergence of movements such as the Grange, Farmers’ Alliances, and Populists. • Can be linked to Documents B and D. Potential outside information triggered by document: Boom and bust cycles Commercial farming Chemical fertilizers Grain elevators and warehouses Overproduction/crop surpluses Panic of 1873 Panic of 1893 Hatch Act Department of Agriculture raised to cabinet level (1889) © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document B: Railroads in 1870 and 1890 Document Information: • Shows railroad expansion between 1870 and 1890. • Shows expanding transcontinental connections. • Shows some government land grants to railroads (largely west of the Mississippi). • Shows major cattle trails from Texas to railroads. Document Inferences: • Subsidies and land grants encouraged railroad expansion. • Cattle were driven from Texas to cow towns along railroads. • Transporting agricultural products to Eastern markets became easier. • Westward settlement was encouraged by railroad expansion. • Emerging national markets linking regions were created by railroad expansion. • Agricultural advances (surpluses) fueled urbanization and industrial expansion. • Farmers were less isolated because of the expanding railroad network. • Can be linked to Document F. Potential outside information triggered by document: Subsidies “All that the traffic would bear” Cow towns Crédit Mobilier Free passes Immigration (railroad land sales) White Caps (Las Gorras Blancas) Short-haul/long-haul differentials Stanford, Vanderbilt, Hill, Gould Pacific Railway Act impact (1862) Checkerboard pattern of land grants Rebates, drawbacks, pools Refrigerated railroad cars Swift and Armour Standard gauge Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Great Northern Railroad Robber barons Cattle trails: Chisholm, GoodnightLoving, Sedalia, and Western © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document C: Prairie Farmer, July 14, 1877 Document Information: • Farmers were dissatisfied with railroads. • The Illinois legislature passed laws limiting freight rates. • The Supreme Court upheld Illinois laws limiting freight rates. • Illinois was the only state with such laws. Document Inferences: • Farmers sought state regulation of grain and railroad freight rates. • The Grange (Patrons of Husbandry) organized farmers. • Granger laws were enacted in Illinois. • The Supreme Court upheld Granger laws in Munn v. Illinois. • Farmers had political clout in swing/doubtful states. • The Supreme Court subsequently ruled regulation of interstate commerce an “exclusive” federal right in the Wabash case. • Change from the laissez-faire philosophy of the early Gilded Age. Potential outside information triggered by document: Farm cooperatives Farmers’ Alliances (Northern, Southern, Black) Grange/Patrons of Husbandry Oliver Hudson Kelley Granger Laws Greenback-Labor Party Interstate Commerce Commission Munn v. Illinois Wabash case Swing/doubtful states © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document D: The Wheat Harvest, 1880 Document Information: • Shows reaper/thresher (combine) harvesting wheat. • Shows need for large equipment and horses. Document Inferences: • The application of technology to farm equipment increased production. • Grain farming was conducted on a large commercial scale. • Availability of new technology led to farmers investing in heavy machinery and to the emergence of large-scale commercial/bonanza farming. • Can be linked to Documents A and B to emphasize changes in agriculture and farmer responses. Potential outside information triggered by document: Bonanza farms/commercial farming Dry farming Dust bowls Grain elevator/warehouses Joseph Glidden/barbed wire Morrill Land Grant impact (1862) No government aid for irrigation Open range/range wars Combines Bison slaughter Advances in steel plows, harrows, grain binders, threshers, windmills Document E: A contract in North Carolina, 1882 Document Information: • The writer of the contract will determine when and where to sell cotton. • The writer of the contract will deduct all sums that are owed him/her by the cropper. • The writer of the contract will pay the cropper one-half of the net proceeds. Document Inferences: • Sharecroppers incurred debts that the landowner deducted before paying them their share. • Landowners controlled sharecropping contracts. • Sharecropping was common in the South after the Civil War. • Poverty gripped both white and African American farmers in the South. Potential outside information triggered by document: Crop lien Debt peonage Sharecropping Tenant farming Farmers’ Alliances New South © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document F: Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, 1884 Document Information: • The shipping and canning of beef were important in Chicago. • Beef was shipped from both the northern and southern portions of the West. • Five great railroads ended in Chicago. Document Inferences: • Railroads made the transportation of beef from the west to the east more efficient. • Chicago was becoming a meatpacking center. • Cattle raising was important in Texas and Montana. • Technological advances led to changes in cattle ranching and spawned industrial growth. • Can be linked to Documents A, B, and D. Potential outside information triggered by document: Cattle kingdom Cow towns Harsh winters of 1885-87 Open range Range wars (cattleman/farmers) Refrigerated railroad cars Swift and Armour Nat Love (cowboys) Cattle trails: Chisholm, GoodnightLoving, Sedalia, and Western © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document G: Speech by Mary Elizabeth Lease, 1892 Document Information: • Political parties and politicians lie to farmers. • Political parties and politicians encourage farmers to raise big crops. • Political parties and politicians said farmers suffered from overproduction. • In the United States, 10,000 children starve each year. • Farm prices are falling. Document Inferences: • Farm prices were falling because of overproduction. • Farmers were dissatisfied with political parties and politicians. • Farmers may wish to form their own political party. • The government should remedy overproduction by making sure people do not starve. • Farmers have fallen on economic hard times. • Discontented farmers formed the Populist Party. • Can be linked to Document J. Potential outside information triggered by document: “Raise less corn and more hell” James B. Weaver Omaha Platform/Ocala Demands Overproduction/crop surpluses “Pitchfork” Ben Tillman Populists/People’s Party Tom Watson Ignatius Donnelly Greenbacks Greenback/Labor Party © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document H: In Kansas, Susan Orcutt to Lorenzo D. Lewelling, June 29, 1894 Document Information: • The Orcutts are starving. • Hail ruined their crops. • No jobs can be had in 10 counties. Document Inferences: • Farming on the Great Plains was difficult. • The Homestead Act brought many people to the Great Plains. • Many homesteaders returned East because of the hardships they encountered. • The Panic of 1893 hurt farmers and led to poverty, hardship, and widespread unemployment. Potential outside information triggered by document: “In God we trusted, in Kansas we busted” “Sodbusters” Boom and bust cycles Coxey’s Army Frederick Jackson Turner/frontier thesis Homestead Act impact (1862) Montgomery Ward and Sears, Roebuck Reverse migration Sod house frontier Locust plagues Desert Land Act/Timber Culture Act Willa Cather/My Ántonia © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document I: R. W. McAdams, Oklahoma Magazine, 1894 Document Information: • Students of the American Indian question believe in the policy of individualism (severalty). • The document argues that American Indians are lazy and dumb. • Enclosures for American Indians should be made smaller. • Land reserved for American Indians is “wasted” arable land that should be kept minimal. Document Inferences: • American Indian policy favored a breakup of tribal loyalty to encourage individualism and assimilation. • Attempts were made to assimilate American Indians into American culture. • The Dawes Severalty Act opened up reservation land for white settlement. • The amount of acreage for farming increased in the time period. • The Oklahoma Land Rush allowed white settlement in what once was Indian Territory. • Westerners viewed American Indians with contempt. Potential outside information triggered by document: Custer and Little Big Horn Dawes Severalty Act Helen Hunt Jackson/A Century of Dishonor Indian Territory Oklahoma Land Rush (Sooners) Reservation system Medicine Lodge Treaty Fort Laramie Treaty Wounded Knee © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document J: Excerpts from a speech by William Jennings Bryan, July 1896 Document Information: • Farms are necessary for the survival of cities. • Cities favor the gold standard. • The producing masses and the world are against the gold standard. • The gold standard hurts commercial and laboring interests and the toiling masses. Document Inferences: • Farmers favored the free and unlimited coinage of silver. • Although cities depend on farms, farms do not depend on cities. • There was conflict between urban and rural interests. • Democrats and Populists favored the free and unlimited coinage of silver. • Republicans favored the gold standard. • Farmers’ political response to hardships included the formation of the Populist Party. Potential outside information triggered by document: “Crime of ’73” “Free and unlimited coinage of silver” “McKinley and the full dinner pail” 16:1 Bimetallism Bland–Allison Silver Purchase Act William Harvey/Coin’s Financial School “Cross of Gold” speech Dingley Tariff McKinley Tariff Wilson–Gorman Tariff Election of 1896 Money question Repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act Specie Resumption Act Gresham’s Law L. Frank Baum/The Wizard of Oz © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Potential Outside Information List (alphabetical order): “All that the traffic would bear” Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Bimetallism Bland–Allison Silver Purchase Act of 1878 Bonanza farms/commercial farming Boom and bust cycles Bison slaughter Cattle kingdom Cattle trails: Chisholm, Goodnight-Loving, Sedalia, and Western Chemical fertilizers Cow towns Coxey’s Army Crédit Mobilier “Crime of ’73” Crop lien/sharecropping/tenant farmers “Cross of Gold” speech Custer, George, and Little Big Horn Dawes Act Department of Agriculture Desert Land Act Dingley Tariff Donnelly, Ignatius Dry farming Dust bowls Election of 1896 Exodusters Farm cooperatives (co-ops) Farmers’ Alliances Fort Laramie Treaty (1868) “Free and unlimited coinage of silver” Free passes Gilded Age Glidden, Joseph/barbed wire Gould, Jay Grain elevators and warehouses Grange (Patrons of Husbandry) Granger Laws Great Northern Railroad Greenback-Labor Party Greenbacks Gresham’s Law Harsh winters of 1885-87 Harvey, William/Coin’s Financial School Hatch Act Hill, James J. Homestead Act (1862), impact of Immigration (railroad land sales) Improvements in steel plows, spring-tooth harrows, grain binders, threshers, windmills Indian Territory “In God we trusted, in Kansas we busted” Interstate Commerce Commission Jackson, Helen Hunt /A Century of Dishonor Kelley, Oliver Hudson Love, Nat (cowboy) “McKinley and the full dinner pail” McKinley Tariff Medicine Lodge Treaty Money question Montgomery Ward Morrill Land Grant Act (1862), impact of Munn v. Illinois No government aid for irrigation Oklahoma Land Rush (Sooners) Omaha Platform/Ocala Demands Open range Overproduction/crop surpluses Pacific Railway Act (1862), impact of Panics of 1873, 1893 Pooling Populist Party/People’s Party Railroad land grants/checkerboard pattern “Rain follows the plough” “Raise less corn and more hell” Range wars (rangers and farmers) Rebates/drawbacks Refrigerated railroad cars Reservation system Reverse migrations in 1880s Robber barons Sears, Roebuck Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 Short-haul/long-haul differential Simpson, “Sockless” Jerry 16:1 Sodbusters Sod house frontier © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Potential Outside Information List (alphabetical order): Specie Resumption Act (1875) Standard gauge Stanford, Leland Swift and Armour Swing/doubtful states Tillman, “Pitchfork” Ben Timber Culture Act Turner, Frederick Jackson/frontier thesis Vanderbilt, Cornelius Wabash case/Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois Watson, Tom Weaver, James B. White Caps (Las Gorras Blancas) Wilson–Gorman Tariff Windmills Wounded Knee © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Settlers in the eighteenth-century American backcountry sometimes resorted to violent protest to express their grievances. Analyze the causes and significance of TWO of the following: March of the Paxton Boys Regulator movement Shays’ Rebellion Whiskey Rebellion The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that analyzes both the causes and significance of TWO of the events. • Develops the thesis with considerable, relevant supporting information. • Has effective analysis of the events and connects them to violent protest and its importance; coverage may be somewhat uneven. • May contain minor errors that do not detract form the overall quality of the essay. • Is clearly organized and written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that may be partially developed in analyzing the causes and significance of TWO of the events. • Supports the thesis with some relevant information. • Has some analysis of the causes and significance. • Discusses two of the events, but one may be more developed than the other. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • May paraphrase the question or contain a confused or unfocused thesis. • Provides few relevant facts or lists facts with little or no application to the question. • May contain only generalizations. • Has little or no analysis of one or both events. • May contain major errors that seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • May be poorly organized and/or written. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • Contains numerous errors, both major and minor. • Is poorly organized and/or written. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Fact Sheet March of the Paxton Boys (1764) Backcountry farmers Scots-Irish Indian attacks Royal government Farmer Petitions Farmers attack peaceful Indians Indian peace treaty with the royal government Benjamin Franklin End of French and Indian War Farmers scorned by East Coast elites Proclamation of 1763 Regulator Movement (1770s) Two movements: North and South Carolina White bandits Distrust of the East Took control of the courts General anarchy Two groups in the backcountry Shays’ Rebellion (1787) Era known as the “Critical period” Revolutionary War veterans Daniel Shays Weak Articles of Confederation No standing army Need for stronger central government Clash between agricultural frontier and mercantile Boston and the East Merchants calling-in loans to farmers Foreclosures on farms by banks Issue of paper money while farmers had to pay debts and taxes in specie Federal arsenal at Springfield Massachusetts taxes and control of inflation Farmers could not pay their mortgages or taxes, leading to foreclosures Elites/“mobocracy” Constitutional Convention/Constitution Militia ends the rebellion (can be from other states, as some textbooks say this) Whiskey Rebellion (1794) Alexander Hamilton/Hamilton financial program/whiskey tax, an excise tax Revolutionary War debts Whiskey used as currency on frontier Whiskey made from grain Cheaper to transport whiskey over mountains Pennsylvania farmers outraged when whiskey was taxed Tax was a prominent source of money for the new federal government Pre-Revolutionary British policies/Stamp Act Tar and feathering of federal tax officials Strong central government Little evidence of resistance when troops went into the field Government strong enough to deal with internal defiance Thousands of troops (10,000–15,000) Some see a too-strong central government Definition of executive power/supremacy of federal law Contributes to the formation of two-party system © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 In what ways did the Second Great Awakening in the North influence TWO of the following? Abolitionism Temperance The cult of domesticity Utopian communities The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that explains how the Second Great Awakening influenced TWO societal aspects. • Develops the thesis with considerable, relevant historical information. • Provides strong analysis and effectively links the Second Great Awakening to TWO topics; coverage may be somewhat uneven. • May contain minor errors that do not detract from the overall quality of the essay. • Is well organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that partially explains how the Second Great Awakening influenced TWO societal aspects. • Supports the thesis with some relevant historical information. • Provides some analysis and some linkage of the Second Great Awakening to TWO topics; coverage may be unbalanced. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • Contains a confused or unfocused thesis or simply paraphrases the question with little or no explanation. • Provides minimal relevant information or lists facts with little or no application to the question. • May address one topic or describe TWO topics in a general way. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or written. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or paraphrases the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • Contains substantial errors. The — Essay • Is blank or completely off task. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Fact Sheet Second Great Awakening: Beliefs and Ideals Many Americans experienced uncertainty and anxiety as they confronted a rapidly changing society that saw the rise of the Market Revolution and the increase of urbanization and immigration. The Second Great Awakening addressed these feelings. Movement preached spiritual rebirth, individual self-improvement, and perfectionism Ignited a spirit of change with its idea that moral rectitude could lead to salvation Its emphasis on the ability of individuals to amend their lives engendered a wide variety of reform movements—not only as a means of personal salvation but as a mandate for reform and control of the larger society Combined a more active piety with a belief in God as an active force in the world whose grace could be attained through faith and good works Second Great Awakening: People and Events Lyman Beecher Charles Finney Peter Cartwright (Father Cartwright) American Bible Society (1816) American Sunday School Union (1824) American Home Missionary Society (1826) Lane Theological Seminary Cane Ridge Meeting Abolitionism American Colonization Society (1817) New England Anti-Slavery Society William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator (1831) Garrison founded the American Anti-Slavery Society (1833), which by 1838 had 1,350 chapters and 250,000 members; rejects gradualism; calls for the immediate, unconditional, universal abolition of slavery Founding of the Liberty Party (1840) Evangelical Christianity Coming of the millennium Salvation possible to everyone through conversion and personal faith Readmit God into life Holiness resided in the individual Equality before God Challenged indifference; devote yourself to the moral well-being of others Faith demonstrated through moral behavior Observed the Sabbath, practiced sobriety At least rhetorically, racial and gender equality “Burned-over district” Camp meetings Market Revolution “Anxious seat” Relevant religious denominations: Baptists, Deists, Methodists, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Unitarians Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society: Lucretia Mott Angelina and Sarah Grimke Sojourner Truth Frederick Douglass: North Star (newspaper); Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (1845) (autobiography) Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) John Brown Lyman Beecher © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Fact Sheet (continued) Temperance Timothy Shay Arthur, Ten Nights in a Barroom Deacon Robert Peckham (artist): “Woe of Liquor,” “Happy Abstinence Family” American Society for the Promotion of Temperance (1826), which by the 1830s had 5,000 state and local temperance groups, for example, Daughters of Temperance Lyman Beecher “Demon rum”/“devil juice”/“devil’s nectar” “The Drunkard’s Progress” Maine Law (1851): first state to prohibit the sale and consumption of alcohol statewide; sponsored by temperance advocate Neal S. Dow Strongly anti-immigrant in its message (targeting Irish Catholics and Germans) Provided the Protestant middle class with a means to attack out-of-favor groups (laborers, immigrants, and Catholics) Know-Nothing Party Consumption of liquor substantially declined during the 1830s (by 50 percent) The Cult of Domesticity The first phase of women’s reform activities reflected women’s unique moral qualities, for example, as “social mother.” The second phase challenged male prerogatives and moved beyond moral suasion. As women became more involved in reform movements (especially temperance and abolition), some women increasingly resented and began to defy the cult of domesticity. Catharine Beecher: Hartford Female Seminary (1823) Female Charitable Society American Female Moral Reform Society (1839) Sarah and Angelina Grimke Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society Utopian Communities Brook Farm: George Ripley, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Bronson Alcott Transcendentalists: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau New Harmony: Robert Owen Lucy Stone Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan B. Anthony Seneca Falls Convention (1848): Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions Oneida Community: John Humphrey Noyes Millerites: William Miller Shakers: Mother Ann Lee Mormons: Joseph Smith, Book of the Mormon/Brigham Young/Latter Day Saints © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 To what extent did the role of the federal government change under President Theodore Roosevelt in regard to TWO of the following: Labor Trusts Conservation World affairs The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that evaluates to what extent the role of the federal government changed under President Theodore Roosevelt with regard to TWO topics. • Develops the thesis with substantial and specific relevant historical information. • Provides effective analysis of the extent of change regarding TWO topics; treatment of topics may be somewhat uneven. • May contain minor errors that do not detract from the overall quality of the essay. • Is well organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that partially evaluates to what extent the role of the federal government changed under President Theodore Roosevelt with regard to TWO topics. • Supports the thesis with some relevant historical information. • Provides some analysis of the extent of change regarding TWO topics; treatment of topics may be substantially uneven. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • Contains an undeveloped, confused, or unfocused thesis, or may simply restate the question. • Provides minimal relevant information or lists facts with little or no application to the question. • Addresses extent of change regarding only one topic, OR, describes two topics in a general way. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or written. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or paraphrases the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • Contains substantial errors. • Is poorly organized and/or written. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Fact Sheet Theodore Roosevelt’s general approach to the presidency was characterized by his broad view of executive power under the Constitution. He sought to avoid the extremes both of socialism and pure laissez-faire individualism, but he became more committed to Progressive reform during his second term. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND LABOR Prior to TR • Not much support of labor by the federal government. • Broke strikes with troops (railroad strikes, 1877; Pullman strike, 1894). • Use of injunctions against labor unions for violating Sherman Anti-Trust Act (Pullman strike, 1894). During Presidency of TR (1901-09) • Anthracite coal strike, 1902 o TR wanted compromise between miners and mine owners. o Considered using the army to take over and reopen mines. o Convinced mine owners to accept arbitration by the federal government (Anthracite Coal Strike Commission), but TR did not recognize the miners’ union (United Mine Workers). • Square Deal for labor, business, and the public. • Department of Commerce and Labor, 1903 (created Bureau of Corporations). • Lochner v. New York (1905): struck down 10-hour workday for bakers. • 1907: TR proposed eight-hour day for workers and broader compensation for industrial accidents. • Muller v. Oregon (1908): upheld maximum working hours for females. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Fact Sheet (continued) FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND TRUSTS Prior to TR • Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad (1886): corporations are treated as “persons” under the law and get the protection of the Fourteenth Amendment. • Interstate Commerce Act (1887). • Sherman Antitrust Act (1890). • United States v. E. C. Knight (1895): protected manufacturers from antitrust law. • William McKinley: very probusiness, but in 1898, was appointed to the U.S. Industrial Commission on Trusts, which did look into the issue of trusts and industrial combinations (among other issues). During Presidency of TR (1901-09) TR and Trust Busting • Congress did not want to pass regulatory legislation when TR took office. o TR accepted the idea of business centralization and believed government should regulate big business rather than eliminate it; “good trusts” vs. “bad trusts”; historians have argued that TR was not as much of a trust buster as he is often portrayed to be. o TR used trust busting selectively: some informal “understandings” (“gentlemen’s agreements”) between corporations and the federal government, for example, U.S. Steel got TR’s consent before it took over Tennessee Coal and Iron Company in 1907. o During his second term, TR turned more toward regulation of business rather than trust busting. • Justice Department went after Northern Securities Company in 1902; Northern Securities v. United States (1904). Supreme Court ruled Northern Securities violated the Sherman Act. • Swift and Company v. United States (1905) (“beef trust” case): Supreme Court ruled that meatpackers had avoided competitive bidding when purchasing livestock and as a result had violated the Sherman Antitrust Act; “stream-of-commerce” doctrine; livestock and meat products were part of interstate commerce and subject to federal regulation. • Standard Oil and American Tobacco cases began (Supreme Court ruled to break up Standard Oil and reorganize American Tobacco in 1911). • Under TR, the Justice Department filed cases under the Sherman Act (but most came to trial after he left office). • Expedition Act (1903): hastened prosecution of antitrust suits. • Department of Commerce and Labor (1903): created Bureau of Corporations, which could investigate activities of interstate corporations, but many corporations cooperated with the bureau to alleviate the need for antitrust lawsuits by federal government. Examples of Regulation of Business Not Directly Related to Trusts • Pure Food and Drug Act (1906). • Meat Inspection Act (1906). • Elkins Act (1903): no rebates by railroads. • Hepburn Act (1906): ICC established maximum freight rates. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Fact Sheet (continued) FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND CONSERVATION Prior to TR • Federal government often debated with western states about water rights but did not consider the impact of water policies on the environment. • Desert Land Act (1877): federal government sold arid land on the condition it be irrigated. • Division of Forestry created by Congress in 1881 (part of the Department of the Interior). • Forest Reserves Act (1891): president had power to establish forest reserves to protect watersheds. (Harrison established 15 forest reserves of over 16 million acres; Cleveland added 21 million acres.) • Carey Act (1894): distributed federal land to states with the condition of irrigation. • Forest Management Act (1897) (Organic Administration Act of 1897): established most national forests for purposes of managed “harvesting of timber, mining of mineral resources, and use of water”; directed by secretary of the interior. • Yellowstone National Park created in 1872; Yosemite National Park created in 1890. • Sierra Club founded in 1892 (involvement of John Muir). During Presidency of TR (1901-09) • TR was a strong supporter of conservation but believed in managed development; saw government as “manager” of the development of wilderness; battled both commercial interests and “romantic preservationists.” • Federal government withdrew federal timber and grazing land from public sale or use. • Strengthened national park system: 5 national parks, 53 wildlife preserves, 16 national monuments established. • 1901: 41 national forest reserves (41 million acres); 1909: 159 national forest reserves (150 million acres). • Gifford Pinchot: adviser to TR on conservation. • Newlands Reclamation Act (1902): federal construction of irrigation projects, dams. • TR drew on his relationship with John Muir (Yosemite National Park expanded by Congress in 1906). • U.S. Forest Service established in 1905 with Pinchot as first head. • Antiquities Act (1906): designated “objects of historic or scientific interest” and national monuments. (TR interpreted this broadly for scenic preservation, whereas Congress had only intended it to apply to small areas around artifacts like American Indian cliff dwellings in the Southwest.) • Controversy over Pinchot’s endorsement of supplying water to San Francisco from Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park in 1906; Congressional committee voted against the bill; public outcry against plan; TR postponed a decision. • Bureau of Reclamation established in 1907. • Congress rescinded president’s authority to create national forests in six western states; TR signed the bill after he set aside 16 million acres as national forests in the six states. • Conference of Governors (1908) held at White House: state and national politicians and conservation organizations looked at national resources issues of grazing land, timber, water, soil quality, public health; recommended creation of National Conservation Commission. • Conservative Congressmen did not like TR’s approach (never funded National Conservation Commission). © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Fact Sheet (continued) FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND WORLD AFFAIRS Prior to TR • Increased interest in world affairs in 1890–1900. • Olney Corollary/Interpretation of Monroe Doctrine (1895): United States predominant in Western Hemisphere; boundary dispute between Venezuela and British Guiana. • Interest in expanding United States navy (Alfred Thayer Mahan, TR’s assistant secretary of the navy): by 1896, 11 new battleships had been built or authorized. • Spanish–American War (1898)/Treaty of Paris (1898). • United States annexation of Hawaii (1898). • Eastern parts of Samoa annexed (1899): tripartite agreement (United States, Great Britain, and Germany) on Samoa (1889). • Platt Amendment proposed by McKinley administration. • Foraker Act (1900): Puerto Rico gets legislature, but Puerto Ricans are not citizens of United States. • Filipino insurrection (1898–1902): Philippines annexed in 1899. • China: Open Door Policy (1899, 1900): United States sends military forces to suppress Boxer Rebellion in 1900. • Hay–Pauncefote Treaties between United States and Great Britain (1900, 1901): United States got the exclusive right to build, control, and fortify a canal through Central America. During Presidency of TR (1901-09) • “Big stick”; United States as “policeman” of Western Hemisphere; concern with balance of power in Asia/Pacific; United States as “civilizer” and transmitter WASP values; Social Darwinism. • Panama o Hay–Herran Treaty (1903) signed between the United States and Colombia but rejected by Colombian Senate. o United States support for revolution in Panama. o Hay–Bunau–Varilla Treaty (1903): United States got control over Canal Zone; Panama became a U.S. protectorate. o Canal built between 1904 and 1914. • Cuba became a U.S. protectorate (Cuban–American Treaty, 1903); United States landed Marines in 1906. • Filipino insurrection ended in 1902. • Venezuela debt dispute (1903): Great Britain, Germany, and Italy blockaded Venezuela over debts owed to private investors; TR feared armed intervention by Europeans. • Roosevelt Corollary (1904): “preventive intervention.” • Dominican Republic became a U.S. protectorate in 1905; United States took over customs house. • Insular cases (1901, 1903, 1904): the Constitution does not follow the flag. • TR arbitrates Russo–Japanese War (1904-05); Treaty of Portsmouth (1905). • Taft–Katsura Memorandum (1905): Japan and the United States respect one another’s territories in the Pacific and Asia. • Act of Algeciras (1906): independence of Morocco; open door for trade; France and Spain could train and control Moroccan police. • Gentlemen’s Agreement with Japan (1907-08). • TR sends “Great White Fleet” on world cruise (1907-09); arrives in Japan in 1908. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Fact Sheet (continued) • • Root–Takahira Agreement (1908): Japan and United States maintain status quo in Pacific; respect Open Door Policy in China. Spring 1908: Congress endorsed a policy of building two new battleships per year. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 “Landslide presidential victories do not ensure continued political effectiveness or legislative success.” Assess the validity of this statement by comparing TWO of the following presidential administrations. Franklin Roosevelt (1936) Lyndon Johnson (1964) Richard Nixon (1972) Ronald Reagan (1984) The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that assesses whether landslide presidential victories ensured continued political effectiveness/legislative success by comparing TWO of the four presidential administrations. • Develops the thesis with substantial and relevant historical information. • Provides effective analysis of the TWO administrations and their political effectiveness/legislative success; treatment of the administrations as well as political effectiveness/legislative success may be somewhat unbalanced. (Assessment of the impact of the election itself may be implicit or explicit.) • May contain minor errors that do not detract from the overall quality of the essay. • Is well organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis, which may be partially developed, that addresses whether landslide presidential victories ensured continued political effectiveness/legislative success by comparing TWO of the four presidential administrations. • Supports the thesis with some relevant supporting information. • Provides some analysis of the TWO administrations and their political effectiveness/legislative success; treatment may be unbalanced. (Assessment of the impact of the election itself may be implicit or explicit.) • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • Contains a weak or unfocused thesis or simply paraphrases the question. • Provides few relevant facts or lists facts with little or no application to the question. • Provides simplistic analysis that may be generally descriptive or addresses only one administration. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or written. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 (continued) The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inadequate response. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • Contains substantial factual errors. • Is poorly organized and/or written. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or is blank. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 Fact Sheet Franklin Roosevelt (1936) Political Effectiveness/Legislative Success Second New Deal Quarantine Speech Social Security Battle of Britain Keynesian Economics Election of 1940 (unprecedented third term) Southern Democrats Atlantic Charter Farm Security Administration Winston Churchill Alfred Landon Neutrality Acts National Housing Act Cash and Carry Second AAA Peacetime draft Fair Labor Standards Act Lend Lease Act (1941) Executive Reorganization Act Political Ineffectiveness Supreme Court invalidates the AAA (1936) Rise of fascism Court packing scheme Hitler/Mussolini/Emperor Hirohito “Memorial Day Massacre” Munich Conference/appeasement 1937-38 economic collapse Lyndon Johnson (1964) Political Effectiveness/Legislative Success Presidential ability to expand Vietnam War Great Society Bombing of North Vietnam (February 1965) “War on Poverty” Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Job Corps, VISTA, AFDC, Upward Bound Robert Weaver (first African American cabinet member) Thurgood Marshall appointed to Supreme Court Economic Opportunity Act Water and Air Quality Acts Department of Housing and Urban Development Medicaid Political Ineffectiveness Race riots in Watts, Newark, Cleveland, Detroit, and elsewhere Tet Offensive Black Power movement Johnson withdraws from 1968 race Opposition to affirmative action Split in Democratic Party Medicare Highway Beautification Act Head Start Highway Safety Act Elementary and Secondary Education Act Increase in minimum wage (1966) Immigration Reform Act (1965) Twenty-fifth Amendment Voting Rights Act Truth-in-Lending Act National Endowment of the Arts Act Civil Rights Act (1968) (housing) Martin Luther King Jr. assassinated Violence at Democratic National Convention White backlash Retreat from Great Society/War on Poverty Senate hearing on Vietnam Drop in LBJ’s approval rating Antiwar protests on university campuses © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 Fact Sheet (continued) Richard Nixon (1972) Political Effectiveness/Legislative Success Christmas Bombing of 1972/Paris Peace Accord China Vietnamization ABM Treaty Political Ineffectiveness Committee for the Re-election of the President War Powers Act Watergate Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns (tax evasion) Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox Nixon’s “I am not a crook” speech “Saturday Night Massacre” Subpoena of tapes Détente/USSR SALT Kissinger’s “shuttle diplomacy” Agricultural and Consumer Protection Act Roe v. Wade Growing calls for impeachment (three bills) Troubled economy/stagflation Supreme Court ruled against Nixon regarding tapes 1973 Arab oil embargo Nixon resigns (August 8, 1974) Ronald Reagan (1984) Political Effectiveness/Legislative Success “Teflon” presidency 1986 Tax Reform Act Glasnost (openness) INF Treaty (1987) Political Ineffectiveness Widening income disparity between rich and poor Massive budget deficits, trade deficits, national debt Challenger disaster Democrats regain control of U.S. Senate Iran-Contra Scandal/Tower Commission Report Abortion and affirmative action controversies Administration scandal: Edwin Meese, Michael Deaver, Samuel Pierce (HUD), and so on Perestroika (restructuring) Cease-fire agreement in Nicaragua (1988) Reagan–Gorbachev summit meetings (four) Bush wins in 1988 (Reagan legacy) S&L failures and Wall Street scandals: Keating Five, Michael Milken, Ivan Boesky Stock Market Crash: Black Monday (October 19, 1987) Homelessness AIDS crisis Senate rejects Robert Bork for Supreme Court © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2009 for the course OC 9876 taught by Professor Dq during the Spring '09 term at UC Merced.

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