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_ap06_frq_chemistry - AP® Chemistry 2006 Free-Response...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Chemistry 2006 Free-Response Questions The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, AP Central, APCD, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Vertical Teams, Pre-AP, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Admitted Class Evaluation Service, CollegeEd, connect to college success, MyRoad, SAT Professional Development, SAT Readiness Program, and Setting the Cornerstones are trademarks owned by the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. INFORMATION IN THE TABLE BELOW AND IN THE TABLES ON PAGES 3-5 MAY BE USEFUL IN ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION OF THE EXAMINATION. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 2 STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AT 25° C E °( V ) Half-reaction F2 ( g ) + 2 e - Æ Co + e Au3+ + 3 e Cl 2 (g ) + 2 e - Æ Co Æ A u(s ) Æ 2 Cl - O 2 (g ) + 4 H + + 4 e - Æ 2 H 2 O(l ) Br2 (l ) + 2 e Æ 2 Br - 2 Hg 2 + + 2 e - Æ Hg 2+ + 2 e Ag + + e - Hg 2 2 + Æ H g (l ) Æ A g (s ) Æ 2 H g (l ) Æ Fe 2 + I 2 (s ) + 2 e Cu + + e - Æ 2 I- Æ C u(s ) - 2 F- Æ K (s ) + - Æ C s(s ) 2.87 1.82 1.50 1.36 1.23 1.07 0.92 0.85 0.80 0.79 0.77 0.53 0.52 0.34 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.00 – 0.13 – 0.14 – 0.25 – 0.28 – 0.40 – 0.41 – 0.44 – 0.74 – 0.76 – 0.83 – 1.18 – 1.66 – 1.70 – 2.37 – 2.71 – 2.87 – 2.89 – 2.90 – 2.92 – 2.92 – 2.92 Li + e - Æ Li(s ) – 3.05 - 3+ Hg 2 Fe + 2e 2+ 3+ - +e - - 2+ Æ C u(s ) - Æ Cu + Sn 4+ + 2 e S(s ) + 2 H + + 2 e 2 H+ + 2 e- Æ Sn 2 + Æ H 2 S(g ) Cu Cu + 2e 2+ 2+ +e Æ H2 (g) + 2e - Æ P b(s ) + 2e - Æ S n(s ) + 2e - Æ N i(s ) + 2e - Æ C o(s ) + 2e - Æ C d(s ) Æ Cr 2+ Fe 2+ + 2 e - Æ F e(s ) - Æ C r(s ) - Æ Æ Z n(s ) H 2 ( g ) + 2 OH - Æ M n(s ) Æ A l(s ) Æ B e(s ) Æ M g(s ) Æ Na(s ) Æ Æ Ca(s ) S r(s ) Æ B a(s ) Æ R b(s ) Pb 2+ Sn 2+ Ni 2+ Co 2+ Cd 2+ Cr Cr 3+ 3+ +e - + 3e Zn + 2 e 2 H 2 O(l ) + 2 e 2+ Mn Al 2+ 3+ Be + 3e 2+ Na + e Ca Sr 2+ Ba 2+ + 2e K +e - Cs + e + - - - + 2e Rb + e - - + 2e + + - + 2e + 2+ - + 2e 2+ Mg + 2e - - GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 3 ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS E v l p ATOMIC STRUCTURE E = hv c = lv h l= p = mu mu -2.178 ¥ 10 -18 En = joule n2 Planck’s constant, h = 6.63 ¥ 10 -34 J s Boltzmann’s constant, k = 1.38 ¥ 10 -23 J K -1 Avogadro’s number = 6.022 ¥ 10 23 mol -1 [OH − ] [ HB + ] [B] Electron charge, e = -1.602 ¥ 10 -19 coulomb K w = [OH − ] [H + ] = 1.0 × 10 −14 @ 25 C = Ka × K b 1 electron volt per atom = 96.5 kJ mol -1 pH = − log [ H + ], pOH = − log [OH − ] 14 = pH + pOH pH = pKa + log Equilibrium Constants [A − ] [ HA ] Ka (weak acid) Kb (weak base) [HB + ] [ B] pKa = − log Ka , pKb = − log Kb K w (water) K p (gas pressure) pOH = pKb + log K p = Kc ( RT ) Dn Kc (molar concentrations) , S = standard entropy where D n = moles product gas − moles reactant gas H = standard enthalpy G = standard free energy THERMOCHEMISTRY/KINETICS DS = DH = DG =  S products -  S reactants  DHf products -  DH f reactants  DGf products -  DGf reactants E T n m q c Cp DG = DH - TD S = - RT ln K = -2.303 RT log K = -n E t 1 A - ln A t = = = = = = = standard reduction potential temperature moles mass heat specific heat capacity molar heat capacity at constant pressure E a = activation energy k = rate constant A = frequency factor DG = DG + RT ln Q = DG + 2.303 RT log Q q = mcDT DH Cp = DT ln A u = velocity n = principal quantum number m = mass energy frequency wavelength momentum Speed of light, c = 3.0 ¥ 108 m s -1 EQUILIBRIUM [H + ] [A − ] Ka = [HA ] Kb = = = = = 0 Faraday's constant, = - kt = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons Gas constant, R = 8.31 J mol -1 K -1 1 = kt A0 = 0.0821 L atm mol -1 K -1 = 8.31 volt coulomb mol -1 K -1 - Ea 1 ln k = + ln A RT ej GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 4 GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLUTIONS P V T n D m u PA = Ptotal ¥ X A , where X A = moles A total moles Ptotal = PA + PB + PC + ... m n= M K = C + 273 PV1 P2V2 1 = T1 T2 m D= V 3kT 3 RT = urms = M m 1 KE per molecule = mu 2 2 3 KE per mole = RT 2 M2 r1 = M1 r2 molarity, M = moles solute per liter solution molality = moles solute per kilogram solvent DT f = iK f ¥ molality DTb = iK b ¥ molality p = iMRT A = abc pressure volume temperature number of moles density mass velocity = = = = = = = root-mean-square speed kinetic energy rate of effusion molar mass osmotic pressure van't Hoff factor molal freezing-point depression constant Kb A a b c Q I q t Ê n2 a ˆ Á P + 2 ˜ (V - nb ) = nRT Ë V¯ = = = = = = = urms KE r M p i Kf PV = nRT = = = = = = = = = molal boiling-point elevation constant absorbance molar absorptivity path length concentration reaction quotient current (amperes) charge (coulombs) time (seconds) E = standard reduction potential K = equilibrium constant Gas constant, R = 8.31 J mol -1 K -1 OXIDATION-REDUCTION; ELECTROCHEMISTRY = 0.0821 L atm mol -1 K -1 Q= [ C ] c [ D] d [ A ] a [ B] b = 8.31 volt coulomb mol -1 K -1 , where a A + b B Æ c C + d D Boltzmann' s constant, k = 1.38 ¥ 10 -23 J K -1 K f for H 2 O = 1.86 K kg mol -1 q I= t E cell = E cell log K = Kb for H 2 O = 0.512 K kg mol -1 RT 0.0592 ln Q = E cell log Q @ 25 C n n 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr STP = 0.000 C and 1.000 atm nE 0.0592 Faraday' s constant, = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 5 2006 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Section II (Total time—90 minutes) Part A Time— 40 minutes YOU MAY USE YOUR CALCULATOR FOR PART A. CLEARLY SHOW THE METHOD USED AND THE STEPS INVOLVED IN ARRIVING AT YOUR ANSWERS. It is to your advantage to do this, since you may obtain partial credit if you do and you will receive little or no credit if you do not. Attention should be paid to significant figures. Be sure to write all your answers to the questions on the lined pages following each question in the booklet with the pink cover. Do NOT write your answers on the green insert. Answer Question 1 below. The Section II score weighting for this question is 20 percent. 1. Answer the following questions that relate to solubility of salts of lead and barium. (a) A saturated solution is prepared by adding excess PbI2(s) to distilled water to form 1.0 L of solution at 25°C. The concentration of Pb2+ (aq) in the saturated solution is found to be 1.3 × 10 − 3 M . The chemical equation for the dissolution of PbI2(s) in water is shown below. → PbI2(s) ← Pb2+(aq) + 2 I −(aq) (i) Write the equilibrium-constant expression for the equation. (ii) Calculate the molar concentration of I −(aq) in the solution. (iii) Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant, Ksp . (b) A saturated solution is prepared by adding PbI2(s) to distilled water to form 2.0 L of solution at 25°C. What are the molar concentrations of Pb2+ (aq) and I −(aq) in the solution? Justify your answer. (c) Solid NaI is added to a saturated solution of PbI2 at 25°C. Assuming that the volume of the solution does not change, does the molar concentration of Pb2+ (aq) in the solution increase, decrease, or remain the same? Justify your answer. (d) The value of Ksp for the salt BaCrO4 is 1.2 × 10−10. When a 500. mL sample of 8.2 × 10− 6 M Ba(NO3)2 is added to 500. mL of 8.2 × 10− 6 M Na2CrO4 , no precipitate is observed. (i) Assuming that volumes are additive, calculate the molar concentrations of Ba2+ (aq) and CrO42−(aq) in the 1.00 L of solution. (ii) Use the molar concentrations of Ba2+ (aq) ions and CrO42−(aq) ions as determined above to show why a precipitate does not form. You must include a calculation as part of your answer. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 6 2006 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Answer EITHER Question 2 below OR Question 3 printed on page 8. Only one of these two questions will be graded. If you start both questions, be sure to cross out the question you do not want graded. The Section II score weighting for the question you choose is 20 percent. CO(g) + 1 O (g) → CO2(g) 22 2. The combustion of carbon monoxide is represented by the equation above. (a) Determine the value of the standard enthalpy change, DH rxn , for the combustion of CO(g) at 298 K using the following information. C(s) + 1 O (g) → CO(g) 22 DH 2 98 = − 110.5 kJ mol−1 DH 2 98 = − 393.5 kJ mol−1 C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g) (b) Determine the value of the standard entropy change, DSrxn , for the combustion of CO(g) at 298 K using the information in the following table. S2 98 Substance (J mol−1 K−1) CO(g) 197.7 CO2(g) 213.7 O2(g) 205.1 (c) Determine the standard free energy change, DGrxn , for the reaction at 298 K. Include units with your answer. (d) Is the reaction spontaneous under standard conditions at 298 K ? Justify your answer. (e) Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant, Keq , for the reaction at 298 K. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 7 2006 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 3. Answer the following questions that relate to the analysis of chemical compounds. (a) A compound containing the elements C , H , N , and O is analyzed. When a 1.2359 g sample is burned in excess oxygen, 2.241 g of CO2(g) is formed. The combustion analysis also showed that the sample contained 0.0648 g of H. (i) Determine the mass, in grams, of C in the 1.2359 g sample of the compound. (ii) When the compound is analyzed for N content only, the mass percent of N is found to be 28.84 percent. Determine the mass, in grams, of N in the original 1.2359 g sample of the compound. (iii) Determine the mass, in grams, of O in the original 1.2359 g sample of the compound. (iv) Determine the empirical formula of the compound. (b) A different compound, which has the empirical formula CH2Br , has a vapor density of 6.00 g L− 1 at 375 K and 0.983 atm. Using these data, determine the following. (i) The molar mass of the compound (ii) The molecular formula of the compound STOP If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this part only. Do not turn to the other part of the test until you are told to do so. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 8 2006 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Part B Time— 50 minutes NO CALCULATORS MAY BE USED FOR PART B. Answer Question 4 below. The Section II score weighting for this question is 15 percent. 4. Write the formulas to show the reactants and the products for any FIVE of the laboratory situations described below. No more than five choices will be graded. In all cases, a reaction occurs. Assume that solutions are aqueous unless otherwise indicated. Represent substances in solution as ions if the substances are extensively ionized. Omit formulas for any ions or molecules that are unchanged by the reaction. You need not balance the equations. Example: A strip of magnesium is added to a solution of silver nitrate. (a) Solid potassium chlorate is strongly heated. (b) Solid silver chloride is added to a solution of concentrated hydrochloric acid. (c) A solution of ethanoic (acetic) acid is added to a solution of barium hydroxide. (d) Ammonia gas is bubbled into a solution of hydrofluoric acid. (e) Zinc metal is placed in a solution of copper(II) sulfate. (f) Hydrogen phosphide (phosphine) gas is added to boron trichloride gas. (g) A solution of nickel(II) bromide is added to a solution of potassium hydroxide. (h) Hexane is combusted in air. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 9 2006 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Your responses to the rest of the questions in this part of the examination will be graded on the basis of the accuracy and relevance of the information cited. Explanations should be clear and well organized. Examples and equations may be included in your responses where appropriate. Specific answers are preferable to broad, diffuse responses. Answer BOTH Question 5 below AND Question 6 printed on pages 11-12. Both of these questions will be graded. The Section II score weighting for these questions is 30 percent (15 percent each). 5. Three pure, solid compounds labeled X , Y , and Z are placed on a lab bench with the objective of identifying each one. It is known that the compounds (listed in random order) are KCl , Na2CO3 , and MgSO4 . A student performs several tests on the compounds; the results are summarized in the table below. Compound pH of an Aqueous Solution of the Compound Result of Adding 1.0 M NaOH to a Solution of the Compound Result of Adding 1.0 M HCl Dropwise to the Solid Compound X >7 No observed reaction Evolution of a gas Y 7 No observed reaction No observed reaction Z 7 Formation of a white precipitate No observed reaction (a) Identify each compound based on the observations recorded in the table. Compound X ______________________ Compound Y ______________________ Compound Z ______________________ (b) Write the chemical formula for the precipitate produced when 1.0 M NaOH is added to a solution of compound Z . (c) Explain why an aqueous solution of compound X has a pH value greater than 7. Write an equation as part of your explanation. (d) One of the testing solutions used was 1.0 M NaOH . Describe the steps for preparing 100. mL of 1.0 M NaOH from a stock solution of 3.0 M NaOH using a 50 mL buret, a 100 mL volumetric flask, distilled water, and a small dropper. (e) Describe a simple laboratory test that you could use to distinguish between Na2CO3(s) and CaCO3(s). In your description, specify how the results of the test would enable you to determine which compound was Na2CO3(s) and which compound was CaCO3(s) . © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 10 2006 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 6. Answer each of the following in terms of principles of molecular behavior and chemical concepts. (a) The structures for glucose, C6H12O6 , and cyclohexane, C6H12 , are shown below. Identify the type(s) of intermolecular attractive forces in (i) pure glucose (ii) pure cyclohexane (b) Glucose is soluble in water but cyclohexane is not soluble in water. Explain. (c) Consider the two processes represented below. ∆ H ° = + 44.0 kJ mol−1 Process 1: H2O(l) → H2O(g) Process 2: H2O(l) → H2(g) + 1 O (g) 22 ∆ H ° = + 286 kJ mol−1 (i) For each of the two processes, identify the type(s) of intermolecular or intramolecular attractive forces that must be overcome for the process to occur. (ii) Indicate whether you agree or disagree with the statement in the box below. Support your answer with a short explanation. When water boils, H2O molecules break apart to form hydrogen molecules and oxygen molecules. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 11 2006 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (d) Consider the four reaction-energy profile diagrams shown below. (i) Identify the two diagrams that could represent a catalyzed and an uncatalyzed reaction pathway for the same reaction. Indicate which of the two diagrams represents the catalyzed reaction pathway for the reaction. (ii) Indicate whether you agree or disagree with the statement in the box below. Support your answer with a short explanation. Adding a catalyst to a reaction mixture adds energy that causes the reaction to proceed more quickly. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 12 2006 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Answer EITHER Question 7 below OR Question 8 printed on page 14. Only one of these two questions will be graded. If you start both questions, be sure to cross out the question you do not want graded. The Section II score weighting for the question you choose is 15 percent. 7. Answer the following questions about the structures of ions that contain only sulfur and fluorine. (a) The compounds SF4 and BF3 react to form an ionic compound according to the following equation. SF4 + BF3 → SF3BF4 (i) Draw a complete Lewis structure for the SF3+ cation in SF3BF4 . (ii) Identify the type of hybridization exhibited by sulfur in the SF3+ cation. (iii) Identify the geometry of the SF3+ cation that is consistent with the Lewis structure drawn in part (a)(i). (iv) Predict whether the F–S–F bond angle in the SF3+ cation is larger than, equal to, or smaller than 109.5°. Justify your answer. (b) The compounds SF4 and CsF react to form an ionic compound according to the following equation. SF4 + CsF → CsSF5 (i) Draw a complete Lewis structure for the SF5− anion in CsSF5 . (ii) Identify the type of hybridization exhibited by sulfur in the SF5− anion. (iii) Identify the geometry of the SF5− anion that is consistent with the Lewis structure drawn in part (b)(i). (iv) Identify the oxidation number of sulfur in the compound CsSF5 . © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 13 2006 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 8. Suppose that a stable element with atomic number 119, symbol Q , has been discovered. (a) Write the ground-state electron configuration for Q , showing only the valence-shell electrons. (b) Would Q be a metal or a nonmetal? Explain in terms of electron configuration. (c) On the basis of periodic trends, would Q have the largest atomic radius in its group or would it have the smallest? Explain in terms of electronic structure. (d) What would be the most likely charge of the Q ion in stable ionic compounds? (e) Write a balanced equation that would represent the reaction of Q with water. (f) Assume that Q reacts to form a carbonate compound. (i) Write the formula for the compound formed between Q and the carbonate ion, CO32− . (ii) Predict whether or not the compound would be soluble in water. Explain your reasoning. STOP END OF EXAM © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 14 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2009 for the course OC 9876 taught by Professor Dq during the Spring '09 term at UC Merced.

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