_ap06_frq_chemistry

303 rt log q q mcdt dh cp dt ln a u velocity n

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Unformatted text preview: ln Q = DG + 2.303 RT log Q q = mcDT DH Cp = DT ln A u = velocity n = principal quantum number m = mass energy frequency wavelength momentum Speed of light, c = 3.0 ¥ 108 m s -1 EQUILIBRIUM [H + ] [A − ] Ka = [HA ] Kb = = = = = 0 Faraday's constant, = - kt = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons Gas constant, R = 8.31 J mol -1 K -1 1 = kt A0 = 0.0821 L atm mol -1 K -1 = 8.31 volt coulomb mol -1 K -1 - Ea 1 ln k = + ln A RT ej GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 4 GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLUTIONS P V T n D m u PA = Ptotal ¥ X A , where X A = moles A total moles Ptotal = PA + PB + PC + ... m n= M K = C + 273 PV1 P2V2 1 = T1 T2 m D= V 3kT 3 RT = urms = M m 1 KE per molecule = mu 2 2 3 KE per mole = RT 2 M2 r1 = M1 r2 molarity, M = moles solute per liter solution molality = moles solute per kilogram solvent DT f = iK f ¥ molality DTb = iK b ¥ molality p = iMRT A = abc pressure volume temperature number of moles density mass velocity = = = = = = = root-mean-square speed kinetic energy rate of effusion molar mass osmotic pressure van't Hoff factor molal freezing-point depression constant Kb A a b c Q I q t Ê n2 a ˆ Á P + 2 ˜ (V - nb ) = nRT Ë V¯ = = = = = = = urms KE r M p i Kf PV = nRT = = = = = = = = = molal boiling-point elevation constant absorbance molar absorptivity path length concentration reaction quotient current (amperes) charge (coulombs) time (seconds) E = standard reduction potential K = equilibrium constant Gas constant, R = 8.31 J mol -1 K -1 OXIDATION-REDUCTION; ELECTROCHEMISTRY = 0.0821 L atm mol -1 K -1 Q= [ C ] c [ D] d [ A ] a [ B] b = 8.31 volt coulomb mol -1 K -1 , where a A + b B Æ c C + d D Boltzmann' s constant, k = 1.38 ¥ 10 -23 J K -1 K f for H 2 O = 1.86 K kg mol -1 q I= t E cell = E cell log K = Kb for H 2 O = 0.512 K kg mol -1 RT 0.0592 ln Q = E cell log Q @ 25 C n n 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr STP = 0.000 C and 1.000 atm nE 0.0592 Faraday' s constant, = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 5 2006 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Section II (Total time—90 minutes) Part A Time— 40 minutes YOU MAY USE YOUR CALCULATOR FOR PART...
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