_ap06_frq_chemistry

87 182 150 136 123 107 092 085 080 079 077 053 052

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Unformatted text preview: 7 1.82 1.50 1.36 1.23 1.07 0.92 0.85 0.80 0.79 0.77 0.53 0.52 0.34 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.00 – 0.13 – 0.14 – 0.25 – 0.28 – 0.40 – 0.41 – 0.44 – 0.74 – 0.76 – 0.83 – 1.18 – 1.66 – 1.70 – 2.37 – 2.71 – 2.87 – 2.89 – 2.90 – 2.92 – 2.92 – 2.92 Li + e - Æ Li(s ) – 3.05 - 3+ Hg 2 Fe + 2e 2+ 3+ - +e - - 2+ Æ C u(s ) - Æ Cu + Sn 4+ + 2 e S(s ) + 2 H + + 2 e 2 H+ + 2 e- Æ Sn 2 + Æ H 2 S(g ) Cu Cu + 2e 2+ 2+ +e Æ H2 (g) + 2e - Æ P b(s ) + 2e - Æ S n(s ) + 2e - Æ N i(s ) + 2e - Æ C o(s ) + 2e - Æ C d(s ) Æ Cr 2+ Fe 2+ + 2 e - Æ F e(s ) - Æ C r(s ) - Æ Æ Z n(s ) H 2 ( g ) + 2 OH - Æ M n(s ) Æ A l(s ) Æ B e(s ) Æ M g(s ) Æ Na(s ) Æ Æ Ca(s ) S r(s ) Æ B a(s ) Æ R b(s ) Pb 2+ Sn 2+ Ni 2+ Co 2+ Cd 2+ Cr Cr 3+ 3+ +e - + 3e Zn + 2 e 2 H 2 O(l ) + 2 e 2+ Mn Al 2+ 3+ Be + 3e 2+ Na + e Ca Sr 2+ Ba 2+ + 2e K +e - Cs + e + - - - + 2e Rb + e - - + 2e + + - + 2e + 2+ - + 2e 2+ Mg + 2e - - GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 3 ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS E v l p ATOMIC STRUCTURE E = hv c = lv h l= p = mu mu -2.178 ¥ 10 -18 En = joule n2 Planck’s constant, h = 6.63 ¥ 10 -34 J s Boltzmann’s constant, k = 1.38 ¥ 10 -23 J K -1 Avogadro’s number = 6.022 ¥ 10 23 mol -1 [OH − ] [ HB + ] [B] Electron charge, e = -1.602 ¥ 10 -19 coulomb K w = [OH − ] [H + ] = 1.0 × 10 −14 @ 25 C = Ka × K b 1 electron volt per atom = 96.5 kJ mol -1 pH = − log [ H + ], pOH = − log [OH − ] 14 = pH + pOH pH = pKa + log Equilibrium Constants [A − ] [ HA ] Ka (weak acid) Kb (weak base) [HB + ] [ B] pKa = − log Ka , pKb = − log Kb K w (water) K p (gas pressure) pOH = pKb + log K p = Kc ( RT ) Dn Kc (molar concentrations) , S = standard entropy where D n = moles product gas − moles reactant gas H = standard enthalpy G = standard free energy THERMOCHEMISTRY/KINETICS DS = DH = DG =  S products -  S reactants  DHf products -  DH f reactants  DGf products -  DGf reactants E T n m q c Cp DG = DH - TD S = - RT ln K = -2.303 RT log K = -n E t 1 A - ln A t = = = = = = = standard reduction potential temperature moles mass heat specific heat capacity molar heat capacity at constant pressure E a = activation energy k = rate constant A = frequency factor DG = DG + RT...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2009 for the course OC 9876 taught by Professor Dq during the Spring '09 term at UC Merced.

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