ap03_sg_chemistry_26428

ap03_sg_chemistry_26428 - AP® Chemistry 2003 Scoring...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Chemistry 2003 Scoring Guidelines The materials included in these files are intended for use by AP teachers for course and exam preparation; permission for any other use must be sought from the Advanced Placement Program®. Teachers may reproduce them, in whole or in part, in limited quantities for noncommercial, face-to-face teaching purposes. This permission does not apply to any third-party copyrights contained herein. This material may not be mass distributed, electronically or otherwise. These materials and any copies made of them may not be resold, and the copyright notices must be retained as they appear here. These materials were produced by Educational Testing Service® (ETS®), which develops and administers the examinations of the Advanced Placement Program for the College Board. The College Board and Educational Testing Service (ETS) are dedicated to the principle of equal opportunity, and their programs, services, and employment policies are guided by that principle. The College Board is a national nonprofit membership association whose mission is to prepare, inspire, and connect students to college and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 4,300 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves over three million students and their parents, 22,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT ®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® ( AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of equity and excellence, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. For further information, visit www.collegeboard.com Copyright © 2003 College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Vertical Teams, APCD, Pacesetter, Pre-AP, SAT, Student Search Service, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board. AP Central is a trademark owned by the College Entrance Examination Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark jointly owned by the College Entrance Examination Board and the National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Educational Testing Service and ETS are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service. Other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. For the College Board’s online home for AP professionals, visit AP Central at apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 → C6H5NH2(aq) + H2O(l) ← C6H5NH3+(aq) + OH−(aq) 1. Aniline, a weak base, reacts with water according to the reaction represented above. (a) Write the equilibrium expression, Kb , for the reaction represented above. [C6H5NH3+][OH–] Kb = [C6H5NH2] 1 point for correct expression (b) A sample of aniline is dissolved in water to produce 25.0 mL of a 0.10 M solution. The pH of the solution is 8.82. Calculate the equilibrium constant, Kb , for this reaction. pH = 8.82 pOH = 14 − 8.82 = 5.18 [OH− ] = 10−5.18 = 6.61 × 10− 6 M 1 point for calculation of [OH− ] [C6H5NH3+] = [OH− ] = 6.6 × 10− 6 M 1 point for [C6H5NH3+ ] = [OH− ] [C6H5NH3+][OH– ] (6.6 × 10− 6)2 Kb = = 0.10 [C6H5NH2 ] 1 point for calculation of Kb Kb = 4.4 × 10−10 Note: Following this point, any value of Kb obtained must be carried through. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 2 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (cont’d.) (c) The solution prepared in part (b) is titrated with 0.10 M HCl. Calculate the pH of the solution when 5.0 mL of the acid has been added. 0.10 mol = 0.025 L æ ç 1 L ö = 0.0025 mol C6H5NH2 ÷ è ø 0.10 molö nHCl = 0.0050 L æ ç 1 L ÷ = 0.00050 mol HCl (or H+) è ø + → C6H5NH2(aq) + H (aq) ← C6H5NH3+(aq) nC 6H5NH2 I C E 0.0025 mol 0.00050 mol −0.00050 −0.00050 0.0020 0 0 mol +0.00050 0.00050 → C6H5NH2(aq) + H2O(l) ← C6H5NH3+(aq) + OH−(aq) 0.0020 mol = 0.0667 M 0.030 L I C E 0.0667 −x 0.0667 – x 1 point for initial number of moles or molarities of C6H5NH2 and HCl/H+ 0.00050 mol = 0.0167 M 0.030 L 0.0167 +x 0.0167 + x 1 point for final number of moles or molarities of C6H5NH2 and C6H5NH3+ after mixing ~0 +x x [C6H5NH3+][OH–] = 4.37 × 10−10 Kb = [C6H5NH2] 4.37 × 10−10 = (0.0167 + x)(x) (0.0667 − x) assume that x << 0.0667 M : 4.37 × 10−10 = (0.0167)(x) 0.0667 x = [OH− ] = 1.75 × 10− 9 M pOH = −log (1.75 × 10− 9) = 8.76 pH = 14 −8.76 = 5.24 OR 1 point for pH [C6H5NH3+] pOH = pKb + log [C6H5NH2] pOH = −log (4.37 × 10−10 ) + log 0.0167 0.0667 pOH = 9.36 + log 0.25 pOH = 9.36 + (−0.60) = 8.76 pH = 14 − 8.76 = 5.24 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 3 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (cont’d.) (d) Calculate the pH at the equivalence point of the titration in part (c). At the equivalence point, moles of C6H5NH2 = moles of H+ → C6H5NH2(aq) + H+(aq) ← C6H5NH3+(aq) I 0.0025 mol 0.0025 mol 0 mol C −0.0025 −0.0025 +0.0025 E0 0 0.0025 Need 25 mL of 0.1 M HCl to reach the equivalence point of this titration. The total volume of the solution is 50.0 mL 0.0025 mol = 0.050 M [C6H5NH3+] = 0.050 L I C E 1 point for number of moles or molarity of C6H5NH3+ → C6H5NH3+(aq) ← C6H5NH2(aq) + H+(aq) 0.050 M 0 0 –x +x +x 0.050 – x x x Kw 1.0 × 10–14 Ka = = = 2.3 × 10−5 Kb 4.4 × 10–10 [C6H5NH2][H+] (x)(x) = 2.3 × 10−5 = (0.050 − x) [C6H5NH3+] assume that x << 0.050 M : 2.3 × 10−5 = (x)(x) 0.050 x = [H+] = 1.1 × 10− 3 M pH = 2.96 1 point for pH (e) The pKa values for several indicators are given below. Which of the indicators listed is most suitable for this titration? Justify your answer. Indicator Erythrosine Litmus Thymolphthalein pKa 3 7 10 The pH at the equivalence point is acidic. The best indicator is erythrosine, for which the value of pKa is closest to the pH at the equivalence point. 1 point for correct indicator and justification Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 4 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 2. A rigid 5.00 L cylinder contains 24.5 g of N2(g) and 28.0 g of O2(g). (a) Calculate the total pressure, in atm, of the gas mixture in the cylinder at 298 K. æ 1 mol N2 ö ÷ = 0.875 mol N2 è28.0 g N2 ø æ 1 mol O2 ö 28.0 g O2 ç ÷ = 0.875 mol O2 è32.0 g O2 ø 1 point for moles of N2(g) and O2(g) (Must show ratio of mass/molar mass for both elements in calculations) 24.5 g N2 ç (nN2 + nO2)RT nRT = V V L·atm × 298 K (0.875 + 0.875) mol × 0.0821 mol·K = 8.56 atm P= 5.00 L PV = nRT : P= 1 point for correct pressure setup and value Note: • Only 1 point earned if calculation of moles is incorrect, but then wrong values used correctly in P = nRT/V • Only 1 point earned if no calculations shown for moles, but work and correct answer from P = nRT/V are shown • Only 1 point earned if wrong R value used and/or wrong unit of P is shown – no deduction for same mistake in subsequent parts (b) The temperature of the gas mixture in the cylinder is decreased to 280 K. Calculate each of the following. (i) The mole fraction of N2(g) in the cylinder 0.875 mol N2 æ ö = 0.500 XN2 = ç 0.875 mol N2 + 0.875 mol O2 ÷ è ø 1 point for mol fraction of N2(g) Note: • Ratio must be consistent with part (a) PN 2 • 1 point earned for PTotal Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 5 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 (cont’d.) (ii) The partial pressure, in atm, of N2(g) in the cylinder L·atm × 280 K (0.875 + 0.875) mol × 0.0821 nTRT mol·K PT = = 5.00 L V = 8.0 atm PN2 = XN2 × PT = 0.500 × 8.0 atm = 4.0 atm OR PN2 L·atm × 280 K (0.875) mol × 0.0821 nN2RT mol·K = = = 4.0 5.00 L V 1 point for partial pressure of N2(g) atm OR P1 P2 = T1 T2 8.56 atm P = 298 K 280 K PT = 8.0 atm PN2 = XN2 × PT = 0.500 × 8.0 atm = 4.0 atm Note: No point earned if 298 K is used instead of 280 K (c) If the cylinder develops a pinhole-sized leak and some of the gaseous mixture escapes, would the ratio moles of N2(g) in the cylinder increase, decrease, or remain the same? Justify your answer. moles of O2(g) The ratio moles of N2(g) will decrease. moles of O2(g) N2(g) will effuse faster than O2(g) because N2(g) has a lower molar mass. Thus, in the cylinder, the moles of N2(g) will decrease faster than the moles of O2(g). 1 point for both correct direction and explanation. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 6 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 (cont’d.) A different rigid 5.00 L cylinder contains 0.176 mol of NO(g) at 298 K. A 0.176 mol sample of O2(g) is added to the cylinder, where a reaction occurs to produce NO2(g). (d) Write the balanced equation for the reaction. 2 NO(g) + O2(g) → 2 NO2(g) 1 point for correct balanced equation (e) Calculate the total pressure, in atm, in the cylinder at 298 K after the reaction is complete. 2 NO(g) + O2(g) → 2 NO2(g) initial 0.176 change −0.176 final 0 0.176 − 0.088 0.088 0 0.176 0.176 æ 1 mol O2 ö ÷ = 0.088 mol O2 reacted 0.176 mol NO × ç è2 mol NO ø æ2 mol NO2ö ÷ = 0.176 mol NO2 formed 0.176 mol NO × ç è 2 mol NO ø P= (nO2 + nNO2 )RT nRT = V V L·atm × 298 K (0.088 + 0.176) mol × 0.0821 mol·K = 1.29 atm P= 5.00 L 1 point for both moles of O2 and NO2 after reaction is complete 1 point for total pressure in the cylinder Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 7 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 5 Br−(aq) + BrO3−(aq) + 6 H+(aq) → 3 Br2(l) + 3 H2O(l) 3. In a study of the kinetics of the reaction represented above, the following data were obtained at 298 K. Initial [BrO3−] (mol L−1) Initial [H+] (mol L−1) 0.00100 0.00200 0.00100 0.00100 Experiment Initial [Br−] (mol L−1) 0.00500 0.00500 0.00750 0.01500 0.100 0.100 0.100 0.200 1 2 3 4 Rate of Disappearance of BrO3− (mol L−1 s−1) 2.50 × 10−4 5.00 × 10−4 3.75 × 10−4 3.00 × 10−3 (a) From the data given above, determine the order of the reaction for each reactant listed below. Show your reasoning. (i) Br− Experiments 1 and 2: rate2 k2[Br−]2x[BrO3−]2y[H+]2z = rate1 k1[Br−]1x[BrO3−]1y[H+]1z 1 point for correct order of the reaction with respect to Br− k2(0.00200)x(0.00500)y(0.100)z 5.00 × 10−4 = k1(0.00100)x(0.00500)y(0.100)z 2.50 × 10−4 (0.00200)x = 2x (0.00100)x x = 1 Þ first order 2= (ii) BrO3− Experiments 1 and 3: rate3 k3[Br−]31[BrO3−]3y[H+]3z = rate1 k1[Br−]11[BrO3−]1y[H+]1z 1 point for correct order of the reaction with respect to BrO3− k3(0.00100)1(0.00750)y(0.100)z 3.75 × 10−4 = k1(0.00100)1(0.00500)y(0.100)z 2.50 × 10−4 (0.00750)y = 1.5 (0.00500)y y = 1 Þ first order 1.5 = y Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 8 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 (cont’d.) (iii) H+ Experiments 3 and 4: rate4 k4[Br−]41[BrO3−]41[H+]4z = rate3 k3[Br−]31[BrO3−]31[H+]3z k4(0.00100)1(0.01500)1(0.200)z 3.00 × 10−3 = k3(0.00100)1(0.00750)1(0.100)z 3.75 × 10−4 1 point for correct order of the reaction with respect to H+ (0.01500)1(0.200)z (0.00750)1(0.100)z (0.200)z 8=2 (0.100)z (0.200)z = 2z 4= (0.100)z z = 2 Þ second order 8= Note: Word explanations can also be used for part (a). The rate order can also be calculated from Experiment 4 and Experiment 1 or 2 or 3 after the orders of [Br−] and [BrO3−] are determined. (b) Write the rate law for the overall reaction. 1 point for correct rate law based on exponents determined in part (a) rate = k[Br−]1 [BrO3−]1 [H+]2 (c) Determine the value of the specific rate constant for the reaction at 298 K. Include the correct units. rate = k[Br−]1 [BrO3−]1 [H+]2 k= rate [Br ] [BrO3−]1[H+]2 1 point for value of rate constant −1 Use data from any Experiment – using Experiment #1: k= 2.50 × 10−4 mol L−1 s−1 (0.00100 mol L−1)1(0.00500 mol L−1)1(0.100 mol L−1)2 k = 5.00 × 103 L3 mol−3 s−1 (units M −3 s−1 also acceptable) 1 point for correct units Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 9 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 (cont’d.) (d) Calculate the value of the standard cell potential, E°, for the reaction using the information in the table below. E° (V) Half-reaction Br2(l) + 2 e− → 2 Br−(aq) +1.065 BrO3−(aq) + 6 H+(aq) → Br2(l) + 3 H2O(l) +1.52 E° = +1.52 V − 1.065 V = +0.46 V 1 point for correct standard cell potential (e) Determine the total number of electrons transferred in the overall reaction. 5 × (2 Br−(aq) → Br2(l) + 2 e− ) 2 × (BrO3−(aq) + 6 H+(aq) + 5 e− → 1 Br (l) + 3 H2O(l)) 22 10 Br−(aq) + 2 BrO3−(aq) + 12 H+(aq) + 10 e− → 6 Br2(l) + 6 H2O(l) + 10 e− Divide by 2 to get the equation at the beginning of the problem: 5 Br−(aq) + BrO3−(aq) + 6 H+(aq) → 3 Br2(l) + 3 H2O(l) Total number of electrons transferred is 5 e− Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 10 1 point for correct number of electrons transferred AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 4. Write the formulas to show the reactants and the products for any FIVE of the laboratory situations described below. Answers to more than five choices will not be graded. In all cases, a reaction occurs. Assume that solutions are aqueous unless otherwise indicated. Represent substances in solution as ions if the substances are extensively ionized. Omit formulas for any ions or molecules that are unchanged by the reaction. You need not balance the equations. General Scoring: 3 points each: 1 point for correct reactant(s) and 2 points for correct product(s) (a) A solution of potassium phosphate is mixed with a solution of calcium acetate. PO43− + Ca2+ → Ca3(PO4)2 (b) Solid zinc carbonate is added to 1.0 M sulfuric acid. ZnCO3 + H+ + HSO4− → Zn2+ + CO2 + H2O + SO42− OR, ZnCO3 + H+ → Zn2+ + CO2 + H2O Note: 1 product point earned for any 2 of 4 (or 2 of 3) products (c) A solution of hydrogen peroxide is exposed to strong sunlight. H2O2 → O2 + H2O (d) A 0.02 M hydrochloric acid solution is mixed with an equal volume of 0.01 M calcium hydroxide solution. OH− + H+ → H2O Note: No reactant point earned for undissociated Ca(OH)2 (e) Excess concentrated aqueous ammonia is added to solid silver chloride. AgCl + NH3 → Ag(NH3)2+ + Cl− Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 11 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 (cont’d.) (f) Magnesium ribbon is burned in oxygen. Mg + O2 → MgO (g) A bar of strontium metal is immersed in a 1.0 M copper(II) nitrate solution. Sr + Cu2+ → Sr2+ + Cu (h) Solid dinitrogen pentoxide is added to water. N2O5 + H2O → H+ + NO3− Note: Undissociated HNO3 as product earns only 1 point Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 12 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 5. A student is instructed to determine the concentration of a solution of CoCl2 based on absorption of light (spectrometric/colorimetric method). The student is provided with a 0.10 M solution of CoCl2 with which to prepare standard solutions with concentrations of 0.020 M, 0.040 M, 0.060 M and 0.080 M. (a) Describe the procedure for diluting the 0.10 M solution to a concentration of 0.020 M using distilled water, a 100 mL volumetric flask, and a pipet or buret. Include specific amounts where appropriate. M1V1 = M2V2 : V1 = V1 = M2V2 M1 (0.020 M) (100 mL) = 20. mL 0.10 M 1 point for 20 mL of 0.10 M CoCl2 (unit required) Pipet 20 mL of 0.10 M CoCl2 into the 100 mL volumetric flask, then add enough water to reach the 100 mL mark on the neck of the volumetric flask. Stopper the flask and mix. 1 point for adding enough water to reach final volume of 100 mL The student takes the 0.10 M solution and determines the percent transmittance and the absorbance at various wavelengths. The two graphs below represent the data. (b) Identify the optimum wavelength for the analysis. 1 point for wavelength ~510 nm (unit not required) 510 nm (acceptable range 490-520 nm) The student measures the absorbance of the 0.020 M, 0.040 M, 0.060 M, 0.080 M, and 0.10 M solutions. The data are plotted below. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 13 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 (cont’d.) (c) The absorbance of the unknown solution is 0.275. What is the concentration of the solution? 0.050 M (acceptable range 0.045 to 0.055 M) 1 point for concentration ~ 0.050 M (unit not required) (d) Beer’s Law is an expression that includes three factors that determine the amount of light that passes through a solution. Identify two of these factors. A a b c = = = = ab c molar absorptivity (not absorbance) path length of cuvette/test tube concentration 1 point for each factor Note: Symbols alone not sufficient; for a , accept molar absorbance, absorptivity, & absorbance coefficient Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 14 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 (cont’d.) (e) The student handles the sample container (e.g., test tube or cuvette) that holds the unknown solution and leaves fingerprints in the path of the light beam. How will this affect the calculated concentration of the unknown? Explain your answer. The presence of the fingerprints will scatter or absorb light. Since less light reaches the detector, the solution will have a higher apparent absorbance, and therefore a higher reported concentration. 1 point for increase in reported concentration of CoCl2 1 point for “apparent” increase in absorbance or decrease in light (f) Why is this method of determining the concentration of CoCl2 solution appropriate, whereas using the same method for measuring the concentration of NaCl solution would not be appropriate? A CoCl2 solution absorbs visible light. A NaCl solution is colorless (or does not absorb visible light). OR CoCl2 solution has an appreciable molar absorptivity in the visible region and NaCl does not. 1 point for indicating that NaCl does not absorb visible light or is colorless Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 15 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 6 6. For each of the following, use appropriate chemical principles to explain the observation. Include chemical equations as appropriate. (a) In areas affected by acid rain, statues and structures made of limestone (calcium carbonate) often show signs of considerable deterioration. Acid rain has a low pH, which means [H+] is relatively large. The 1 point for indicating acid rain has a acid reacts with the calcium carbonate solid in the statue high [H+] according to the following: H+(aq) + CaCO3(s) → Ca2+(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) The result is the erosion of the statue as the solid calcium carbonate reacts, forming a salt (partially soluble), a liquid, and a gas. 1 point for indicating calcium carbonate solid forms gaseous carbon dioxide (b) When table salt (NaCl) and sugar (C12H22O11) are dissolved in water, it is observed that (i) both solutions have higher boiling points than pure water, and The higher boiling point is due to the change in vapor pressure above the solution compared to the vapor pressure above pure water. The presence of a nonvolatile solute lowers the vapor pressure above the solution and results in a higher boiling point. 1 point for indicating the lower vapor pressure above the solution (ii) the boiling point of 0.10 M NaCl(aq) is higher than that of 0.10 M C12H22O11(aq). NaCl has a higher boiling point because the change in boiling point, ∆Tbp , is directly dependent on the number of solute particles in solution. NaCl is an ionic compound which dissociates into two particles, whereas C12H22O11 is a covalent compound and does not dissociate. 1 point for indicating NaCl forms two moles of particles and C12H22O11 forms one mole of particles. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 16 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 6 (cont’d.) (c) Methane gas does not behave as an ideal gas at low temperature and high pressures. Two factors contribute to nonideal gas behavior: attractive forces and excluded volume. At low temperature, the molecules are moving slower and are closer together. The attractive forces between the molecules are more important relative to their kinetic energy. At high pressure, the molecules of methane are closer together and the volume occupied by the molecules is a greater percentage of the volume of the container. Since the molecules take up some volume, there is less volume available to the methane molecules. 1 point for identifying and discussing attractive forces 1 point for identifying and discussing excluded volume (d) Water droplets form on the outside of a beaker containing an ice bath. 1 point for indicating that the water droplets on the glass surface comes from water in the vapor phase (in the room) Water vapor in the air in contact with the lower temperature on the surface of the glass condenses because the equilibrium vapor pressure for water at the lower temperature is lower than the pressure exerted by the water in the vapor phase in the room. 1 point for indicating that condensation occurs because the equilibrium vapor pressure at the temperature on the glass surface is lower than the pressure due to water vapor in the air in the room OR 1 point for clearly indicating that moisture is forming from the air and that there is sufficient energy transfer (loss) to cause a change of state (condensation) Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 17 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 7 7. Answer the following questions that relate to the chemistry of nitrogen. (a) Two nitrogen atoms combine to form a nitrogen molecule, as represented by the following equation. 2 N(g) → N2(g) Using the table of average bond energies below, determine the enthalpy change, ∆H, for the reaction. Bond Average Bond Energy (kJ mol–1) N −− N N == N N ≡≡ N 160 420 950 ∆H = −950 kJ The reaction is exothermic because the chemical equation shows the formation of the N ≡ N bond. 1 point for correct sign 1 point for magnitude (b) The reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen to form ammonia is represented below. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) → 2 NH3(g) ∆H° = −92.2 kJ Predict the sign of the standard entropy change, ∆S°, for the reaction. Justify your answer. 1 point for correct sign ∆S° is negative. There are fewer moles of product gas (2 mol) 1 point for indicating fewer moles of compared to reactant gases (4 mol), so the reaction is products compared to reactants (in the becoming more ordered. gas phase) (c) The value of ∆G° for the reaction represented in part (b) is negative at low temperatures but positive at high temperatures. Explain. ∆G° = ∆ H° − T∆S° ∆H° and ∆S° are negative. At low temperatures, the T∆S° term is smaller than ∆H°, and ∆G° is negative. At high temperatures, the T∆S° term is higher than ∆H°, and ∆G° is positive. 1 point each for using ∆G° = ∆H° − T∆S° to explain the sign of ∆G° at high and low temperatures. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 18 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 7 (cont’d.) (d) When N2(g) and H2(g) are placed in a sealed container at a low temperature, no measurable amount of NH3 is produced. Explain. Even though the reaction is spontaneous at low temperature, the reaction is very slow. The speed of a reaction depends on the fraction of colliding molecules with energy that exceeds the activation energy for the reaction. At low temperature, few reactant particles collide with an energy greater than the activation energy. 1 point for indicating that the frequency of collision (or kinetic energy) of molecules is low at low temperature (thus the rate is slow) 1 point for indicating that at low temperature the kinetic energy will likely be too small to exceed the activation energy Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 19 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 8 ο ∆ H vap Compound Name Compound Formula (kJ mol–1) Propane CH3CH2CH3 19.0 Propanone CH3COCH3 32.0 1-propanol CH3CH2CH2OH 47.3 8. Using the information in the table above, answer the following questions about organic compounds. (a) For propanone, (i) draw the complete structural formula (showing all atoms and bonds); 1 point for complete and correct structural formula (ii) predict the approximate carbon-to-carbon-to-carbon bond angle. The C – C – C bond angle is 120° 1 point for bond angle (b) For each pair of compounds below, explain why they do not have the same value for their standard heat of vaporization, ∆H°vap . (You must include specific information about both compounds in each pair.) (i) Propane and propanone The intermolecular attractive forces in propane are dispersion forces only. The IMFs in propanone are dispersion and dipole-dipole. Since the intermolecular attractive forces differ in the two substances, the enthalpy of vaporization will differ. 1 point for correctly identifying the IMFs for each substance Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 20 AP® CHEMISTRY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 8 (cont'd.) (ii) Propanone and 1-propanol The intermolecular attractive forces in 1-propanol are dispersion forces and hydrogen-bonding. The IMFs in propanone are dispersion and dipole-dipole. Since the intermolecular attractive forces differ in the two substances, the enthalpy of vaporization will differ. 1 point for correctly identifying the IMFs for each substance (c) Draw the complete structural formula for an isomer of the molecule you drew in part (a) (i). 1 point for correct, complete structural formula (d) Given the structural formula for propyne below, (i) indicate the hybridization of the carbon atom indicated by the arrow in the structure above; sp hybridization 1 point for correct hybridization (ii) indicate the total number of sigma (σ) bonds and the total number of pi (π) bonds in the molecule. 6 sigma bonds 1 point for correct number of sigma bonds 2 pi bonds 1 point for correct number of pi bonds Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 21 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2009 for the course OC 9876 taught by Professor Dq during the Spring '09 term at UC Merced.

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