ap04_frq_chemistry

ap04_frq_chemistry - AP® Chemistry 2004 Free-Response...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Chemistry 2004 Free-Response Questions The materials included in these files are intended for noncommercial use by AP teachers for course and exam preparation; permission for any other use ® must be sought from the Advanced Placement Program . Teachers may reproduce them, in whole or in part, in limited quantities, for face-to-face teaching purposes but may not mass distribute the materials, electronically or otherwise. This permission does not apply to any third-party copyrights contained herein. These materials and any copies made of them may not be resold, and the copyright notices must be retained as they appear here. The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 4,500 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves over three million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. For further information, visit www.collegeboard.com Copyright © 2004 College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, AP Vertical Teams, APCD, Pacesetter, Pre-AP, SAT, Student Search Service, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark jointly owned by the College Entrance Examination Board and the National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Educational Testing Service and ETS are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service. Other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. For the College Board’s online home for AP professionals, visit AP Central at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 22 8 9 2 Ba Cs *La 57 Zr Hf 72 91.22 V Ta 73 92.91 Nb 41 50.94 Cr W 74 95.94 Mo 42 52.00 Mn Re 75 (98) Tc 43 54.938 †Actinide Series *Lanthanide Series Db (262) Rf †Ac 105 Pr 58 Ce Nd 60 (263) Sg 106 Pa Th U 92 Np 93 (145) Pm 61 (262) Bh 107 232.04 231.04 238.03 237.05 91 90 140.12 140.91 144.24 59 (261) 104 89 226.02 227.03 Ra Fr (223) 88 87 132.91 137.33 138.91 178.49 180.95 183.85 186.21 56 55 88.91 Y Sr 87.62 Rb 85.47 40 39 38 37 47.90 Ti (244) Pu 94 150.4 Sm 62 (265) Hs 108 190.2 Os 76 101.1 Ru 44 55.85 Fe Ni Pd 46 58.69 Cu Ag 47 63.55 Zn Cd 48 65.39 Ar 18 Kr Te Xe I Sb Sn In 54 51 50 49 53 79.90 78.96 74.92 72.59 69.72 52 83.80 Br 36 Se 35 35.453 39.948 Cl 17 34 16 As 15 Ge 14 Ga 13 19.00 16.00 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Gd 64 (269) § 110 Tb 65 (272) § 111 Dy 66 (277) § 112 207.2 Pb 82 208.98 Bi 83 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 §Not yet named 195.08 196.97 200.59 204.38 Pt 78 Yb 70 (209) Po 84 Lu 71 (210) At 85 (243) Am 95 (247) Cm 96 (247) Bk 97 (251) Cf 98 (252) Es 99 (257) Fm 100 (258) Md 101 (259) No 102 (260) Lr 103 151.97 157.25 158.93 162.50 164.93 167.26 168.93 173.04 174.97 Eu 63 (266) Mt 109 192.2 Ir 77 (222) Rn 86 102.91 106.42 107.87 112.41 114.82 118.71 121.75 127.60 126.91 131.29 Rh 45 58.93 Co Sc 44.96 Ca 40.08 K 33 39.10 32.06 30.974 30 32 29 28.09 28 31 27 26.98 26 20 19 25 24.30 22.99 24 Mg Na 23 S P Si Al 12 Ne 20.179 F 11 10.811 12.011 14.007 O 9.012 6.941 N Be Li C 10 B 4.0026 6 3 5 1.0079 He 21 7 2 4 PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS H 1 DO NOT DETACH FROM BOOK. INFORMATION IN THE TABLE BELOW AND IN THE TABLES ON PAGES 3-5 MAY BE USEFUL IN ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION OF THE EXAMINATION. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AT 25°C E °( V ) Half-reaction F2 ( g) + 2 e − → 3+ Co + e− → Co 3+ + 3 e− → Au( s) → 2 Cl − → 2 H 2 O(l ) Au Cl 2 ( g) + 2 e − O 2 ( g) + 4 H 2 Hg Hg 2 3+ Hg 2 2 + 0.92 e− → Hg(l ) 0.85 → Ag( s) 0.80 → 2 Hg(l ) 0.79 → 2+ e− e− Cu Cu + 4+ Sn 0.15 0.00 + 2 e− → Pb( s) −0.13 2+ + 2 e− → Sn( s) −0.14 2+ + 2 e− → Ni( s) −0.25 2+ e− → Co( s) −0.28 → Tl( s) −0.34 → Cd( s) −0.40 + + +2 +2 + 2+ e− e− +2 3+ + 2+ +2 Sn 0.15 H 2 ( g) e− → Cr 2+ −0.41 +2 e− → Fe( s) −0.44 3+ +3 e− → Cr( s) −0.74 2+ + 2 e− → Zn( s) −0.76 + 2 e− → Mn( s) −118 . Zn 2+ Mn 3+ + 3 e− → Al( s) −1.66 2+ +2 e− → Be( s) −1.70 +2 e− → Mg( s) −2.37 Be Mg Ca 2+ + Na + e− → Na( s) −2.71 +2 2+ 2+ Ba e− → Ca( s) −2.87 → Sr( s) −2.89 → Ba( s) −2.90 → Rb( s) −2.92 +2 e− 2+ +2 e− + + e− Rb + + e− → K( s ) −2.92 + + e− → Cs( s) −2.92 + e− → Li( s) −3.05 Cs Li → e− 2+ → Cd K + Cu 0.14 Co Sr 0.34 + 2+ Ni Al Cu( s) H 2 S ( g) Sn Cr 0.52 → Pb Fe Cu( s) 0.53 e− 2H Cr 2I → e− S( s) + 2 H Tl 0.77 → e− +2 − → e− +2 2+ Fe → + e− 2+ 1.23 → I 2 (s) + 2 e − Cu 1.36 1.07 +2 + + 1.50 2 e− + 1.82 → +2 2+ 2.87 + 2 e− 2+ + Ag +4 e− 2+ Br − 2+ Hg + e− Br 2 (l ) + 2 Fe 2 F− + GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 3 ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS Gas constant, R kt 8.31 J mol = ln A 1 K 1 0.0821 L atm mol 1 K 8.31 volt coulomb mol 1 1 - kt 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons K 1 - Faraday's constant, = = + j e = D= D - - Ea 1 RT 2.303 RT log Q - 1 A0 Ea activation energy k = rate constant A = frequency factor - 0 -= D D= D - t + ln A G standard reduction potential temperature moles mass heat specific heat capacity molar heat capacity at constant pressure = G RT ln Q mc T H T standard free energy - -= 1 A E D= D -= t 2.303 RT log K -= D ln A Gf reactants standard enthalpy - D Cp H f reactants + D D= n E T n m q c Cp standard entropy = D- RT ln K D ÂÂ- TS S reactants D DÂ = DÂ = Â= H G q = ln k Â- G G = = = = = = = = D H = S = D Gf products 1 (weak acid) (weak base) (water) (gas pressure) = G = Hf products coulomb - H -= , THERMOCHEMISTRY/KINETICS S products 96.5 kJ mol 19 1 Kc (molar concentrations) where n = moles product gas − moles reactant gas S ¥ = [HB + ] [ B] pKa = − log Ka , pKb = − log Kb n 10 - Ka Kb Kw Kp pOH = pKb + log K p = Kc ( RT ) 1 Equilibrium Constants [A − ] [ HA ] pH = pKa + log = - pH = − log [ H + ], pOH = − log [OH − ] 14 = pH + pOH JK 10 23 mol ¥ 1 electron volt per atom 1.602 Js - ¥ l = Ka × K b = Electron charge, e K w = [OH − ] [ H + ] = 1.0 × 10 −14 @ 25 C 6.022 10 34 23 ¥ Avogadro’s number 1.38 10 - u [OH − ] [ HB + ] [ B] Kb = 6.63 1 - - Boltzmann’s constant, k = = Planck’s constant, h 108 m s ¥ = EQUILIBRIUM [H + ] [A − ] Ka = [ HA ] 3.0 - u Speed of light, c = l= p n m ¥ hv c v h pm = m 2.178 10 18 joule En n2 velocity principal quantum number mass - = =l = = E energy frequency wavelength momentum = = =u E v ATOMIC STRUCTURE GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 4 GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLUTIONS E K 23 JK 1 K 1 1 1.86 K kg mol 0.512 K kg mol = = STP Faraday' s constant, 10 = = = + = = - = - nE 0.0592 1 atm 1.38 = Æ 0.0592 log Q @ 25 C n 8.31 volt coulomb mol 1 1 - + K b for H 2 O E cell K - Boltzmann' s constant, k K f for H 2 O RT ln Q n 1 = dD q t E cell 0.0821 L atm mol ¥ cC 1 K - = = log K bB 1 - Ecell , where a A 8.31 J mol = I [ A ] a [ B] b = Q Gas constant, R - = =p =D =D = = OXIDATION-REDUCTION; ELECTROCHEMISTRY [ C ] c [ D] d standard reduction potential equilibrium constant 760 mm Hg 760 torr 0.000 C and 1.000 atm 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 5 1 - iKb molality MRT abc - moles solute per liter solution moles solute per kilogram solvent iK f molality - = A molal boiling-point elevation constant absorbance molar absorptivity path length concentration reaction quotient current (amperes) charge (coulombs) time (seconds) = = Tb Kb A a b c Q I q t - = molarity, M molality Tf Kf - = r1 r2 pressure volume temperature number of moles density mass velocity root-mean-square speed kinetic energy rate of effusion molar mass osmotic pressure van't Hoff factor molal freezing-point depression constant i ¥ ¥ = KE per mole urms KE r M u = KE per molecule C 273 P2V2 T2 m V 3kT 3 RT M m 1 2 m 2 3 RT 2 M2 M1 = = urms ... + = D PC = = = = = = = = = = = =p = = = = H G F K PV1 1 T1 + + n PB moles A total moles P V T n D m = = = PA m M Ptotal X A , where X A + Ptotal + = K J I PA nRT ¥ nb) = (V - V2 = n2 a = P nRT =u = = = = = = PV 2004 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Section II (Total time—90 minutes) Part A Time—40 minutes YOU MAY USE YOUR CALCULATOR FOR PART A. CLEARLY SHOW THE METHOD USED AND THE STEPS INVOLVED IN ARRIVING AT YOUR ANSWERS. It is to your advantage to do this, since you may obtain partial credit if you do and you will receive little or no credit if you do not. Attention should be paid to significant figures. Be sure to write all your answers to the questions on the lined pages following each question in the booklet with the pink cover. Do NOT write your answers on the green insert. Answer Question 1 below. The Section II score weighting for this question is 20 percent. 1. Answer the following questions relating to the solubilities of two silver compounds, Ag2CrO4 and Ag3PO4 . Silver chromate dissociates in water according to the equation shown below. → Ag2CrO4(s) ← 2 Ag+(aq) + CrO42–(aq) Ksp = 2.6 × 10–12 at 25°C (a) Write the equilibrium-constant expression for the dissolving of Ag2CrO4(s). (b) Calculate the concentration, in mol L−1, of Ag+(aq) in a saturated solution of Ag2CrO4 at 25°C. (c) Calculate the maximum mass, in grams, of Ag2CrO4 that can dissolve in 100. mL of water at 25°C. (d) A 0.100 mol sample of solid AgNO3 is added to a 1.00 L saturated solution of Ag2CrO4 . Assuming no volume change, does [CrO42–] increase, decrease, or remain the same? Justify your answer. In a saturated solution of Ag3PO4 at 25°C, the concentration of Ag+(aq) is 5.3 × 10– 5 M. The equilibriumconstant expression for the dissolving of Ag3PO4(s) in water is shown below. Ksp = [Ag+] 3 [PO43−] (e) Write the balanced equation for the dissolving of Ag3PO4 in water. (f) Calculate the value of Ksp for Ag3PO4 at 25°C. (g) A 1.00 L sample of saturated Ag3PO4 solution is allowed to evaporate at 25°C to a final volume of 500. mL. What is [Ag+] in the solution? Justify your answer. Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 6 2004 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Answer EITHER Question 2 below OR Question 3 printed on page 8. Only one of these two questions will be graded. If you start both questions, be sure to cross out the question you do not want graded. The Section II score weighting for the question you choose is 20 percent. 3 O (g) → Fe2O3(s) 22 Hf D 2 Fe(s) + = − 824 kJ mol–1 2. Iron reacts with oxygen to produce iron(III) oxide, as represented by the equation above. A 75.0 g sample of Fe(s) is mixed with 11.5 L of O2(g) at 2.66 atm and 298 K. (a) Calculate the number of moles of each of the following before the reaction begins. (i) Fe(s) (ii) O2(g) (b) Identify the limiting reactant when the mixture is heated to produce Fe2O3(s). Support your answer with calculations. (c) Calculate the number of moles of Fe2O3(s) produced when the reaction proceeds to completion. Gf , of Fe2O3(s) is −740. kJ mol–1 at 298 K. D (i) Calculate the standard entropy of formation, answer. S f , of Fe2O3(s) at 298 K. Include units with your D (d) The standard free energy of formation, (ii) Which is more responsible for the spontaneity of the formation reaction at 298 K, the standard enthalpy of formation, H f , or the standard entropy of formation, S f ? Justify your answer. D mole of Fe2O3(s) formed. (e) Calculate the standard enthalpy of formation, for the reaction is − 280. kJ per 1 O (g) → Fe2O3(s) 22 H f , of FeO(s). D 2 FeO(s) + H D D The reaction represented below also produces iron(III) oxide. The value of Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 7 2004 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 3. The first-order decomposition of a colored chemical species, X, into colorless products is monitored with a spectrophotometer by measuring changes in absorbance over time. Species X has a molar absorptivity constant of 5.00 × 103 cm–1 M –1 and the path length of the cuvette containing the reaction mixture is 1.00 cm. The data from the experiment are given in the table below. [X] (M) ? 4.00 × 10 – 5 3.00 × 10 – 5 1.50 × 10 – 5 Absorbance 0.600 0.200 0.150 0.075 Time (min) 0.0 35.0 44.2 ? (a) Calculate the initial concentration of the colored species. (b) Calculate the rate constant for the first-order reaction using the values given for concentration and time. Include units with your answer. (c) Calculate the number of minutes it takes for the absorbance to drop from 0.600 to 0.075. (d) Calculate the half-life of the reaction. Include units with your answer. (e) Experiments were performed to determine the value of the rate constant for this reaction at various temperatures. Data from these experiments were used to produce the graph below, where T is temperature. This graph can be used to determine the activation energy, Ea , of the reaction. (i) Label the vertical axis of the graph. (ii) Explain how to calculate the activation energy from this graph. STOP If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this part only. Do not turn to the other part of the test until you are told to do so. Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 8 2004 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Part B Time—50 minutes NO CALCULATORS MAY BE USED FOR PART B. Answer Question 4 below. The Section II score weighting for this question is 15 percent. 4. Write the formulas to show the reactants and the products for any FIVE of the laboratory situations described below. Answers to more than five choices will not be graded. In all cases, a reaction occurs. Assume that solutions are aqueous unless otherwise indicated. Represent substances in solution as ions if the substances are extensively ionized. Omit formulas for any ions or molecules that are unchanged by the reaction. You need not balance the equations. Example: A strip of magnesium is added to a solution of silver nitrate. (a) A solution of copper(II) sulfate is spilled onto a sheet of freshly polished aluminum metal. (b) Dimethyl ether is burned in air. (c) A 0.1 M nitrous acid solution is added to the same volume of a 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution. (d) Hydrogen iodide gas is bubbled into a solution of lithium carbonate. (e) An acidic solution of potassium dichromate is added to a solution of iron(II) nitrate. (f) Excess concentrated aqueous ammonia is added to a solution of nickel(II) bromide. (g) A solution of sodium phosphate is added to a solution of aluminum nitrate. (h) Concentrated hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of sodium sulfide. Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 9 2004 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Your responses to the rest of the questions in this part of the examination will be graded on the basis of the accuracy and relevance of the information cited. Explanations should be clear and well organized. Examples and equations may be included in your responses where appropriate. Specific answers are preferable to broad, diffuse responses. Answer BOTH Question 5 below AND Question 6 printed on page 11. Both of these questions will be graded. The Section II score weighting for these questions is 30 percent (15 percent each). 5. In a laboratory class, a student is given three flasks that are labeled Q, R, and S. Each flask contains one of the following solutions: 1.0 M Pb(NO3)2 , 1.0 M NaCl , or 1.0 M K2CO3 . The student is also given two flasks that are labeled X and Y. One of these flasks contains 1.0 M AgNO3 , and the other contains 1.0 M BaCl2 . This information is summarized in the diagram below. (a) When the student combined a sample of solution Q with a sample of solution X , a precipitate formed. A precipitate also formed when samples of solutions Q and Y were combined. (i) Identify solution Q . (ii) Write the chemical formulas for each of the two precipitates. (b) When solution Q is mixed with solution R , a precipitate forms. However, no precipitate forms when solution Q is mixed with solution S. (i) Identify solution R and solution S. (ii) Write the chemical formula of the precipitate that forms when solution Q is mixed with solution R . (c) The identity of solution X and solution Y are to be determined using only the following solutions: 1.0 M Pb(NO3)2 , 1.0 M NaCl , and 1.0 M K2CO3 . (i) Describe a procedure to identify solution X and solution Y. (ii) Describe the observations that would allow you to distinguish between solution X and solution Y. (iii) Explain how the observations would enable you to distinguish between solution X and solution Y. Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 10 2004 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 6. An electrochemical cell is constructed with an open switch, as shown in the diagram above. A strip of Sn and a strip of an unknown metal, X, are used as electrodes. When the switch is closed, the mass of the Sn electrode increases. The half-reactions are shown below. Sn2+(aq) + 2 e– → Sn(s) X3+(aq) + 3 e– → X(s) E° = – 0.14 V E° = ? (a) In the diagram above, label the electrode that is the cathode. Justify your answer. (b) In the diagram above, draw an arrow indicating the direction of the electron flow in the external circuit when the switch is closed. (c) If the standard cell potential, Ecell , is +0.60 V, what is the standard reduction potential, in volts, for the X3+/X electrode? (d) Identify metal X. (e) Write a balanced net-ionic equation for the overall chemical reaction occurring in the cell. (f) In the cell, the concentration of Sn2+ is changed from 1.0 M to 0.50 M, and the concentration of X3+ is changed from 1.0 M to 0.10 M. (i) Substitute all the appropriate values for determining the cell potential, Ecell , into the Nernst equation. (Do not do any calculations.) (ii) On the basis of your response in part (f) (i), will the cell potential, Ecell , be greater than, less than, or equal to the original Ecell ? Justify your answer. Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 11 2004 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Answer EITHER Question 7 below OR Question 8 printed on page 13. Only one of these two questions will be graded. If you start both questions, be sure to cross out the question you do not want graded. The Section II score weighting for the question you choose is 15 percent. 7. Use appropriate chemical principles to account for each of the following observations. In each part, your response must include specific information about both substances. (a) At 25°C and 1 atm, F2 is a gas, whereas I2 is a solid. (b) The melting point of NaF is 993°C, whereas the melting point of CsCl is 645°C. (c) The shape of the ICl4– ion is square planar, whereas the shape of the BF4– ion is tetrahedral. (d) Ammonia, NH3 , is very soluble in water, whereas phosphine, PH3 , is only moderately soluble in water. Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 12 2004 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 8. Answer the following questions about carbon monoxide, CO(g), and carbon dioxide, CO2(g). Assume that both gases exhibit ideal behavior. (a) Draw the complete Lewis structure (electron-dot diagram) for the CO molecule and for the CO2 molecule. (b) Identify the shape of the CO2 molecule. (c) One of the two gases dissolves readily in water to form a solution with a pH below 7. Identify the gas and account for this observation by writing a chemical equation. (d) A 1.0 mole sample of CO(g) is heated at constant pressure. On the graph below, sketch the expected plot of volume versus temperature as the gas is heated. (e) Samples of CO(g) and CO2(g) are placed in 1 L containers at the conditions indicated in the diagram below. (i) Indicate whether the average kinetic energy of the CO2(g) molecules is greater than, equal to, or less than the average kinetic energy of the CO(g) molecules. Justify your answer. (ii) Indicate whether the root-mean-square speed of the CO2(g) molecules is greater than, equal to, or less than the root-mean-square speed of the CO(g) molecules. Justify your answer. (iii) Indicate whether the number of CO2(g) molecules is greater than, equal to, or less than the number of CO(g) molecules. Justify your answer. END OF EXAMINATION Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 13 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2009 for the course OC 9876 taught by Professor Dq during the Spring '09 term at UC Merced.

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