ap05_frq_chemistry

ap05_frq_chemistry - AP® Chemistry 2005 Free-Response...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Chemistry 2005 Free-Response Questions The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 4,700 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves over three and a half million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, AP Central, APCD, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Vertical Teams, Pre-AP, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board. Admitted Class Evaluation Service, CollegeEd, Connect to college success, MyRoad, SAT Professional Development, SAT Readiness Program, and Setting the Cornerstones are trademarks owned by the College Entrance Examination Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: http://www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program and Pre-AP: apcentral.collegeboard.com. 22 8 9 2 39 56 Ba 55 Cs *La 57 88.91 Ti Hf 72 91.22 Zr 40 47.90 V Ta 73 92.91 Nb 41 50.94 Cr W 74 95.94 Mo 42 52.00 Mn Re 75 (98) Tc 43 54.938 †Actinide Series *Lanthanide Series Db (262) Rf †Ac 105 Pr 58 Ce Nd 60 (263) Sg 106 Pa Th U 92 Np 93 (145) Pm 61 (262) Bh 107 232.04 231.04 238.03 237.05 91 90 140.12 140.91 144.24 59 (261) 104 89 226.02 227.03 Ra Fr (223) 88 87 132.91 137.33 138.91 178.49 180.95 183.85 186.21 Sr 87.62 Rb Y 38 85.47 37 44.96 (244) Pu 94 150.4 Sm 62 (265) Hs 108 190.2 Os 76 101.1 Ru 44 55.85 Fe Ni Pd 46 58.69 Cu Ag 47 63.55 Zn Cd 48 65.39 S 16 50 Sn 49 In Sb 51 53 I 52 Te Xe 54 Kr 83.80 Br 79.90 Se 78.96 As 74.92 Ge 36 72.59 Ga 69.72 Ar 18 35.453 39.948 Cl 17 35 34 33 30.974 32 28.09 26.98 31 32.06 P 15 Si 14 Al 13 19.00 16.00 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Gd 64 (269) § 110 Tb 65 (272) § 111 Dy 66 (277) § 112 207.2 Pb 82 208.98 Bi 83 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 §Not yet named 195.08 196.97 200.59 204.38 Pt 78 Yb 70 (209) Po 84 Lu 71 (210) At 85 (243) Am 95 (247) Cm 96 (247) Bk 97 (251) Cf 98 (252) Es 99 (257) Fm 100 (258) Md 101 (259) No 102 (260) Lr 103 151.97 157.25 158.93 162.50 164.93 167.26 168.93 173.04 174.97 Eu 63 (266) Mt 109 192.2 Ir 77 (222) Rn 86 102.91 106.42 107.87 112.41 114.82 118.71 121.75 127.60 126.91 131.29 Rh 45 58.93 Co Sc 30 Ca 29 40.08 28 K 27 39.10 26 20 19 25 24.30 22.99 24 Mg Na 23 12 Ne 20.179 F 11 10.811 12.011 14.007 O 9.012 6.941 N Be Li C 10 B 4.0026 6 3 5 1.0079 He 21 7 2 4 PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS H 1 DO NOT DETACH FROM BOOK. INFORMATION IN THE TABLE BELOW AND IN THE TABLES ON PAGES 3-5 MAY BE USEFUL IN ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION OF THE EXAMINATION. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AT 25° C E °( V ) Half-reaction F2 ( g ) + 2 e - Æ Co + e Au3+ + 3 e Cl 2 (g ) + 2 e O 2 (g ) + 4 H + + 4 e Br2 (l ) + 2 e - Æ Co Æ A u(s ) Æ 2 Cl - Æ 2 H 2 O(l ) - 3+ 2 F2+ Æ 2 Br - 2 Hg 2+ + 2 e - Æ Hg 2+ + 2 e Ag + + e - Hg 2 2+ Æ H g (l ) Æ A g (s ) Æ 2 H g (l ) Æ Fe 2+ I 2 (s ) + 2 e Cu + + e - Æ 2 I- Æ C u(s ) - Hg 2 Fe + 2e 2+ 3+ +e - - Æ C u(s ) - Æ Cu + Sn 4+ + 2 e S(s ) + 2 H + + 2 e 2 H+ + 2 e- Æ Sn 2+ Æ H 2 S(g ) Cu Cu + 2e 2+ 2+ +e Æ H2 (g) + 2e - Æ P b(s ) + 2e - Æ S n(s ) + 2e - Æ N i(s ) + 2e - Æ C o(s ) + 2e - Æ C d(s ) Æ Cr 2+ Fe 2+ + 2 e - Æ F e(s ) - Æ C r(s ) - Æ Æ Z n(s ) H 2 ( g ) + 2 OH - Æ M n(s ) Æ A l(s ) Æ B e(s ) Æ M g(s ) Æ Na(s ) Æ Æ Ca(s ) S r(s ) Æ B a(s ) Æ R b(s ) Pb 2+ Sn 2+ Ni 2+ Co 2+ Cd 2+ Cr Cr 3+ 3+ +e - + 3e Zn + 2 e 2 H 2 O(l ) + 2 e 2+ Mn Al 2+ 3+ Be + 3e 2+ Na + e Ca Sr 2+ Ba 2+ - + 2e + 2+ - + 2e 2+ Mg + 2e + 2e - - - - + 2e Rb + e - - + 2e + - - Æ K (s ) + - Æ C s(s ) Li + e - Æ Li(s ) K +e + Cs + e + 2.87 1.82 1.50 1.36 1.23 1.07 0.92 0.85 0.80 0.79 0.77 0.53 0.52 0.34 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.00 – 0.13 – 0.14 – 0.25 – 0.28 – 0.40 – 0.41 – 0.44 – 0.74 – 0.76 – 0.83 – 1.18 – 1.66 – 1.70 – 2.37 – 2.71 – 2.87 – 2.89 – 2.90 – 2.92 – 2.92 – 2.92 – 3.05 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 3 ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS E v l p ATOMIC STRUCTURE E = hv c = lv h l= p = mu mu -2.178 ¥ 10 -18 En = joule n2 Planck’s constant, h = 6.63 ¥ 10 -34 J s Boltzmann’s constant, k = 1.38 ¥ 10 -23 J K -1 [OH − ] [ HB + ] [B] Avogadro’s number = 6.022 ¥ 10 23 mol -1 Electron charge, e = -1.602 ¥ 10 -19 coulomb K w = [OH − ] [H + ] = 1.0 × 10 −14 @ 25 C = Ka × K b 1 electron volt per atom = 96.5 kJ mol -1 pH = − log [ H + ], pOH = − log [OH − ] 14 = pH + pOH pH = pKa + log Equilibrium Constants Ka (weak acid) Kb (weak base) [A − ] [ HA ] [HB + ] [ B] pKa = − log Ka , pKb = − log Kb K w (water) K p (gas pressure) pOH = pKb + log K p = Kc ( RT ) Dn Kc (molar concentrations) , S = standard entropy where D n = moles product gas − moles reactant gas H = standard enthalpy G = standard free energy THERMOCHEMISTRY/KINETICS DS = DH = DG =  S products -  S reactants  DHf products -  DH f reactants  DGf products -  DGf reactants E T n m q c Cp DG = DH - TD S = - RT ln K = -2.303 RT log K = -n E t 1 A - ln A t = = = = = = = standard reduction potential temperature moles mass heat specific heat capacity molar heat capacity at constant pressure E a = activation energy k = rate constant A = frequency factor DG = DG + RT ln Q = DG + 2.303 RT log Q q = mcDT DH Cp = DT ln A u = velocity n = principal quantum number m = mass energy frequency wavelength momentum Speed of light, c = 3.0 ¥ 108 m s -1 EQUILIBRIUM [H + ] [A − ] Ka = [HA ] Kb = = = = = 0 Faraday's constant, = - kt = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons Gas constant, R = 8.31 J mol -1 K -1 1 = kt A0 = 0.0821 L atm mol -1 K -1 = 8.31 volt coulomb mol -1 K -1 - Ea 1 ln k = + ln A RT ej GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 4 GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLUTIONS P V T n D m u PA = Ptotal ¥ X A , where X A = moles A total moles Ptotal = PA + PB + PC + ... m n= M K = C + 273 PV1 P2V2 1 = T1 T2 m D= V 3kT 3 RT = urms = m M 1 KE per molecule = mu 2 2 3 KE per mole = RT 2 r1 M2 = r2 M1 molarity, M = moles solute per liter solution molality = moles solute per kilogram solvent DT f = iK f ¥ molality DTb = iK b ¥ molality p = iMRT A = abc pressure volume temperature number of moles density mass velocity = = = = = = = root-mean-square speed kinetic energy rate of effusion molar mass osmotic pressure van't Hoff factor molal freezing-point depression constant Kb A a b c Q I q t Ê n2 a ˆ Á P + 2 ˜ (V - nb ) = nRT Ë V¯ = = = = = = = urms KE r M p i Kf PV = nRT = = = = = = = = = molal boiling-point elevation constant absorbance molar absorptivity path length concentration reaction quotient current (amperes) charge (coulombs) time (seconds) E = standard reduction potential K = equilibrium constant Gas constant, R = 8.31 J mol -1 K -1 OXIDATION-REDUCTION; ELECTROCHEMISTRY = 0.0821 L atm mol -1 K -1 Q= [ C ] c [ D] d [ A ] a [ B] b = 8.31 volt coulomb mol -1 K -1 , where a A + b B Æ c C + d D Boltzmann' s constant, k = 1.38 ¥ 10 -23 J K -1 K f for H 2 O = 1.86 K kg mol -1 q I= t E cell = E cell log K = Kb for H 2 O = 0.512 K kg mol -1 0.0592 RT ln Q = E cell log Q @ 25 C n n 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr STP = 0.000 C and 1.000 atm nE 0.0592 Faraday' s constant, = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 5 2005 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Section II (Total time—90 minutes) Part A Time—40 minutes YOU MAY USE YOUR CALCULATOR FOR PART A. CLEARLY SHOW THE METHOD USED AND THE STEPS INVOLVED IN ARRIVING AT YOUR ANSWERS. It is to your advantage to do this, since you may obtain partial credit if you do and you will receive little or no credit if you do not. Attention should be paid to significant figures. Be sure to write all your answers to the questions on the lined pages following each question in the booklet with the pink cover. Do NOT write your answers on the green insert. Answer Question 1 below. The Section II score weighting for this question is 20 percent. → HC3H5O2(aq) ← C3H5O2– (aq) + H+(aq) Ka = 1.34 × 10 – 5 1. Propanoic acid, HC3H5O2 , ionizes in water according to the equation above. (a) Write the equilibrium-constant expression for the reaction. (b) Calculate the pH of a 0.265 M solution of propanoic acid. (c) A 0.496 g sample of sodium propanoate, NaC3H5O2 , is added to a 50.0 mL sample of a 0.265 M solution of propanoic acid. Assuming that no change in the volume of the solution occurs, calculate each of the following. (i) The concentration of the propanoate ion, C3H5O2– (aq), in the solution (ii) The concentration of the H+(aq) ion in the solution The methanoate ion, HCO2–(aq), reacts with water to form methanoic acid and hydroxide ion, as shown in the following equation. → HCO2–(aq) + H2O(l) ← HCO2H(aq) + OH–(aq) (d) Given that [OH – ] is 4.18 × 10– 6 M in a 0.309 M solution of sodium methanoate, calculate each of the following. (i) The value of Kb for the methanoate ion, HCO2–(aq) (ii) The value of Ka for methanoic acid, HCO2H (e) Which acid is stronger, propanoic acid or methanoic acid? Justify your answer. Copyright © 2005 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 6 2005 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Answer EITHER Question 2 below OR Question 3 printed on page 8-9. Only one of these two questions will be graded. If you start both questions, be sure to cross out the question you do not want graded. The Section II score weighting for the question you choose is 20 percent. 2. Answer the following questions about a pure compound that contains only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. (a) A 0.7549 g sample of the compound burns in O2(g) to produce 1.9061 g of CO2(g) and 0.3370 g of H2O(g). (i) Calculate the individual masses of C, H, and O in the 0.7549 g sample. (ii) Determine the empirical formula for the compound. (b) A 0.5246 g sample of the compound was dissolved in 10.0012 g of lauric acid, and it was determined that the freezing point of the lauric acid was lowered by 1.68°C. The value of Kf of lauric acid is 3.90°C m–1. Assume that the compound does not dissociate in lauric acid. (i) Calculate the molality of the compound dissolved in the lauric acid. (ii) Calculate the molar mass of the compound from the information provided. (c) Without doing any calculations, explain how to determine the molecular formula of the compound based on the answers to parts (a)(ii) and (b)(ii). (d) Further tests indicate that a 0.10 M aqueous solution of the compound has a pH of 2.6 . Identify the organic functional group that accounts for this pH. Copyright © 2005 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 7 2005 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 3. Answer the following questions related to the kinetics of chemical reactions. - ææ I –(aq) + ClO –(aq) æOH Æ IO –(aq) + Cl –(aq) Iodide ion, I –, is oxidized to hypoiodite ion, IO –, by hypochlorite, ClO –, in basic solution according to the equation above. Three initial-rate experiments were conducted; the results are shown in the following table. [I –] (mol L−1) [ClO –] (mol L−1) Initial Rate of Formation of IO – (mol L−1 s–1) 1 0.017 0.015 0.156 2 0.052 0.015 0.476 3 0.016 0.061 0.596 Experiment (a) Determine the order of the reaction with respect to each reactant listed below. Show your work. (i) I –(aq) (ii) ClO –(aq) (b) For the reaction, (i) write the rate law that is consistent with the calculations in part (a); (ii) calculate the value of the specific rate constant, k, and specify units. The catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2(aq) , is represented by the following equation. 2 H2O2(aq) catalyst 2 H2O(l) + O2(g) The kinetics of the decomposition reaction were studied and the analysis of the results show that it is a first-order reaction. Some of the experimental data are shown in the table below. [H2O2] (mol L ) Time (minutes) 1.00 0.0 0.78 5.0 0.61 10.0 −1 Copyright © 2005 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 8 2005 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (c) During the analysis of the data, the graph below was produced. (i) Label the vertical axis of the graph. (ii) What are the units of the rate constant, k , for the decomposition of H2O2(aq) ? (iii) On the graph, draw the line that represents the plot of the uncatalyzed first-order decomposition of 1.00 M H2O2(aq) . STOP If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this part only. Do not turn to the other part of the test until you are told to do so. Copyright © 2005 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 9 2005 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Part B Time—50 minutes NO CALCULATORS MAY BE USED FOR PART B. Answer Question 4 below. The Section II score weighting for this question is 15 percent. 4. Write the formulas to show the reactants and the products for any FIVE of the laboratory situations described below. Answers to more than five choices will not be graded. In all cases, a reaction occurs. Assume that solutions are aqueous unless otherwise indicated. Represent substances in solution as ions if the substances are extensively ionized. Omit formulas for any ions or molecules that are unchanged by the reaction. You need not balance the equations. Example: A strip of magnesium is added to a solution of silver nitrate. (a) A strip of zinc is placed in a solution of nickel(II) nitrate. (b) Solid aluminum hydroxide is added to a concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide. (c) Ethyne (acetylene) is burned in air. (d) Solid calcium carbonate is added to a solution of ethanoic (acetic) acid. (e) Lithium metal is strongly heated in nitrogen gas. (f) Boron trifluoride gas is added to ammonia gas. (g) Sulfur trioxide gas is bubbled into a solution of sodium hydroxide. (h) Equal volumes of 0.1 M solutions of lead(II) nitrate and magnesium iodide are combined. Copyright © 2005 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 10 2005 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Your responses to the rest of the questions in this part of the examination will be graded on the basis of the accuracy and relevance of the information cited. Explanations should be clear and well organized. Examples and equations may be included in your responses where appropriate. Specific answers are preferable to broad, diffuse responses. Answer BOTH Question 5 below AND Question 6 printed on page 12. Both of these questions will be graded. The Section II score weighting for these questions is 30 percent (15 percent each). 5. Answer the following questions that relate to laboratory observations and procedures. (a) An unknown gas is one of three possible gases: nitrogen, hydrogen, or oxygen. For each of the three possibilities, describe the result expected when the gas is tested using a glowing splint (a wooden stick with one end that has been ignited and extinguished, but still contains hot, glowing, partially burned wood). (b) The following three mixtures have been prepared: CaO plus water, SiO2 plus water, and CO2 plus water. For each mixture, predict whether the pH is less than 7, equal to 7, or greater than 7. Justify your answers. (c) Each of three beakers contains a 0.1 M solution of one of the following solutes: potassium chloride, silver nitrate, or sodium sulfide. The three beakers are labeled randomly as solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3. Shown below is a partially completed table of observations made of the results of combining small amounts of different pairs of the solutions. Solution 1 Solution 1 Solution 2 Solution 3 black precipitate Solution 2 no reaction Solution 3 (i) Write the chemical formula of the black precipitate. (ii) Describe the expected results of mixing solution 1 with solution 3. (iii) Identify each of the solutions 1, 2, and 3. Copyright © 2005 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 11 2005 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 6. Answer the following questions that relate to chemical bonding. (a) In the boxes provided, draw the complete Lewis structure (electron-dot diagram) for each of the three molecules represented below. CF4 PF5 SF4 (b) On the basis of the Lewis structures drawn above, answer the following questions about the particular molecule indicated. (i) What is the F –C –F bond angle in CF4 ? (ii) What is the hybridization of the valence orbitals of P in PF5 ? (iii) What is the geometric shape formed by the atoms in SF4 ? (c) Two Lewis structures can be drawn for the OPF 3 molecule, as shown below. (i) How many sigma bonds and how many pi bonds are in structure 1 ? (ii) Which one of the two structures best represents a molecule of OPF 3 ? Justify your answer in terms of formal charge. Copyright © 2005 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 12 2005 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Answer EITHER Question 7 below OR Question 8 printed on page 14. Only one of these two questions will be graded. If you start both questions, be sure to cross out the question you do not want graded. The Section II score weighting for the question you choose is 15 percent. 7. Use principles of atomic structure, bonding, and/or intermolecular forces to respond to each of the following. Your responses must include specific information about all substances referred to in each question. (a) At a pressure of 1 atm, the boiling point of NH3( l ) is 240 K, whereas the boiling point of NF3( l ) is 144 K. (i) Identify the intermolecular force(s) in each substance. (ii) Account for the difference in the boiling points of the substances. (b) The melting point of KCl(s) is 776°C, whereas the melting point of NaCl(s) is 801°C. (i) Identify the type of bonding in each substance. (ii) Account for the difference in the melting points of the substances. (c) As shown in the table below, the first ionization energies of Si, P, and Cl show a trend. Element First Ionization Energy (kJ mol −1) Si 786 P 1,012 Cl 1,251 (i) For each of the three elements, identify the quantum level (e.g., n = 1, n = 2, etc.) of the valence electrons in the atom. (ii) Explain the reasons for the trend in first ionization energies. (d) A certain element has two stable isotopes. The mass of one of the isotopes is 62.93 amu and the mass of the other isotope is 64.93 amu. (i) Identify the element. Justify your answer. (ii) Which isotope is more abundant? Justify your answer. Copyright © 2005 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 13 2005 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS AgNO3(s) → Ag+(aq) + NO3−(aq) 8. The dissolving of AgNO3(s) in pure water is represented by the equation above. (a) Is ∆G for the dissolving of AgNO3(s) positive, negative, or zero? Justify your answer. (b) Is ∆S for the dissolving of AgNO3(s) positive, negative, or zero? Justify your answer. (c) The solubility of AgNO3(s) increases with increasing temperature. (i) What is the sign of ∆H for the dissolving process? Justify your answer. (ii) Is the answer you gave in part (a) consistent with your answers to parts (b) and (c) (i) ? Explain. The compound NaI dissolves in pure water according to the equation NaI(s) → Na+(aq) + I−(aq) . Some of the information in the table of standard reduction potentials given below may be useful in answering the questions that follow. Half-reaction E° (V) O2(g) + 4 H+ + 4 e− → 2 H2O(l) 1.23 I2(s) + 2 e− → 2 I− 0.53 2 H2O(l) + 2 e− → H2(g) + 2 OH− −0.83 Na+ + e− → Na(s) −2.71 (d) An electric current is applied to a 1.0 M NaI solution. (i) Write the balanced oxidation half-reaction for the reaction that takes place. (ii) Write the balanced reduction half-reaction for the reaction that takes place. (iii) Which reaction takes place at the anode, the oxidation reaction or the reduction reaction? (iv) All electrolysis reactions have the same sign for ∆G °. Is the sign positive or negative? Justify your answer. END OF EXAM Copyright © 2005 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 14 ...
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