ap07_chemistry_form_b_frq

ap07_chemistry_form_b_frq - AP® Chemistry 2007...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Chemistry 2007 Free-Response Questions Form B The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. INFORMATION IN THE TABLE BELOW AND IN THE TABLES ON PAGES 4-6 MAY BE USEFUL IN ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION OF THE EXAMINATION. -2- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AT 25 C Half-reaction F2 ( g ) 2e 2F 2 3+ Co e Co 3+ 3e Au(s) Au Cl2 (g) 2 e O2 (g) 4H 2 Cl + 2 H 2 O(l ) 4e Br2 (l ) 2 e 2 Hg 2+ Ag Hg2 2+ Hg(l ) 2e + Hg2 2 Br 2e Hg2+ Fe E (V) Ag(s) e 2+ 2 Hg(l ) 2e 3+ Fe 2+ e I 2 (s ) 2 e 2I Cu + Cu 2+ 2e Cu(s) Cu 2+ e Cu+ 2e Sn2+ Cu(s) e Sn 4+ S(s) 2 H + H 2S(g) 2e + 2e H2 ( g) Pb 2+ 2e Pb(s) Sn 2+ 2e Sn(s) 2+ 2e Ni(s) Co 2+ 2e Co(s) Cd 2+ 2e Cd(s) 3+ e Cr 2+ Fe 2+ 2e Fe(s) 3+ 3e Cr(s) 2+ 2e Zn(s) 2H Ni Cr Cr Zn 2 H 2 O(l ) 2 e Mn Al 3e Al(s) 2e Be(s) 2e Mg(s) Na 2+ + Na(s) e 2+ 2e Ca(s) 2+ 2e Sr(s) 2e Ba(s) Ca Ba 2+ Rb + + Rb(s) e e K ( s) + e Cs(s) + e Li(s) Cs Li Mn(s) 2e 2+ Mg K H 2 ( g) + 2 OH 3+ Be Sr 2+ -3- 2.87 1.82 1.50 1.36 1.23 1.07 0.92 0.85 0.80 0.79 0.77 0.53 0.52 0.34 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.00 – 0.13 – 0.14 – 0.25 – 0.28 – 0.40 – 0.41 – 0.44 – 0.74 – 0.76 – 0.83 – 1.18 – 1.66 – 1.70 – 2.37 – 2.71 – 2.87 – 2.89 – 2.90 – 2.92 – 2.92 – 2.92 – 3.05 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS E v l p ATOMIC STRUCTURE hv c lv h l= p mu mu 2.178 10 18 joule En n2 E log [H ], pOH pH pOH pH pK a pOH pK b Planck’s constant, h Boltzmann’s constant, k Avogadro’s number 14 Kc ( RT ) 3.0 108 m s 1 electron volt per atom 1 6.63 10 34 Js 1.38 23 JK 10 1 1023 mol 6.022 1.602 19 10 @ 25 C 96.5 kJ mol 1 coulomb 1 log[OH ] Equilibrium Constants K a (weak acid) K b (weak base) K w (water) K p (gas pressure) [A ] [HA] log Dn velocity principal quantum number mass Electron charge, e [HB ] [B] log K a , pKb log Kb pK a Kp log u n m Speed of light, c EQUILIBRIUM [H ][A ] Ka [HA] [OH ][HB ] Kb [B] K w [OH ][H ] 1.0 10 K a Kb pH 14 energy frequency wavelength momentum K c (molar concentrations) , moles product gas S DS S products DH DHf products DG DGf products DGf reactants DG T DS DH RT ln K 2.303 RT log K nE DG q RT ln Q DG mcDT DH DT Cp ln A t 1 A ln k t ln A 0 1 A0 Ea 1 RT DG 2.303 RT log Q standard reduction potential temperature moles mass heat specific heat capacity molar heat capacity at constant pressure Ea k A DH f reactants S reactants standard free energy E T n m q c Cp THERMOCHEMISTRY/KINETICS standard enthalpy G moles reactant gas standard entropy H where D n activation energy rate constant frequency factor Faraday's constant, kt Gas constant, R 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons 8.31 J mol 1 K 1 K 1 8.31 volt coulomb mol 1 0.0821 L atm mol kt 1 K 1 ln A -4- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLUTIONS PV nb) nRT PA Ptotal P V T n D m u nRT 2 P na (V V2 Ptotal PA m M n K PV1 1 T1 D urms KE per molecule KE per mole r1 r2 molarity, M molality DT f DTb p A X A , where X A PB PC moles A total moles ... C 273 P2V2 T2 m V 3kT 3RT m M 12 mu 2 3 RT 2 M2 M1 moles solute per liter solution moles solute per kilogram solvent iK f molality urms KE r M p i Kf pressure volume temperature number of moles density mass velocity root-mean-square speed kinetic energy rate of effusion molar mass osmotic pressure van't Hoff factor molal freezing -point depression constant Kb A a b c Q I q t E K iK b molality iMRT abc OXIDATION-REDUCTION; ELECTROCHEMISTRY molal boiling-point elevation constant absorbance molar absorptivity path length concentration reaction quotient current (amperes) charge (coulombs) time (seconds) standard reduction potential equilibrium constant Gas constant, R 8.31 J mol 1 1 K K 1 8.31 volt coulomb mol 1 0.0821 L atm mol Q [C] c [D] d a [A] [B] I Ecell log K b , where a A bB cC dD Boltzmann's constant, k q t Ecell 1.38 10 23 1 Ecell nE 0.0592 1.86 K kg mol K b for H2 O 1 atm 0.0592 log Q @ 25 C n 0.512 K kg mol 760 mm Hg 760 torr STP Faraday's constant, -5- K 1 JK K f for H2 O RT ln Q n 1 1 0.00 C and 1.0 atm 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 1 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) CHEMISTRY Section II (Total time—95 minutes) Part A Time—55 minutes YOU MAY USE YOUR CALCULATOR FOR PART A. CLEARLY SHOW THE METHOD USED AND THE STEPS INVOLVED IN ARRIVING AT YOUR ANSWERS. It is to your advantage to do this, since you may obtain partial credit if you do and you will receive little or no credit if you do not. Attention should be paid to significant figures. Be sure to write all your answers to the questions on the lined pages following each question in the goldenrod booklet. Do NOT write your answers on the lavender insert. Answer Questions 1, 2, and 3. The Section II score weighting for each question is 20 percent. 1. A sample of solid U3O8 is placed in a rigid 1.500 L flask. Chlorine gas, Cl2(g), is added, and the flask is heated to 862 C. The equation for the reaction that takes place and the equilibrium-constant expression for the reaction are given below. U3O8(s) + 3 Cl2(g) 3 UO2Cl2(g) + O2(g) Kp ( pUO2Cl2 )3 ( pO2 ) ( pCl2 )3 When the system is at equilibrium, the partial pressure of Cl2(g) is 1.007 atm and the partial pressure of UO2Cl2(g) is 9.734 10 4 atm. (a) Calculate the partial pressure of O2(g) at equilibrium at 862 C. (b) Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant, Kp , for the system at 862 C. (c) Calculate the Gibbs free-energy change, G , for the reaction at 862 C. (d) State whether the entropy change, S , for the reaction at 862 C is positive, negative, or zero. Justify your answer. (e) State whether the enthalpy change, H , for the reaction at 862 C is positive, negative, or zero. Justify your answer. (f) After a certain period of time, 1.000 mol of O2(g) is added to the mixture in the flask. Does the mass of U3O8(s) in the flask increase, decrease, or remain the same? Justify your answer. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -6- 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) 2. Answer the following problems about gases. (a) The average atomic mass of naturally occurring neon is 20.18 amu. There are two common isotopes of naturally occurring neon as indicated in the table below. Isotope Mass (amu) Ne-20 Ne-22 19.99 21.99 (i) Using the information above, calculate the percent abundance of each isotope. (ii) Calculate the number of Ne-22 atoms in a 12.55 g sample of naturally occurring neon. (b) A major line in the emission spectrum of neon corresponds to a frequency of 4.34 wavelength, in nanometers, of light that corresponds to this line. 1014 s 1. Calculate the (c) In the upper atmosphere, ozone molecules decompose as they absorb ultraviolet (UV) radiation, as shown by the equation below. Ozone serves to block harmful ultraviolet radiation that comes from the Sun. O3(g) UV O2(g) + O(g) A molecule of O3(g) absorbs a photon with a frequency of 1.00 1015 s 1. (i) How much energy, in joules, does the O3(g) molecule absorb per photon? (ii) The minimum energy needed to break an oxygen-oxygen bond in ozone is 387 kJ mol 1. Does a photon with a frequency of 1.00 1015 s 1 have enough energy to break this bond? Support your answer with a calculation. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -7- 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) 2 H2(g) + O2(g) 2 H2O(l ) 3. In a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell, energy is produced by the overall reaction represented above. (a) When the fuel cell operates at 25 C and 1.00 atm for 78.0 minutes, 0.0746 mol of O2(g) is consumed. Calculate the volume of H2(g) consumed during the same time period. Express your answer in liters measured at 25 C and 1.00 atm. (b) Given that the fuel cell reaction takes place in an acidic medium, (i) write the two half reactions that occur as the cell operates, (ii) identify the half reaction that takes place at the cathode, and (iii) determine the value of the standard potential, E , of the cell. (c) Calculate the charge, in coulombs, that passes through the cell during the 78.0 minutes of operation as described in part (a). STOP If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this part only. Do not turn to the other part of the test until you are told to do so. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). -8- 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) CHEMISTRY Part B Time—40 minutes NO CALCULATORS MAY BE USED FOR PART B. Answer Question 4 below. The Section II score weighting for this question is 10 percent. 4. For each of the following three reactions, in part (i) write a balanced equation for the reaction and in part (ii) answer the question about the reaction. In part (i), coefficients should be in terms of lowest whole numbers. Assume that solutions are aqueous unless otherwise indicated. Represent substances in solutions as ions if the substances are extensively ionized. Omit formulas for any ions or molecules that are unchanged by the reaction. You may use the empty space at the bottom of the next page for scratch work, but only equations that are written in the answer boxes provided will be graded. (a) Solid ammonium carbonate decomposes as it is heated. (i) Balanced equation: (ii) Predict the algebraic sign of S for the reaction. Explain your reasoning. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -9- 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) (b) Chlorine gas, an oxidizing agent, is bubbled into a solution of potassium bromide. (i) Balanced equation: (ii) What is the oxidation number of chlorine before the reaction occurs? What is the oxidation number of chlorine after the reaction occurs? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ (c) A small piece of sodium is placed in a beaker of distilled water. (i) Balanced equation: (ii) The reaction is exothermic, and sometimes small flames are observed as the sodium reacts with the water. Identify the product of the reaction that burns to produce the flames. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -10- 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Answer Question 5 and Question 6. The Section II score weighting for these questions is 15 percent each. Your responses to these questions will be graded on the basis of the accuracy and relevance of the information cited. Explanations should be clear and well organized. Examples and equations may be included in your responses where appropriate. Specific answers are preferable to broad, diffuse responses. 5. Answer the following questions about laboratory situations involving acids, bases, and buffer solutions. (a) Lactic acid, HC3H5O3 , reacts with water to produce an acidic solution. Shown below are the complete Lewis structures of the reactants. In the space provided above, complete the equation by drawing the complete Lewis structures of the reaction products. (b) Choosing from the chemicals and equipment listed below, describe how to prepare 100.00 mL of a 1.00 M aqueous solution of NH4Cl (molar mass 53.5 g mol 1). Include specific amounts and equipment where appropriate. NH4Cl(s) Distilled water 50 mL buret 100 mL beaker 100 mL graduated cylinder 100 mL volumetric flask 100 mL pipet Balance (c) Two buffer solutions, each containing acetic acid and sodium acetate, are prepared. A student adds 0.10 mol of HCl to 1.0 L of each of these buffer solutions and to 1.0 L of distilled water. The table below shows the pH measurements made before and after the 0.10 mol of HCl is added. pH Before HCl Added pH After HCl Added Distilled water 7.0 1.0 Buffer 1 4.7 2.7 Buffer 2 4.7 4.3 (i) Write the balanced net-ionic equation for the reaction that takes place when the HCl is added to buffer 1 or buffer 2. (ii) Explain why the pH of buffer 1 is different from the pH of buffer 2 after 0.10 mol of HCl is added. (iii) Explain why the pH of buffer 1 is the same as the pH of buffer 2 before 0.10 mol of HCl is added. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -11- 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) First Ionization Energy (kJ mol 1) Second Ionization Energy (kJ mol 1) Third Ionization Energy (kJ mol 1) Element 1 1,251 2,300 3,820 Element 2 496 4,560 6,910 Element 3 738 1,450 7,730 Element 4 1,000 2,250 3,360 6. The table above shows the first three ionization energies for atoms of four elements from the third period of the periodic table. The elements are numbered randomly. Use the information in the table to answer the following questions. (a) Which element is most metallic in character? Explain your reasoning. (b) Identify element 3. Explain your reasoning. (c) Write the complete electron configuration for an atom of element 3. (d) What is the expected oxidation state for the most common ion of element 2 ? (e) What is the chemical symbol for element 2 ? (f) A neutral atom of which of the four elements has the smallest radius? STOP END OF EXAM © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). -12- ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2009 for the course OC 9876 taught by Professor Dq during the Spring '09 term at UC Merced.

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