ap07_chemistry_frq

ap07_chemistry_frq - AP® Chemistry 2007 Free-Response...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: AP® Chemistry 2007 Free-Response Questions The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. INFORMATION IN THE TABLE BELOW AND IN THE TABLES ON PAGES 4-6 MAY BE USEFUL IN ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION OF THE EXAMINATION. -2- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AT 25 C Half-reaction F2 ( g ) 2e 2F 2 3+ Co e Co 3+ 3e Au(s) Au Cl2 (g) 2 e O2 (g) 4H 2 Cl + 2 H 2 O(l ) 4e Br2 (l ) 2 e 2 Hg 2+ Ag Hg2 2+ Hg(l ) 2e + Hg2 2 Br 2e Hg2+ Fe E (V) Ag(s) e 2+ 2 Hg(l ) 2e 3+ Fe 2+ e I 2 (s ) 2 e 2I Cu + Cu 2+ 2e Cu(s) Cu 2+ e Cu+ 2e Sn2+ Cu(s) e Sn 4+ S(s) 2 H + H 2S(g) 2e + 2e H2 ( g) Pb 2+ 2e Pb(s) Sn 2+ 2e Sn(s) 2+ 2e Ni(s) Co 2+ 2e Co(s) Cd 2+ 2e Cd(s) 3+ e Cr 2+ Fe 2+ 2e Fe(s) 3+ 3e Cr(s) 2+ 2e Zn(s) 2H Ni Cr Cr Zn 2 H 2 O(l ) 2 e Mn Al 3e Al(s) 2e Be(s) 2e Mg(s) Na 2+ + Na(s) e 2+ 2e Ca(s) 2+ 2e Sr(s) 2e Ba(s) Ca Ba 2+ Rb + + Rb(s) e e K ( s) + e Cs(s) + e Li(s) Cs Li Mn(s) 2e 2+ Mg K H 2 ( g) + 2 OH 3+ Be Sr 2+ -3- 2.87 1.82 1.50 1.36 1.23 1.07 0.92 0.85 0.80 0.79 0.77 0.53 0.52 0.34 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.00 – 0.13 – 0.14 – 0.25 – 0.28 – 0.40 – 0.41 – 0.44 – 0.74 – 0.76 – 0.83 – 1.18 – 1.66 – 1.70 – 2.37 – 2.71 – 2.87 – 2.89 – 2.90 – 2.92 – 2.92 – 2.92 – 3.05 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS E v l p ATOMIC STRUCTURE hv c lv h l= p mu mu 2.178 10 18 joule En n2 E log [H ], pOH pH pOH pH pK a pOH pK b Planck’s constant, h Boltzmann’s constant, k Avogadro’s number 14 Kc ( RT ) 3.0 108 m s 1 electron volt per atom 1 6.63 10 34 Js 1.38 23 JK 10 1 1023 mol 6.022 1.602 19 10 @ 25 C 96.5 kJ mol 1 coulomb 1 log[OH ] Equilibrium Constants K a (weak acid) K b (weak base) K w (water) K p (gas pressure) [A ] [HA] log Dn velocity principal quantum number mass Electron charge, e [HB ] [B] log K a , pKb log Kb pK a Kp log u n m Speed of light, c EQUILIBRIUM [H ][A ] Ka [HA] [OH ][HB ] Kb [B] K w [OH ][H ] 1.0 10 K a Kb pH 14 energy frequency wavelength momentum K c (molar concentrations) , moles product gas S DS S products DH DHf products DG DGf products DGf reactants DG T DS DH RT ln K 2.303 RT log K nE DG q RT ln Q DG mcDT DH DT Cp ln A t 1 A ln k t ln A 0 1 A0 Ea 1 RT DG 2.303 RT log Q standard reduction potential temperature moles mass heat specific heat capacity molar heat capacity at constant pressure Ea k A DH f reactants S reactants standard free energy E T n m q c Cp THERMOCHEMISTRY/KINETICS standard enthalpy G moles reactant gas standard entropy H where D n activation energy rate constant frequency factor Faraday's constant, kt Gas constant, R 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons 8.31 J mol 1 K 1 K 1 8.31 volt coulomb mol 1 0.0821 L atm mol kt 1 K 1 ln A -4- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLUTIONS PV n2 a (V V2 nb) nRT PA P Ptotal P V T n D m u nRT Ptotal PA m M n K PV1 1 T1 D urms KE per molecule KE per mole r1 r2 molarity, M molality DT f DTb p A X A , where X A PB PC moles A total moles ... C 273 P2V2 T2 m V 3kT 3RT M m 12 mu 2 3 RT 2 M2 M1 moles solute per liter solution moles solute per kilogram solvent iK f molality urms KE r M p i Kf pressure volume temperature number of moles density mass velocity root-mean-square speed kinetic energy rate of effusion molar mass osmotic pressure van't Hoff factor molal freezing -point depression constant Kb A a b c Q I q t E K iK b molality iMRT abc OXIDATION-REDUCTION; ELECTROCHEMISTRY molal boiling-point elevation constant absorbance molar absorptivity path length concentration reaction quotient current (amperes) charge (coulombs) time (seconds) standard reduction potential equilibrium constant Gas constant, R 8.31 J mol 1 1 K K 1 8.31 volt coulomb mol 1 0.0821 L atm mol Q [C] c [D] d a [A] [B] I Ecell log K b , where a A bB cC dD Boltzmann's constant, k q t Ecell 1.38 10 23 1 Ecell nE 0.0592 1.86 K kg mol K b for H2 O 1 atm 0.0592 log Q @ 25 C n 0.512 K kg mol 760 mm Hg 760 torr STP Faraday's constant, -5- K 1 JK K f for H2 O RT ln Q n 1 1 0.00 C and 1.0 atm 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 1 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Section II (Total time—95 minutes) Part A Time—55 minutes YOU MAY USE YOUR CALCULATOR FOR PART A. CLEARLY SHOW THE METHOD USED AND THE STEPS INVOLVED IN ARRIVING AT YOUR ANSWERS. It is to your advantage to do this, since you may obtain partial credit if you do and you will receive little or no credit if you do not. Attention should be paid to significant figures. Be sure to write all your answers to the questions on the lined pages following each question in the booklet with the pink cover. Do NOT write your answers on the green insert. Answer Questions 1, 2, and 3. The Section II score weighting for each question is 20 percent. HF(aq) + H2O( l ) H3O+(aq) + F (aq) Ka = 7.2 10 4 1. Hydrofluoric acid, HF(aq), dissociates in water as represented by the equation above. (a) Write the equilibrium-constant expression for the dissociation of HF(aq) in water. (b) Calculate the molar concentration of H3O+ in a 0.40 M HF(aq) solution. HF(aq) reacts with NaOH(aq) according to the reaction represented below. HF(aq) + OH (aq) H2O(l) + F (aq) A volume of 15 mL of 0.40 M NaOH(aq) is added to 25 mL of 0.40 M HF(aq) solution. Assume that volumes are additive. (c) Calculate the number of moles of HF(aq) remaining in the solution. (d) Calculate the molar concentration of F (aq) in the solution. (e) Calculate the pH of the solution. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -6- 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS N2(g) + 3 F2(g) 2 NF3(g) 264 kJ mol 1; D S 298 = DH 2 98 = 278 J K 1 mol 1 2. The following questions relate to the synthesis reaction represented by the chemical equation in the box above. (a) Calculate the value of the standard free energy change, DG 2 98 , for the reaction. (b) Determine the temperature at which the equilibrium constant, Keq , for the reaction is equal to 1.00 . (Assume that H and S are independent of temperature.) (c) Calculate the standard enthalpy change, H , that occurs when a 0.256 mol sample of NF3(g) is formed from N2(g) and F2(g) at 1.00 atm and 298 K. The enthalpy change in a chemical reaction is the difference between energy absorbed in breaking bonds in the reactants and energy released by bond formation in the products. (d) How many bonds are formed when two molecules of NF3 are produced according to the equation in the box above? (e) Use both the information in the box above and the table of average bond enthalpies below to calculate the average enthalpy of the F F bond. Bond Average Bond Enthalpy (kJ mol 1) NN 946 N–F 272 F –F ? © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -7- 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 3. An external direct-current power supply is connected to two platinum electrodes immersed in a beaker containing 1.0 M CuSO4(aq) at 25 C, as shown in the diagram above. As the cell operates, copper metal is deposited onto one electrode and O2(g) is produced at the other electrode. The two reduction half-reactions for the overall reaction that occurs in the cell are shown in the table below. E (V) Half-Reaction O2(g) + 4 H+(aq) + 4 e Cu2+(aq) + 2 e 2 H2O(l) Cu(s) +1.23 +0.34 (a) On the diagram, indicate the direction of electron flow in the wire. (b) Write a balanced net ionic equation for the electrolysis reaction that occurs in the cell. (c) Predict the algebraic sign of (d) Calculate the value of G for the reaction. Justify your prediction. G for the reaction. An electric current of 1.50 amps passes through the cell for 40.0 minutes. (e) Calculate the mass, in grams, of the Cu(s) that is deposited on the electrode. (f) Calculate the dry volume, in liters measured at 25 C and 1.16 atm, of the O2(g) that is produced. STOP If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this part only. Do not turn to the other part of the test until you are told to do so. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). -8- 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Part B Time—40 minutes NO CALCULATORS MAY BE USED FOR PART B. Answer Question 4 below. The Section II score weighting for this question is 10 percent. 4. For each of the following three reactions, in part (i) write a balanced equation for the reaction and in part (ii) answer the question about the reaction. In part (i), coefficients should be in terms of lowest whole numbers. Assume that solutions are aqueous unless otherwise indicated. Represent substances in solutions as ions if the substances are extensively ionized. Omit formulas for any ions or molecules that are unchanged by the reaction. You may use the empty space at the bottom of the next page for scratch work, but only equations that are written in the answer boxes provided will be graded. (a) A solution of sodium hydroxide is added to a solution of lead(II) nitrate. (i) Balanced equation: (ii) If 1.0 L volumes of 1.0 M solutions of sodium hydroxide and lead(II) nitrate are mixed together, how many moles of product(s) will be produced? Assume the reaction goes to completion. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -9- 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (b) Excess nitric acid is added to solid calcium carbonate. (i) Balanced equation: (ii) Briefly explain why statues made of marble (calcium carbonate) displayed outdoors in urban areas are deteriorating. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ (c) A solution containing silver(I) ion (an oxidizing agent) is mixed with a solution containing iron(II) ion (a reducing agent). (i) Balanced equation: (ii) If the contents of the reaction mixture described above are filtered, what substance(s), if any, would remain on the filter paper? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -10- 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Answer Question 5 and Question 6. The Section II score weighting for these questions is 15 percent each. Your responses to these questions will be graded on the basis of the accuracy and relevance of the information cited. Explanations should be clear and well organized. Examples and equations may be included in your responses where appropriate. Specific answers are preferable to broad, diffuse responses. 5 Fe2+(aq) + MnO4 (aq) + 8 H+(aq) 5 Fe3+(aq) + Mn2+(aq) + 4 H2O(l) 5. The mass percent of iron in a soluble iron(II) compound is measured using a titration based on the balanced equation above. (a) What is the oxidation number of manganese in the permanganate ion, MnO4 (aq) ? (b) Identify the reducing agent in the reaction represented above. The mass of a sample of the iron(II) compound is carefully measured before the sample is dissolved in distilled water. The resulting solution is acidified with H2SO4(aq). The solution is then titrated with MnO4 (aq) until the end point is reached. (c) Describe the color change that occurs in the flask when the end point of the titration has been reached. Explain why the color of the solution changes at the end point. (d) Let the variables g, M, and V be defined as follows: g = the mass, in grams, of the sample of the iron(II) compound M = the molarity of the MnO4 (aq) used as the titrant V = the volume, in liters, of MnO4 (aq) added to reach the end point In terms of these variables, the number of moles of MnO4 (aq) added to reach the end point of the titration is expressed as M V. Using the variables defined above, the molar mass of iron (55.85 g mol 1), and the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation, write the expression for each of the following quantities. (i) The number of moles of iron in the sample (ii) The mass of iron in the sample, in grams (iii) The mass percent of iron in the compound (e) What effect will adding too much titrant have on the experimentally determined value of the mass percent of iron in the compound? Justify your answer. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -11- 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 6. Answer the following questions, which pertain to binary compounds. (a) In the box provided below, draw a complete Lewis electron-dot diagram for the IF3 molecule. (b) On the basis of the Lewis electron-dot diagram that you drew in part (a), predict the molecular geometry of the IF3 molecule. (c) In the SO2 molecule, both of the bonds between sulfur and oxygen have the same length. Explain this observation, supporting your explanation by drawing in the box below a Lewis electron-dot diagram (or diagrams) for the SO2 molecule. (d) On the basis of your Lewis electron-dot diagram(s) in part (c), identify the hybridization of the sulfur atom in the SO2 molecule. The reaction between SO2(g) and O2(g) to form SO3(g) is represented below. 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) 2 SO3(g) The reaction is exothermic. The reaction is slow at 25 C; however, a catalyst will cause the reaction to proceed faster. (e) Using the axes provided on the next page, draw the complete potential-energy diagram for both the catalyzed and uncatalyzed reactions. Clearly label the curve that represents the catalyzed reaction. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -12- 2007 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (f) Predict how the ratio of the equilibrium pressures, pSO2 pSO3 , would change when the temperature of the uncatalyzed reaction mixture is increased. Justify your prediction. (g) How would the presence of a catalyst affect the change in the ratio described in part (f)? Explain. STOP END OF EXAM © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). -13- ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 10/01/2009 for the course OC 9876 taught by Professor Dq during the Spring '09 term at UC Merced.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online