Inheritance

Inheritance - Download 12 Inheritance Principles of Biology...

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Download 12 Inheritance Principles of Biology BIOL 1543 Greig Roberts, DDS Office: SCEN 417 E-Mail: [email protected]
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2 Purebreeds vs Mutts
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3 Petal Carpel Stamen Genetics: the study of heredity Experimental genetics began with Gregor Mendel’s experiments with pea plants. Mendel crossed pea plants that differed in certain characteristics and traced traits from generation to generation.
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4 Flower color Flower position Seed color Seed shape Pod color Pod shape Stem length Purple White Axial Terminal Round Wrinkled Inflated Constricted Tall Dwarf Green Yellow Green Yellow Law of Segregation Mendel hypothesized that there are alternative forms of genes , the units that determine heritable traits. He figured this out in 1866.
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5 Mendel’s law of segregation describes the inheritance of a single characteristic. P generation (true-breeding parents) F 1 generation F 2 generation Purple flowers White flowers × All plants have purple flowers Fertilization among F 1 plants (F 1 × F 1 ) of plants have purple flowers 3 4 of plants have white flowers 1 4 Law of Segregation Mendel deduced that an  organism has two genes  ( alleles ) fo r e a c h  inhe rite d  c ha ra c te ris tic .
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6 For each characteristic, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent If the two alleles of an inherited pair differ, then one determines the organism’s appearance and is called the dominant allele . The other allele has no noticeable effect on the organism’s appearance and is called the recessive allele . Mendel’s law of segregation predicts that allele pairs separate from each other during the production of gametes. Law of Segregation
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7 P plants Gametes Genetic makeup (alleles) Gametes F 1 plants (hybrids) F 2 plants PP pp All P All p All P p Sperm 1 2 P P P p p PP Pp Pp pp Eggs Genotypic ratio 1 PP : 2 Pp : 1 pp Phenotypic ratio 3 purple : 1 white 1 2 p Law of Segregation
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8 Homologous chromosomes bear the two alleles for each characteristic. Alternative forms of a gene reside at the same locus on homologous chromosomes. Genotype: PP aa Bb Heterozygous P a b P a B Gene loci Recessive allele Dominant allele Homozygous for the dominant allele Homozygous for the recessive allele Alleles and chromosomes
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9 The law of independent assortment is revealed by tracking two characteristics at once. By looking at two characteristics at once, Mendel
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Inheritance - Download 12 Inheritance Principles of Biology...

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