Membranes Enzymes and Energy

Membranes Enzymes and Energy - Download 5 Download...

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Download 5 Download 5 Membranes * Enzymes * Energy Principles of Biology BIOL 1543 Greig Roberts, DDS Office: SCEN 417 E-Mail: groberts@uark.edu load 1
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2 Energy is the capacity to perform work Energy can be used or stored . Energy can be changed from one form to another. Thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations. There are four laws of thermodynamics.
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3 Laws of Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created or destroyed The Second Law of Thermodynamics Energy transformations increase entropy (“disorder”), and some energy is lost as heat.
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4 Heat Chemical reactions ATP ATP Glucose + Oxygen water Carbon dioxide + Energy for cellular work Heat loss during energy transformation
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5 The four laws: Zeroth, First, Second, Third In order of discovery: Second, First, Third, Zeroth Second: Energy is always wasted. No perpetual motion. First: You can’t create energy. Third: You can reach absolute zero (0 degrees Kelvin) Therefore: 1. You can’t win. 2. You can’t break even. 3. You can’t get out of the game.
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6 Potential energy Reactants Energy required Products Energy required Chemical reactions either store or release energy Endergonic reactions absorb energy and yield products rich in potential energy. Exergonic reactions release energy and yield products that contain less potential energy than their reactants. Reactants Energy released Products Energy released
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7 Cellular chemical reactions Cells carry out thousands of chemical reactions. Cellular metabolism is the sum of all these reactions. “Energy coupling” is the process of using energy produced by exergonic reactions to fuel endergonic reactions. Cellular work is sustainable because ATP is a renewable resource that cells regenerate. ATP ADP + P Energy for endergonic reactions Energy from exergonic reactions P h o s p r y l a t i n H d
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8 Amazing ATP ATP shuttles chemical energy and powers nearly all forms of cellular work. The energy in an ATP molecule lies in the bonds between its
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