2B Skeleton - Biol 255 Unit 2B Biology 255 Unit 2B The...

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Biol 255 Unit 2B B. Krumhardt, Ph.D., GDCB, ISU 1 Biology 255 Unit 2B – The Skeleton B. Krumhardt, Ph.D. GDCB, Iowa State University Axial Skeleton Eighty bones in three regions – Skull – Vertebral column – Bony thorax Appendicular Skeleton Bones of arms, legs, and shoulder and pelvic girdles Axial Skeleton Skull
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Biol 255 Unit 2B B. Krumhardt, Ph.D., GDCB, ISU 2 Skull Formed by the cranium and facial bones – most complex bony structure of body Cranium – protects the brain and is the site of attachment for head and neck muscles – Paired bones– parietal and temporal – Unpaired bones – frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid Facial bones – Provides framework for face, sense organs, and teeth – Provide openings for passage of air and food – Anchors facial muscles of expression Foramen magnum of occipital bone – spinal cord ascends to brain within skull Carotid canals and jugular foramina – allow for passage of internal carotid arteries and internal jugular veins – Supply blood to brain and drain it away – Near ears – can hear pulse if excited Cribriform plate of the ethmoid – allow passage of olfactory nerves – Crista galli – attaches to the dura mater of the brain’s meninges, holding brain in place
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Biol 255 Unit 2B B. Krumhardt, Ph.D., GDCB, ISU 3 Sella turcica of the sphenoid – Hypophyseal fossa encloses pituitary gland • Orbits – Bony cavities - eyes encased and cushioned by fatty tissue – Formed by frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid – Optic canals of the sphenoid – allows passage of optic nerves from eyes; some nerve fibers cross in the chiasmic groove connecting them Nasal cavity Bone and hyaline cartilage Formed by ethmoid, spenoid, vomer, maxilla, lacrimal, and palatine bones and septal cartilage Covered by mucosa - mucus traps particles Concha swirl air - inspired air acquires moisture and warmth Sinuses – mucosa-lined and air-filled connect to nasal cavity
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