quiz 1 review

quiz 1 review - Social cognition: interface between social...

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Social cognition: interface between social and cognitive psychology. Examines how people understand and make sense of their world, themselves, and others. Attribution is an explanation for an event. People make attributions to predict future events, control future events. Two kinds of attributions: Internal attributions (assign causality to factors -personality). External attributions (assign causality to situational). Attributions affect behavior. Neatness study – Miller, Brickman and Bolen (1975) Used internal attributions to make kids neater. Attribution group repeatedly told they were neat and tidy. Persuasion group: repeatedly told students should be neat and tidy. Persuasion group –told should be neat and tidy. Control group=not told anything. Attribution group had greatest confidence that they were neat. Math study-same researchers replicated results. Used internal attributions to improve kids’ math. Positive reinforcement works well too! Magic marker study: Lepper, Greene, and Nisbett-observed that 3-5 year old kids love playing with magic markers. Created 3 groups of kids to see whether external attributions change behavior Expected reward group-expected reward, got a reward. External attribution: should attribute playing with magic markers to reward. Unexpected reward group: did not expect a reward, got a reward. Internal attribution: should attribute playing with magic markers to liking. No reward-did not expect, didn’t get. Internal attribution: should attribute playing with magic markers to liking. No reward and unexpected reward group had similar future liking to markers. OVERJUSTIFICATION Effect: when rewards undermine intrinsic motivation. ATTRIBUTION 1)Mini-theories of the Attribution Process: Theory of Naïve psychology Developed by Heider (1944) – list of observations. PEOPLE NATURALLY SEE CAUSE- EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS. Observation 1: Time between events affects whether cause-effect relationship is seen. Proximal events occur close in time. Distal events occur far apart in time. Prediction: proximal events are more likely than distal events to be seen as a cause-effect relationship. Observation 2: similarity of events affects whether cause-effect relationship is seen. Prediction: similar events are more likely than dissimilar events to be seen as a cause-effect relationship. Observation 3: People tend to see single causes for events. Obs 4: People do more than id cause and effect relationships. They also make attributions of responsibility. Naïve theory: Time, similarity, single cause, make attribution of responsibility. Levels of responsibility:
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quiz 1 review - Social cognition: interface between social...

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