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Unformatted text preview: wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/30/2008 5:36 pm Page 90 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: A Look Back A Look at This Chapter A Look Ahead Chapter 2 explained the analysis and recording of transactions. We showed how to apply and interpret company accounts, T-accounts, double-entry accounting, ledgers, postings, and trial balances. This chapter explains the timing of reports and the need to adjust accounts. Adjusting accounts is important for recognizing revenues and expenses in the proper period. We describe the adjusted trial balance and how it is used to prepare financial statements. Chapter 4 highlights the completion of the accounting cycle. We explain the important final steps in the accounting process. These include closing procedures, the post-closing trial balance, and reversing entries. 3 Chapter Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements Learning Objectives CAP Conceptual Analytical Procedural importance of periodic C1 Explain theand the time period reporting how accounting adjustments A1 Explain financial statements. (p. 103) link to profit margin and A2 Compute analyzing companydescribe its use in and explain P1 Prepare (p. 95) adjusting entries. prepare P2 Explain and104) an adjusted trial balance. (p. P3 Prepare financial statements from an adjusted trial balance. (p. 104) Explain the P4 Appendix 3A—for prepaids.alternatives in accounting (p. 110) assumption. (p. 92) how C2 Explain accrual accounting and(p. 93)it improves financial statements. of C3 Identify the types 94)adjustments and their purpose. (p. performance. (p. 106) LP3 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/30/2008 5:36 pm Page 91 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Decision Feature High Score “Get a good accountant”—Jason Kapalka (from left: John Vechey, Brian Feite, Jason Kapalka) SEATTLE—Jason Kapalka met John Vechey and Brian of their expenses to the time permitted—which is good management. Feite, both 19 at the time, after the two had created “We’re trying to keep a very simple business model,” insists Jason. The an online game. “We hit it off really well,” explains team continues to fine-tune their accounting system as they remain Jason. “We were all a little unhappy with our jobs. We thought, ‘Hey, focused on revenues, income, assets, and liabilities. “No matter what we could start our own company.’” Their startup company, PopCap you do,” argues Jason, “there’s always something that you haven’t Games (PopCap.com), is a creator and provider of downloadable done.” games. Jason recalls that their friends considered them crazy. Financial statements preparation and analysis are a process that the Undaunted, the three scraped together the little cash they had. three continue to work on. Although they insist on timely and accu- Jason explains that each worked out of their respective apartments to rate accounting reports, Jason says “it really helped us to keep things save money. “We survived,” admits Jason, “because we didn’t have simple.” To help make it simple, they took time to understand ac- many expenses.” The young trio quickly developed a system to ac- counting adjustments and their effects. It is part of the larger picture. count for everything, including cash, revenues, receivables and payables. “You’re not going to get breaks unless you’re working hard.” They also adjusted to the deferral and accrual of revenues and ex- Today, PopCap is a success story. “Now we can afford Mac and penses. Setting up a good accounting system is an important part of Cheese, and the occasional bottle of water,” laughs Jason. “Life is success, explains Jason. “Don’t wait until . . . everything is a big mess.” good!” Most of PopCap’s sales are paid for in advance of game delivery. This means few uncollectible accounts. The team also defers payment [Sources: PopCap Website, January 2009; Entrepreneur, February 2008; Wired, March 2008; 2o2p Magazine, September 2006; Washington Post, March 2008] wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 08/18/2008 10:14 am Page 92 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter Preview Financial statements reflect revenues when earned and expenses when incurred. This is known as accrual accounting, which was the focus of Chapter 2. We showed how companies use accounting systems to collect information about external transactions and events. We also explained how journals, ledgers, and other tools are useful in preparing financial statements. This chapter describes the accounting process for producing useful information involving internal transactions and events. An important part of this process is adjusting the account balances so that financial statements at the end of a reporting period reflect the effects of all transactions. We then explain the important steps in preparing financial statements. Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements Timing and Reporting Adjusting Accounts • Accounting period • Accrual versus cash • Recognition of rev- • • • • • enues and expenses Preparing Financial Statements • Income statement • Statement of Prepaid expenses Unearned revenues Accrued expenses Accrued revenues Adjusted trial balance • owner’s equity Balance sheet Timing and Reporting This section describes the importance of reporting accounting information at regular intervals and its impact for recording revenues and expenses. The Accounting Period C1 Explain the importance of periodic reporting and the time period assumption. The value of information is often linked to its timeliness. Useful information must reach decision makers frequently and promptly. To provide timely information, accounting systems prepare reports at regular intervals. This results in an accounting process impacted by the time period (or periodicity) assumption. The time period assumption presumes that an organization’s activities can Best Buy be divided into specific time periods such as a month, a three-month quarter, a six-month interval, or a year. Exhibit 3.1 shows various accounting, or reporting, periods. Most organizations use a year as their primary accounting period. Reports covering a one-year period are known as annual financial statements. Many organizations also prepare interim financial statements covering one, three, or six months of activity. “Best Buy announces income of . . .” 600% Value of $1 Invested 500% 400% 300% 200% 100% 0% –100% 90 Video3.1 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 1 2 3 4 EXHIBIT 3.1 Accounting Periods Quarterly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Monthly Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Time Semiannually 1 2 Annually 1 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 93 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 93 The annual reporting period is not always a calendar year ending on December 31. An organization can adopt a fiscal year consisting of any 12 consecutive months. It is also acceptable to adopt an annual reporting period of 52 weeks. For example, Gap’s fiscal year consistently ends the final week of January or the first week of February each year. Companies with little seasonal variation in sales often choose the calendar year as their fiscal year. For example, the financial statements of Marvel Enterprises (the company that controls characters such as Spider-Man, Fantastic Four, and Shang-Chi) reflect a fiscal year that ends on December 31. Companies experiencing seasonal variations in sales often choose a natural business year end, which is when sales activities are at their lowest level for the year. The natural business year for retailers such as Wal-Mart, Target, and Macy’s usually ends around January 31, after the holiday season. Accrual Basis versus Cash Basis After external transactions and events are recorded, several accounts still need adjustments before their balances appear in financial statements. This need arises because internal transactions and events remain unrecorded. Accrual basis accounting uses the adjusting process to recognize revenues when earned and expenses when incurred (matched with revenues). Cash basis accounting recognizes revenues when cash is received and records expenses when cash is paid. This means that cash basis net income for a period is the difference between cash receipts and cash payments. Cash basis accounting is not consistent with generally accepted accounting principles. It is commonly held that accrual accounting better reflects business performance than information about cash receipts and payments. Accrual accounting also increases the comparability of financial statements from one period to another. Yet cash basis accounting is useful for several business decisions—which is the reason companies must report a statement of cash flows. To see the difference between these two accounting systems, let’s consider FastForward’s Prepaid Insurance account. FastForward paid $2,400 for 24 months of insurance coverage beginning on December 1, 2009. Accrual accounting requires that $100 of insurance expense be reported on December 2009’s income statement. Another $1,200 of expense is reported in year 2010, and the remaining $1,100 is reported as expense in the first 11 months of 2011. Exhibit 3.2 illustrates this allocation of insurance cost across these three years. The accrual basis balance sheet reports any unexpired premium as a Prepaid Insurance asset. Transaction: Paid $2,400 for 24 months’ insurance beginning Dec. 1, 2009 Insurance Expense 2009 Jan $0 Feb $0 May $0 Sept $0 Mar $0 June $0 Oct $0 July $0 Apr $0 Aug $0 Dec $100 Nov $0 Feb $100 May $100 Sept $100 Mar $100 June $100 Oct $100 Apr $100 July $100 Nov $100 Aug $100 Insurance Expense 2009 Jan $0 May $0 Sept $0 Feb $0 June $0 Oct $0 Mar $0 July $0 Apr $0 Aug $0 Dec Nov $2,400 $0 Accrual Accounting for Allocating Prepaid Insurance to Expense Insurance Expense 2011 Jan $100 May $0 Sept $0 Feb $0 June $0 Oct $0 Mar $0 July $0 Nov $0 Apr $0 Aug $0 Dec $0 Mar $100 June $100 Oct $100 Apr $100 July $100 Nov $100 Aug $100 Dec $0 EXHIBIT 3.3 Cash Accounting for Allocating Prepaid Insurance to Expense Insurance Expense 2010 Jan $0 Feb $100 May $100 Sept $100 Dec $100 Explain accrual accounting and how it improves financial statements. EXHIBIT 3.2 Insurance Expense 2010 Jan $100 Alternatively, a cash basis income statement for December 2009 reports insurance expense of $2,400, as shown in Exhibit 3.3. The cash basis income statements for years 2010 and 2011 report no insurance expense. The cash basis balance sheet never reports an insurance asset because it is immediately expensed. This shows that cash basis income for 2009–2011 fails to match the cost of insurance with the insurance benefits received for those years and months. Transaction: Paid $2,400 for 24 months’ insurance beginning Dec. 1, 2009 C2 Insurance Expense 2011 Jan $0 May $0 Sept $0 Feb $0 June $0 Oct $0 Mar $0 July $0 Nov $0 Apr $0 Aug $0 Dec $0 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 08/18/2008 10:14 am Page 94 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 94 Recognizing Revenues and Expenses Point: Recording revenue early overstates current-period revenue and income; recording it late understates current-period revenue and income. Point: Recording expense early overstates current-period expense and understates current-period income; recording it late understates currentperiod expense and overstates currentperiod income. We use the time period assumption to divide a company’s activities into specific time periods, but not all activities are complete when financial statements are prepared. Thus, adjustments often are required to get correct account balances. We rely on two principles in the adjusting process: revenue recognition and matching. Chapter 1 explained that the revenue recognition principle requires that revenue be recorded when earned, not before and not after. Most companies earn revenue when they provide services and products to customers. A major goal of the adjusting process is to have revenue recognized (reported) in the time period when it is earned. The matching principle aims to record expenses in the same accounting period as the revenues that are earned as a result of those expenses. This matching of expenses with the revenue benefits is a major part of the adjusting process. Matching expenses with revenues often requires us to predict certain events. When we use financial statements, we must understand that they require estimates and therefore include measures that are not precise. Walt Disney’s annual report explains that its production costs from movies, such as Pirates of the Caribbean, are matched to revenues based on a ratio of current revenues from the movie divided by its predicted total revenues. Decision Insight Improper Adjustments Revenue recognition and expense matching are key to recording accounting adjustments. Good adjustments require good management judgment. Failure in judgment led to improper adjustments at Fannie Mae, AOL Time Warner, WorldCom, and Xerox. Quick Check Answers—p. 113 1. Describe a company’s annual reporting period. 2. Why do companies prepare interim financial statements? 3. What two accounting principles most directly drive the adjusting process? 4. Is cash basis accounting consistent with the matching principle? Why or why not? 5. If your company pays a $4,800 premium on April 1, 2009, for two years’ insurance coverage, how much insurance expense is reported in 2010 using cash basis accounting? Adjusting Accounts Adjusting accounts is a 3-step process: Step 1: Determine the current account balance. Step 2: Determine what the current account balance should be. Step 3: Record an adjusting entry to get from step 1 to step 2. Framework for Adjustments C3 Identify the types of adjustments and their purpose. Point: Source documents provide information for most daily transactions, and in many businesses the recordkeepers record them. Adjustments require more knowledge and are usually handled by senior accounting professionals. Adjustments are necessary for transactions and events that extend over more than one period. It is helpful to group adjustments by the timing of cash receipt or cash payment in relation to the recognition of the related revenues or expenses. Exhibit 3.4 identifies four types of adjustments. The left side of this exhibit shows prepaid expenses (including depreciation) and unearned revenues, which reflect transactions when cash is paid or received before a related expense or revenue is recognized. They are also called deferrals because the recognition of an expense (or revenue) is deferred until after the related cash is paid (or received). The right side of this exhibit shows accrued expenses and accrued revenues, which reflect transactions when cash is paid or received after a related expense or revenue is recognized. Adjusting entries are necessary for each of these so that revenues, expenses, assets, and liabilities are correctly reported. It is helpful to remember that each adjusting entry affects one or more income statement accounts and one or more balance sheet accounts (but never the Cash account). wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 08/18/2008 10:56 am Page 95 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 95 EXHIBIT 3.4 Adjustments Paid (or received) cash after expense (or revenue) recognized Paid (or received) cash before expense (or revenue) recognized Prepaid (Deferred) expenses* Types of Adjustments Unearned (Deferred) revenues Accrued revenues Accrued expenses *Includes depreciation. Prepaid (Deferred) Expenses Prepaid expenses refer to items paid for in advance of receiving their benefits. Prepaid expenses are assets. When these assets are used, their costs become expenses. Adjusting entries for prepaids increase expenses and decrease assets as shown in the T-accounts of Exhibit Decreased Increased 3.5. Such adjustments reflect transactions Expense Asset and events that use up prepaid expenses Unadjusted Credit Debit (including passage of time). To illustrate balance adjustment adjustment the accounting for prepaid expenses, we Adjusting look at prepaid insurance, supplies, and Entry depreciation. Prepaid Insurance P1 Prepare and explain adjusting entries. EXHIBIT 3.5 Adjusting for Prepaid Expenses We use our 3-step process for this and all accounting adjustments. Insurance We determine the current balance of FastForward’s prepaid insurance to be equal to its payment of $2,400 for 24 months of insurance benefits beginning on December 1, 2009. Step 1: With the passage of time, the benefits of the insurance gradually expire and a portion of the Prepaid Insurance asset becomes expense. For instance, one month’s insurance coverage expires by December 31, 2009. This expense is $100, or 1 24 of $2,400. Dec. 6 Purchase insurance and record asset Two-Year Insurance Policy Step 2: Total cost is $2,400 Monthly cost is $100 Dec. 31 Coverage expires and record expense The adjusting entry to record this expense and reduce the asset, along with T-account postings, follows: Step 3: Dec. 31 Adjustment (a) Insurance Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To record first month’s expired insurance. Insurance Expense Dec. 31 100 100 100 Prepaid Insurance 637 Dec. 6 2,400 Balance Dec. 31 Assets 100 Liabilities Equity 100 128 100 2,300 After adjusting and posting, the $100 balance in Insurance Expense and the $2,300 balance in Prepaid Insurance are ready for reporting in financial statements. Not making the adjustment on or before December 31 would (1) understate expenses by $100 and overstate net income by $100 for the December income statement and (2) overstate both prepaid insurance (assets) and equity (because of net income) by $100 in the December 31 balance sheet. Exhibit 3.2 showed that 2010’s adjustments must transfer a total of $1,200 from Prepaid Insurance to Insurance Expense, and 2011’s adjustments must transfer the remaining $1,100 to Insurance Expense. The following table highlights the December 31 adjustment for prepaid insurance. Explanation Point: Many companies record adjusting entries only at the end of each year because of the time and cost necessary. wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 08/18/2008 10:14 am Page 96 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 96 Before Adjustment Prepaid Insurance $2,400 Adjustment After Adjustment Deduct $100 from Prepaid Insurance Add $100 to Insurance Expense Prepaid Insurance Record current month’s $100 insurance expense and $100 reduction in prepaid amount. Reports $2,400 policy for 24-months’ coverage. $2,300 Reports $2,300 in coverage for remaining 23 months. Supplies Supplies are a prepaid expense requiring adjustment. Supplies Dec. 2,6,26 Purchase supplies and record asset Step 1: Recall that FastForward purchased $9,720 of supplies in December and used some of them. When financial statements are prepared at December 31, the cost of supplies used during December must be recognized. When FastForward computes (takes physical count of) its remaining unused supplies at December 31, it finds $8,670 of supplies remaining of the $9,720 total supplies. The $1,050 difference between these two amounts is December’s supplies expense. Step 2: Dec. 31 Supplies used and record expense Assets 1,050 Liabilities Equity 1,050 Step 3: The adjusting entry to record this expense and reduce the Supplies asset account, along with T-account postings, follows: Dec. 31 Adjustment (b) Supplies Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To record supplies used. Supplies Expense Dec. 31 1,050 1,050 1,050 Supplies 652 Dec. 2 6 26 2,500 7,100 120 Balance Dec. 31 126 1,050 8,670 The balance of the Supplies account is $8,670 after posting—equaling the cost of the remaining supplies. Not making the adjustment on or before December 31 would (1) understate expenses by $1,050 and overstate net income by $1,050 for the December income statement and (2) overstate both supplies and equity (because of net income) by $1,050 in the December 31 balance sheet. The following table highlights the adjustment for supplies. Explanation Before Adjustment Supplies $9,720 Reports $9,720 in supplies. Point: We assume that prepaid and unearned items are recorded in balance sheet accounts. An alternative is to record them in income statement accounts; Appendix 3A discusses this alternative. The adjusted financial statements are identical. Adjustment Deduct $1,050 from Supplies Add $1,050 to Supplies Expense Record $1,050 in supplies used and $1,050 as supplies expense. After Adjustment Supplies $8,670 Reports $8,670 in supplies. Other Prepaid Expenses Other prepaid expenses, such as Prepaid Rent, are accounted for exactly as Insurance and Supplies are. We should note that some prepaid expenses are both paid for and fully used up within a single accounting period. One example is when a company pays monthly rent on the first day of each month. This payment creates a prepaid expense on the first day of each month that fully expires by the end of the month. In these special cases, we can record the cash paid with a debit to an expense account instead of an asset account. This practice is described more completely later in the chapter. Decision Maker Investor A small publishing company signs a well-known athlete to write a book. The company pays the athlete $500,000 to sign plus future book royalties. A note to the company’s financial statements says that “prepaid expenses include $500,000 in author signing fees to be matched against future expected sales.” Is this accounting for the signing bonus acceptable? How does it affect your analysis? [Answer—p. 112] wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 97 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements A special category of prepaid expenses is plant assets, which refers to longterm tangible assets used to produce and sell products and services. Plant assets are expected to provide benefits for more than one period. Examples of plant assets are buildings, machines, vehicles, and fixtures. All plant assets, with a general exception for land, eventually wear out or decline in usefulness. The costs of these assets are deferred but are gradually reported as expenses in the income statement over the assets’ useful lives (benefit periods). Depreciation is the process of allocating the costs of these assets over their expected useful lives. Depreciation expense is recorded with an adjusting entry similar to that for other prepaid expenses. 97 Depreciation Point: Depreciation does not necessarily measure decline in market value. Point: An asset’s expected value at the end of its useful life is called salvage value. Step 1: Recall that FastForward purchased equipment for $26,000 in early December to use in earning revenue. This equipment’s cost must be depreciated. The equipment is expected to have a useful life (benefit period) of four years and to be worth about $8,000 at the end of four years. This means the net cost of this equipment over its useful life is $18,000 ($26,000 $8,000). We can use any of several methods to allocate this $18,000 net cost to expense. FastForward uses a method called straight-line depreciation, which allocates equal amounts of the asset’s net cost to depreciation during its useful life. Dividing the $18,000 net cost by the 48 months in the asset’s useful life gives a monthly cost of $375 ($18,000 48). Step 2: Depreciation Dec. 3 Dec. 31 Purchase equipment and record asset Allocate asset cost and record depreciation Step 3: The adjusting entry to record monthly depreciation expense, along with T-account postings, follows: Adjustment (c) Depreciation Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment . . . . . . . To record monthly equipment depreciation. Dec. 31 Depreciation Expense—Equipment Dec. 31 375 Equipment 612 Dec. 3 Assets 375 375 Liabilities Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment 167 26,000 Dec. 31 375 Equity 375 168 375 After posting the adjustment, the Equipment account ($26,000) less its Accumulated Depreciation ($375) account equals the $25,625 net cost of the 47 remaining months in the benefit period. The $375 balance in the Depreciation Expense account is reported in the December income statement. Not making the adjustment at December 31 would (1) understate expenses by $375 and overstate net income by $375 for the December income statement and (2) overstate both assets and equity (because of income) by $375 in the December 31 balance sheet. The following table highlights the adjustment for depreciation. Explanation Before Adjustment Equipment, net $26,000 Reports $26,000 in equipment. Adjustment Deduct $375 from Equipment, net Add $375 to Depreciation Expense Record $375 in depreciation and $375 as accumulated depreciation, which is deducted from equipment. After Adjustment Equipment, net $25,625 Reports $25,625 in equipment, net of accumulated depreciation. Accumulated depreciation is kept in a separate contra account. A contra account is an account linked with another account, it has an opposite normal balance, and it is reported as a subtraction from that other account’s balance. For instance, FastForward’s contra account of Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment is subtracted from the Equipment account in the balance sheet (see Exhibit 3.7). This contra account allows balance sheet readers to know both the full costs of assets and the total depreciation. The title of the contra account, Accumulated Depreciation, indicates that this account includes total depreciation expense for all prior periods for which the asset was used. To illustrate, the Equipment and the Accumulated Depreciation accounts appear as in Exhibit 3.6 on February 28, 2010, after three months of adjusting entries. The $1,125 balance in the accumulated depreciation account can be subtracted from its related $26,000 asset cost. The difference ($24,875) between these two balances is the cost of the asset that has not yet been Point: The cost principle requires an asset to be initially recorded at acquisition cost. Depreciation causes the asset’s book value (cost less accumulated depreciation) to decline over time. wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 08/18/2008 10:56 am Page 98 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 98 EXHIBIT 3.6 Accounts after Three Months of Depreciation Adjustments Equipment Dec. 3 Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment 167 26,000 168 375 375 375 Balance Point: The net cost of equipment is also called the depreciable basis. Dec. 31 Jan. 31 Feb. 28 1,125 depreciated. This difference is called the book value, or the net amount, which equals the asset’s costs less its accumulated depreciation. These account balances are reported in the assets section of the February 28 balance sheet in Exhibit 3.7. EXHIBIT 3.7 Assets (at February 28, 2010) Equipment and Accumulated Depreciation on February 28 Balance Sheet Cash . . . . Equipment Less accumulated depreciation Total Assets $ $26,000 1,125 24,875 $ Commonly titled Equipment, net Decision Maker Entrepreneur You are preparing an offer to purchase a family-run restaurant. The depreciation schedule for the restaurant’s building and equipment shows costs of $175,000 and accumulated depreciation of $155,000. This leaves a net for building and equipment of $20,000. Is this information useful in helping you decide on a purchase offer? [Answer—p. 113] Unearned (Deferred) Revenues EXHIBIT 3.8 Adjusting for Unearned Revenues Point: To defer is to postpone. We postpone reporting amounts received as revenues until they are earned. Unearned Revenues Dec. 26 Cash received in advance and record liability Thanks for cash in advance. I’ll work now through Feb. 24 Dec. 31 Provided services and record revenue The term unearned revenues refers to cash received in advance of providing products and services. Unearned revenues, also called deferred revenues, are liabilities. When cash is accepted, an obligation to provide Decreased Increased products or services is accepted. As products or services are provided, the unRevenue Liability earned revenues become earned revenues. Debit Unadjusted Credit Adjusting entries for unearned revenues adjustment balance adjustment involve increasing revenues and decreasAdjusting Entry ing unearned revenues, as shown in Exhibit 3.8. An example of unearned revenues is from The New York Times Company, which reports unexpired (unearned) subscriptions of nearly $80 million: “Proceeds from . . . subscriptions are deferred at the time of sale and are recognized in earnings on a pro rata basis over the terms of the subscriptions.” Unearned revenues are nearly 10% of the current liabilities for the Times. Another example comes from the Boston Celtics. When the Celtics receive cash from advance ticket sales and broadcast fees, they record it in an unearned revenue account called Deferred Game Revenues. The Celtics recognize this unearned revenue with adjusting entries on a gameby-game basis. Since the NBA regular season begins in October and ends in April, revenue recognition is mainly limited to this period. For a recent season, the Celtics’ quarterly revenues were $0 million for July–September; $34 million for October–December; $48 million for January–March; and $17 million for April–June. FastForward has unearned revenues. It agreed on December 26 to provide consulting services to a client for a fixed fee of $3,000 for 60 days. On December 26, the client paid the 60-day fee in advance, covering the period December 27 to February 24. The entry to record the cash received in advance is Step 1: wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 99 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements Dec. 26 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned Consulting Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Received advance payment for services over the next 60 days. 3,000 3,000 99 Assets 3,000 Liabilities 3,000 Equity This advance payment increases cash and creates an obligation to do consulting work over the next 60 days. As time passes, FastForward earns this payment through consulting. By December 31, it has provided five days’ service and earned 5 60 of the $3,000 unearned revenue. This amounts to $250 ($3,000 5 60). The revenue recognition principle implies that $250 of unearned revenue must be reported as revenue on the December income statement. Step 2: The adjusting entry to reduce the liability account and recognize earned revenue, along with T-account postings, follows: Step 3: Dec. 31 Adjustment (d ) Unearned Consulting Revenue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consulting Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To record earned revenue that was received in advance ($3,000 5 60). Unearned Consulting Revenue Dec. 31 250 236 Dec. 26 Assets 250 Consulting Revenue 3,000 Balance 250 2,750 Liabilities 250 Equity 250 403 Dec. 5 12 31 4,200 1,600 250 Balance 6,050 The adjusting entry transfers $250 from unearned revenue (a liability account) to a revenue account. Not making the adjustment (1) understates revenue and net income by $250 in the December income statement and (2) overstates unearned revenue and understates equity by $250 on the December 31 balance sheet. The following highlights the adjustment for unearned revenue. Explanation Before Adjustment Adjustment After Adjustment Unearned Consulting Revenue $3,000 Deduct $250 from Unearned Consulting Revenue Add $250 to Consulting Revenue Unearned Consulting Revenue $2,750 Reports $3,000 in unearned revenue for consulting services promised for 60 days. Record 5 days of earned consulting revenue, which is 5/60 of unearned amount. Reports $2,750 in unearned revenue for consulting services owed over next 55 days. Accounting for unearned revenues is crucial to many companies. For example, the National Retail Federation reports that gift card sales, which are unearned revenues for sellers, exceed $20 billion annually. Gift cards are now the top selling holiday gift. Accrued Expenses Accrued expenses refer to costs that are incurred in a period but are both unpaid and unrecorded. Accrued expenses must be reported on the income statement of the period when incurred. Adjusting entries for recording accrued expenses involves increasing Increased Increased expenses and increasing liabilities as Expense Liability shown in Exhibit 3.9. This adjustment Debit Credit recognizes expenses incurred in a period adjustment adjustment but not yet paid. Common examples of Adjusting Entry accrued expenses are salaries, interest, EXHIBIT 3.9 Adjusting for Accrued Expenses Point: Accrued expenses are also called accrued liabilities. wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 100 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 100 rent, and taxes. We use salaries and interest to show how to adjust accounts for accrued expenses. FastForward’s employee earns $70 per day, or $350 for a five-day workweek beginning on Monday and ending on Friday. Accrued Salaries Expense Step 1: Its employee is paid every two weeks on Friday. On December 12 and 26, the wages are paid, recorded in the journal, and posted to the ledger. The calendar in Exhibit 3.10 shows three working days after the December 26 payday (29, 30, and 31). This means the employee has earned three days’ salary by the close of Step 2: EXHIBIT 3.10 Salary Accrual and Paydays S M T 1 Pay period begins 7 14 21 28 8 23 22 29 30 T 3 9 17 24 11 18 25 S 5 12 19 26 S M T W T F 11 18 27 25 6 5 4 13 20 12 19 26 13 20 27 Payday 7 14 21 28 8 15 22 29 10 9 17 16 23 30 S 3 2 1 6 31 Salary expense incurred Point: An employer records salaries expense and a vacation pay liability when employees earn vacation pay. F 4 10 16 15 W 2 24 31 Payday business on Wednesday, December 31, yet this salary cost is not paid or recorded. The financial statements would be incomplete if FastForward fails to report the added expense and liability to the employee for unpaid salary from December 29, 30, and 31. Step 3: The adjusting entry to account for accrued salaries, along with T-account postings, follows: Assets Liabilities 210 Equity 210 Point: Instead, assume: (1) the last payday for the year is Dec. 19, (2) the next payday is Jan. 2, and (3) Dec. 25 is a paid holiday. Record the Dec. 31 adjusting entry. Answer: We must accrue pay for 8 working days (8 $70): Salaries Expense . . . 560 Salaries Payable . . . . 560 Adjustment (e) Salaries Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To record three days’ accrued salary (3 $70). Dec. 31 Salaries Expense Dec. 12 26 31 Balance 622 700 700 210 210 210 Salaries Payable 209 Dec. 31 210 1,610 Explanation Salaries expense of $1,610 is reported on the December income statement and $210 of salaries payable (liability) is reported in the balance sheet. Not making the adjustment (1) understates salaries expense and overstates net income by $210 in the December income statement and (2) understates salaries payable (liabilities) and overstates equity by $210 on the December 31 balance sheet. The following highlights the adjustment for salaries incurred. Before Adjustment Salaries Payable $0 Reports $0 from employee salaries incurred but not yet paid in cash. Adjustment Add $210 to Salaries Payable Add $210 to Salaries Expense Record 3 days’ salaries owed to employee, but not yet paid, at $70 per day. After Adjustment Salaries Payable $210 Reports $210 salaries payable to employee but not yet paid. Accrued Interest Expense Companies commonly have accrued interest expense on notes payable and other long-term liabilities at the end of a period. Interest expense is incurred with the wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 08/18/2008 10:56 am Page 101 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 101 passage of time. Unless interest is paid on the last day of an accounting period, we need to adjust for interest expense incurred but not yet paid. This means we must accrue interest cost from the most recent payment date up to the end of the period. The formula for computing accrued interest is: Principal amount owed Annual interest rate Fraction of year since last payment date. To illustrate, if a company has a $6,000 loan from a bank at 6% annual interest, then 30 days’ accrued interest expense is $30—computed as $6,000 0.06 30 360. The adjusting entry would be to debit Interest Expense for $30 and credit Interest Payable for $30. Point: Interest computations assume a 360-day year; known as the bankers’ rule. Adjusting entries for accrued expenses foretell cash transactions in future periods. Specifically, accrued expenses at the end of one accounting period result in cash payment in a future period(s). To illustrate, recall that FastForward recorded accrued salaries of $210. On January 9, the first payday of the next period, the following entry settles the accrued liability (salaries payable) and records salaries expense for seven days of work in January: Future Payment of Accrued Expenses Jan. 9 Salaries Payable (3 days at $70 per day) . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries Expense (7 days at $70 per day) . . . . . . . . . . Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paid two weeks’ salary including three days accrued in December. 210 490 Assets 700 Liabilities 210 Equity 490 700 The $210 debit reflects the payment of the liability for the three days’ salary accrued on December 31. The $490 debit records the salary for January’s first seven working days (including the New Year’s Day holiday) as an expense of the new accounting period. The $700 credit records the total amount of cash paid to the employee. Accrued Revenues The term accrued revenues refers to revenues earned in a period that are both unrecorded and not yet received in cash (or other assets). An example is a technician who bills customers only when the job is done. If one-third of a job is complete by the end of a period, then the technician must record one-third of the expected billing as revenue in that period—even though there is no billing or collection. The adIncreased Increased justing entries for accrued revenues increase assets and increase revenues as Asset Revenue shown in Exhibit 3.11. Accrued revenues Debit Credit commonly arise from services, products, adjustment adjustment interest, and rent. We use service fees Adjusting Entry and interest to show how to adjust for accrued revenues. Accrued Services Revenue Accrued revenues are not recorded until adjusting entries are made at the end of the accounting period. These accrued revenues are earned but unrecorded because either the buyer has not yet paid for them or the seller has not yet billed the buyer. FastForward provides an example. Point: Accrued revenues are also called accrued assets. EXHIBIT 3.11 Adjusting for Accrued Revenues Accrued Revenues Dec. 31 Step 1: In the second week of December, it agreed to provide 30 days of consulting services to a local sports club for a fixed fee of $2,700. The terms of the initial agreement call for FastForward to provide services from December 12, 2009, through January 10, 2010, or 30 days of service. The club agrees to pay FastForward $2,700 on January 10, 2010, when the service period is complete. At December 31, 2009, 20 days of services have already been provided. Since the contracted services are not yet entirely provided, FastForward has neither billed the club nor recorded the services already provided. Still, FastForward has earned two-thirds of the 30-day Record revenue and receivable for services provided but unbilled Pay me next month Step 2: Jan. 10 Receive cash and reduce receivable wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 08/18/2008 10:14 am Page 102 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: 102 Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements fee, or $1,800 ($2,700 20 30). The revenue recognition principle implies that it must report the $1,800 on the December income statement. The balance sheet also must report that the club owes FastForward $1,800. Step 3: The year-end adjusting entry to account for accrued services revenue is Assets 1,800 Liabilities Equity 1,800 Dec. 31 Adjustment (f ) Accounts Receivable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consulting Revenue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To record 20 days’ accrued revenue. Accounts Receivable Dec. 12 31 Balance Dec. 22 106 1,800 Consulting Revenue 1,900 1,800 403 Dec. 5 12 31 31 4,200 1,600 250 1,800 Balance Example: What is the adjusting entry if the 30-day consulting period began on December 22? Answer: One-third of the fee is earned: Accounts Receivable . . . 900 Consulting Revenue . . . 900 1,900 1,800 1,800 7,850 Accounts receivable are reported on the balance sheet at $1,800, and the $7,850 total of consulting revenue is reported on the income statement. Not making the adjustment would understate (1) both consulting revenue and net income by $1,800 in the December income statement and (2) both accounts receivable (assets) and equity by $1,800 on the December 31 balance sheet. The following table highlights the adjustment for accrued revenue. Explanation Before Adjustment Accounts Receivable Adjustment $0 Reports $0 from revenue earned but not yet received in cash. Add $1,800 to Accounts Receivable Add $1,800 to Consulting Revenue Record 20 days of earned consulting revenue, which is 20/30 of total contract amount. After Adjustment Accounts Receivable $1,800 Reports $1,800 in accounts receivable from consulting services provided. Accrued Interest Revenue In addition to the accrued interest expense we described earlier, interest can yield an accrued revenue when a debtor owes money (or other assets) to a company. If a company is holding notes or accounts receivable that produce interest revenue, we must adjust the accounts to record any earned and yet uncollected interest revenue. The adjusting entry is similar to the one for accruing services revenue. Specifically, we debit Interest Receivable (asset) and credit Interest Revenue. Future Receipt of Accrued Revenues Accrued revenues at the end of one accounting period result in cash receipts in a future period(s). To illustrate, recall that FastForward made an adjusting entry for $1,800 to record 20 days’ accrued revenue earned from its consulting contract. When FastForward receives $2,700 cash on January 10 for the entire contract amount, it makes the following entry to remove the accrued asset (accounts receivable) and recognize the revenue earned in January. The $2,700 debit reflects the cash received. The $1,800 credit reflects the removal of the receivable, and the $900 credit records the revenue earned in January. Assets 2,700 1,800 Liabilities Equity 900 Jan. 10 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts Receivable (20 days at $90 per day) . . . . Consulting Revenue (10 days at $90 per day) . . . . Received cash for the accrued asset and recorded earned consulting revenue for January. 2,700 1,800 900 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 103 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 103 Decision Maker Loan Officer The owner of an electronics store applies for a business loan. The store’s financial statements reveal large increases in current-year revenues and income. Analysis shows that these increases are due to a promotion that let consumers buy now and pay nothing until January 1 of next year. The store recorded these sales as accrued revenue. Does your analysis raise any concerns? [Answer—p. 113] Links to Financial Statements The process of adjusting accounts is intended to bring an asset or liability account balance to its correct amount. It also updates a related expense or revenue account. These adjustments are necessary for transactions and events that extend over more than one period. (Adjusting entries are posted like any other entry.) Exhibit 3.12 summarizes the four types of transactions requiring adjustment. Understanding this exhibit is important to understanding the adjusting process and its importance to financial statements. Remember that each adjusting entry affects one or more income statement accounts and one or more balance sheet accounts (but never cash). Category Balance Sheet Income Statement Adjusting Entry Prepaid expenses† Asset overstated Equity overstated Liability overstated Equity understated Liability understated Equity overstated Asset understated Equity understated Expense understated Dr. Expense Cr. Asset* Dr. Liability Cr. Revenue Dr. Expense Cr. Liability Dr. Asset Cr. Revenue Accrued expenses Accrued revenues Revenue understated Expense understated Revenue understated * For depreciation, the credit is to Accumulated Depreciation (contra asset). † Exhibit assumes that prepaid expenses are initially recorded as assets and that unearned revenues are initially recorded as liabilities. Information about some adjustments is not always available until several days or even weeks after the period-end. This means that some adjusting and closing entries are recorded later than, but dated as of, the last day of the period. One example is a company that receives a utility bill on January 10 for costs incurred for the month of December. When it receives the bill, the company records the expense and the payable as of December 31. Other examples include long-distance phone usage and costs of many Web billings. The December income statement reflects these additional expenses incurred, and the December 31 balance sheet includes these payables, although the amounts were not actually known on December 31. Decision Ethics Financial Officer At year-end, the president instructs you, the financial officer, not to record accrued expenses until next year because they will not be paid until then. The president also directs you to record in current-year sales a recent purchase order from a customer that requires merchandise to be delivered two weeks after the year-end. Your company would report a net income instead of a net loss if you carry out these instructions. What do you do? [Answer—p. 113] Quick Check Answers—p. 113 6. If an adjusting entry for accrued revenues of $200 at year-end is omitted, what is this error’s effect on the year-end income statement and balance sheet? 7. What is a contra account? Explain its purpose. 8. What is an accrued expense? Give an example. 9. Describe how an unearned revenue arises. Give an example. Explain how accounting adjustments link to financial statements. EXHIBIT 3.12 BEFORE Adjusting Unearned revenues† A1 Summary of Adjustments and Financial Statement Links wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 104 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 104 Adjusted Trial Balance P2 Explain and prepare an adjusted trial balance. An unadjusted trial balance is a list of accounts and balances prepared before adjustments are recorded. An adjusted trial balance is a list of accounts and balances prepared after adjusting entries have been recorded and posted to the ledger. Exhibit 3.13 shows both the unadjusted and the adjusted trial balances for FastForward at December 31, 2009. The order of accounts in the trial balance is usually set up to match the order in the chart of accounts. Several new accounts arise from the adjusting entries. EXHIBIT 3.13 Unadjusted and Adjusted Trial Balances FASTFORWARD Trial Balances December 31, 2009 Unadjusted Trial Balance Acct. No. 101 106 126 128 167 168 201 209 236 301 302 403 406 612 622 637 640 652 690 Dr. Cr. Account Title $ 4,350 Cash (f) $1,800 0 Accounts receivable Supplies 9,720 2,400 Prepaid insurance 26,000 Equipment $ 0 Accumulated depreciation—Equip. 6,200 Accounts payable 0 Salaries payable Unearned consulting revenue 250 3,000 (d) C. Taylor, Capital 30,000 200 C. Taylor, Withdrawals 5,800 Consulting revenue Rental revenue Depreciation expense—Equip. Salaries expense Insurance expense Rent expense Supplies expense Utilities expense Totals 300 0 1,400 0 1,000 0 230 $45,300 $45,300 Adjusted Trial Balance Dr. Cr. Adjustments Dr. Cr. (c) (e) (a) 375 210 100 (b) 1,050 $3,785 $ 4,350 1,800 (b) $1,050 8,670 (a) 100 2,300 26,000 (c) 375 $ (e) 210 (d) (f) 250 1,800 375 6,200 210 2,750 30,000 200 7,850 300 375 1,610 100 1,000 1,050 230 $3,785 $47,685 $47,685 Each adjustment (see middle columns) is identified by a letter in parentheses that links it to an adjusting entry explained earlier. Each amount in the Adjusted Trial Balance columns is computed by taking that account’s amount from the Unadjusted Trial Balance columns and adding or subtracting any adjustment(s). To illustrate, Supplies has a $9,720 Dr. balance in the unadjusted columns. Subtracting the $1,050 Cr. amount shown in the adjustments columns yields an adjusted $8,670 Dr. balance for Supplies. An account can have more than one adjustment, such as for Consulting Revenue. Also, some accounts might not require adjustment for this period, such as Accounts Payable. Preparing Financial Statements P3 Prepare financial statements from an adjusted trial balance. Point: Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that financial statements filed with the SEC be certified by the CEO and CFO, including a declaration that the statements fairly present the issuer’s operations and financial condition.Violators can receive fines and/or prison terms. We can prepare financial statements directly from information in the adjusted trial balance. An adjusted trial balance (see the right-most columns in Exhibit 3.13) includes all accounts and balances appearing in financial statements, and is easier to work from than the entire ledger when preparing financial statements. Exhibit 3.14 shows how revenue and expense balances are transferred from the adjusted trial balance to the income statement (red lines). The net income and the withdrawals amount are then used to prepare the statement of owner’s equity (black lines). Asset and liability balances on the adjusted trial balance are then transferred to the balance sheet (blue lines). The ending capital is determined on the statement of owner’s equity and transferred to the balance sheet (green lines). wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 105 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 105 EXHIBIT 3.14 Preparing Financial Statements (Adjusted Trial Balance from Exhibit 3.13) Step 3 Prepare balance sheet FASTFORWARD Adjusted Trial Balance December 31, 2009 FASTFORWARD Balance Sheet December 31, 2009 Acct. No. Account Title Debit Credit 101 Cash ................................................... $ 4,350 1,800 106 Accounts receivable ........................... 8,670 126 Supplies ............................................. 128 Prepaid insurance .............................. 2,300 167 Equipment .......................................... 26,000 $ 375 168 Accumulated depreciation—Equip. ... 201 Accounts payable .............................. 6,200 209 Salaries payable ................................. 210 236 Unearned consulting revenue ............ 2,750 301 C. Taylor, Capital ................................ 30,000 200 302 C. Taylor, Withdrawals ....................... 403 Consulting revenue ............................ 7,850 406 Rental revenue ................................... 300 375 612 Depreciation expense—Equip. .......... 1,610 622 Salaries expense ................................ 100 637 Insurance expense ............................. 1,000 640 Rent expense ..................................... 652 Supplies expense ............................... 1,050 230 690 Utilities expense ................................. Totals .................................................. $47,685 $47,685 ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Assets Cash................................................ Accounts receivable........................ Supplies.......................................... Prepaid insurance........................... Equipment....................................... $26,000 Less accumulated depreciation...... 375 Total assets ................................... $ 4,350 1,800 8,670 2,300 25,625 $ 42,745 Liabilities ⎡ Accounts payable........................... ⎢ Salaries payable.............................. ⎣ Unearned consulting revenue......... Total liabilities .................................. $ 6,200 210 2,750 9,160 Equity C. Taylor, Capital ........................... Total liabilities and equity .............. 33,585 $ 42,745 Step 2 Prepare statement of owner’s equity FASTFORWARD Statement of Owner’s Equity For Month Ended December 31, 2009 C. Taylor, Capital, December 1..... Plus: Investments by owner .......... $30,000 Net income ........................... 3,785 Less: Withdrawals by owner .......... C. Taylor, Capital, December 31 ..... $ 33,785 200 $33,585 Step 1 Prepare income statement FASTFORWARD Income Statement For Month Ended December 31, 2009 ⎡ ⎣ ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Revenues Consulting revenue ........................ Rental revenue ............................... Total revenues ............................... Expenses Depreciation expense — Equip....... Salaries expense............................ Insurance expense.......................... Rent expense.................................. Supplies expense............................ Utilities expense.............................. Total expenses.................................. Net income........................................ We usually prepare financial statements in the following order: income statement, statement of owner’s equity, and balance sheet. This order makes sense because the balance sheet uses information from the statement of owner’s equity, which in turn uses information from the income statement. The statement of cash flows is usually the final statement prepared. 0 $7,850 300 $8,150 375 1,610 100 1,000 1,050 230 4,365 $3,785 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 08/18/2008 10:14 am Page 106 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 106 Quick Check Answers—p. 113 10. Music-Mart records $1,000 of accrued salaries on December 31. Five days later, on January 5 (the next payday), salaries of $7,000 are paid. What is the January 5 entry? 11. Jordan Air has the following information in its unadjusted and adjusted trial balances. What are the adjusting entries that Jordan Air likely recorded? Unadjusted Debit Credit Prepaid insurance . . . . . . . . Salaries payable . . . . . . . . . . Adjusted Debit Credit $6,200 $5,900 $ 0 $1,400 12. What accounts are taken from the adjusted trial balance to prepare an income statement? 13. In preparing financial statements from an adjusted trial balance, what statement is usually prepared second? Profit Margin Decision Analysis A2 Compute profit margin and describe its use in analyzing company performance. A useful measure of a company’s operating results is the ratio of its net income to net sales. This ratio is called profit margin, or return on sales, and is computed as in Exhibit 3.15. EXHIBIT 3.15 Profit margin Profit Margin Net income Net sales This ratio is interpreted as reflecting the percent of profit in each dollar of sales. To illustrate how we compute and use profit margin, let’s look at the results of Limited Brands, Inc., in Exhibit 3.16 for the period 2004 through 2007. EXHIBIT 3.16 $ in millions Limited Brands’ Profit Margin Millions Ratio $11,000 $10,000 $9,000 $8,000 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4,000 $3,000 $2,000 $1,000 $0 8.5% .... .... .... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006 2005 2004 $ 676 $10,671 6.3% 1.6% $ 683 $9,699 7.0% 1.5% $ 705 $9,408 7.5% 1.4% $ 717 $8,934 8.0% 1.5% 7.5% 6.5% 5.5% 0.0% 2007 Limited: Net income . . . . . . . Net sales . . . . . . . . . Profit margin . . . . Industry profit margin 2007 2006 Net Income ($) 2005 Net Sales ($) 2004 Profit Margin (%) The Limited’s average profit margin is 7.2% during this period. This favorably compares to the average industry profit margin of 1.5%. However, Limited’s profit margin has declined in recent years—from 8.0% in 2004 to 6.3% in 2007 (see margin graph). Future success depends on Limited maintaining and preferably increasing its profit margin. Demonstration Problem 1 DP3 The following information relates to Fanning’s Electronics on December 31, 2009. The company, which uses the calendar year as its annual reporting period, initially records prepaid and unearned items in balance sheet accounts (assets and liabilities, respectively). a. The company’s weekly payroll is $8,750, paid each Friday for a five-day workweek. Assume December 31, 2009, falls on a Monday, but the employees will not be paid their wages until Friday, January 4, 2010. wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 08/20/2008 6:47 pm Page 107 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements b. Eighteen months earlier, on July 1, 2008, the company purchased equipment that cost $20,000. Its useful life is predicted to be five years, at which time the equipment is expected to be worthless (zero salvage value). c. On October 1, 2009, the company agreed to work on a new housing development. The company is paid $120,000 on October 1 in advance of future installation of similar alarm systems in 24 new homes. That amount was credited to the Unearned Services Revenue account. Between October 1 and December 31, work on 20 homes was completed. d. On September 1, 2009, the company purchased a 12-month insurance policy for $1,800. The transaction was recorded with an $1,800 debit to Prepaid Insurance. e. On December 29, 2009, the company completed a $7,000 service that has not been billed and not recorded as of December 31, 2009. Required 1. Prepare any necessary adjusting entries on December 31, 2009, in relation to transactions and events a through e. 2. Prepare T-accounts for the accounts affected by adjusting entries, and post the adjusting entries. Determine the adjusted balances for the Unearned Revenue and the Prepaid Insurance accounts. 3. Complete the following table and determine the amounts and effects of your adjusting entries on the year 2009 income statement and the December 31, 2009, balance sheet. Use up (down) arrows to indicate an increase (decrease) in the Effect columns. Entry Amount in the Entry Effect on Net Income Effect on Total Assets Effect on Total Liabilities Effect on Total Equity Planning the Solution • Analyze each situation to determine which accounts need to be updated with an adjustment. • Calculate the amount of each adjustment and prepare the necessary journal entries. • Show the amount of each adjustment in the designated accounts, determine the adjusted balance, and • identify the balance sheet classification of the account. Determine each entry’s effect on net income for the year and on total assets, total liabilities, and total equity at the end of the year. Solution to Demonstration Problem 1 1. Adjusting journal entries. (a) Dec. 31 (b) Dec. 31 (c) Dec. 31 (d ) Dec. 31 (e) Dec. 31 Wages Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wages Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To accrue wages for the last day of the year ($8,750 1 5). Depreciation Expense—Equipment . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment To record depreciation expense for the year ($20,000 5 years $4,000 per year). Unearned Services Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . Services Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To recognize services revenue earned ($120,000 20 24). Insurance Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To adjust for expired portion of insurance ($1,800 4 12). Accounts Receivable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To record services revenue earned. ....... ....... 1,750 ....... ....... 4,000 ....... ....... 100,000 ....... ....... 600 ....... ....... 7,000 1,750 4,000 100,000 600 7,000 107 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 108 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: 108 Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 2. T-accounts for adjusting journal entries a through e. Wages Expense (a) Wages Payable 1,750 (a) Depreciation Expense—Equipment (b) Accumulated Depreciation— Equipment 4,000 (b) Unearned Revenue Unadj. Bal. (c) 120,000 (c) (e) 20,000 100,000 7,000 Adj. Bal. 100,000 107,000 Prepaid Insurance Insurance Expense Unadj. Bal. 600 1,800 (d ) Accounts Receivable (e) 4,000 Services Revenue Adj. Bal. (d ) 1,750 Adj. Bal. 600 1,200 7,000 3. Financial statement effects of adjusting journal entries. Entry Amount in the Entry a b c d e $ 1,750 4,000 100,000 600 7,000 Effect on Net Income $ 1,750 4,000 100,000 600 7,000 Effect on Total Assets Effect on Total Liabilities Effect on Total Equity No effect $4,000 ↓ No effect $ 600 ↓ $7,000 ↑ $ 1,750 ↑ No effect $100,000 ↓ No effect No effect $ 1,750 4,000 100,000 600 7,000 ↓ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ Demonstration Problem 2 Use the following adjusted trial balance to answer questions 1–3. CHOI COMPANY Adjusted Trial Balance December 31 Debit Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated depreciation—Equipment Wages payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [continued on next page] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credit $ 3,050 400 830 80 217,200 $ 29,100 880 ↓ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 109 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements [continued from previous page] Interest payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Long-term notes payable . . . . . . . . M. Choi, Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. Choi, Withdrawals . . . . . . . . . . Rent earned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wages expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utilities expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance expense . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplies expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation expense—Equipment Interest expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,600 460 150,000 40,340 21,000 57,500 25,000 1,900 3,200 250 5,970 3,000 $281,880 $281,880 1. Prepare the annual income statement from the adjusted trial balance of Choi Company. Answer: CHOI COMPANY Income Statement For Year Ended December 31 Revenues Rent earned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expenses Wages expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utilities expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance expense . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplies expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation expense—Equipment Interest expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $57,500 . . . . . . . . $25,000 1,900 3,200 250 5,970 3,000 39,320 $18,180 2. Prepare a statement of owner’s equity from the adjusted trial balance of Choi Company. Choi’s cap- ital account balance of $40,340 consists of a $30,340 balance from the prior year-end, plus a $10,000 owner investment during the current year. Answer: CHOI COMPANY Statement of Owner’s Equity For Year Ended December 31 M. Choi, Capital, December 31 prior year-end . Plus: Owner investments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................. Less: Withdrawals by owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. Choi, Capital, December 31 current year-end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $30,340 $10,000 18,180 28,180 58,520 21,000 $37,520 109 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 110 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 110 3. Prepare a balance sheet from the adjusted trial balance of Choi Company. Answer: CHOI COMPANY Balance Sheet December 31 Assets Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less accumulated depreciation . . . . Total assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wages payable . . . . . . . Interest payable . . . . . . Unearned rent . . . . . . . Long-term notes payable Total liabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liabilities ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... $ 3,050 400 830 80 . . . . . $217,200 29,100 188,100 $192,460 $ 880 3,600 460 150,000 154,940 Equity M. Choi, Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total liabilities and equity . . . . . . . . . . . 37,520 $192,460 APPENDIX 3A Alternative Accounting for Prepayments This appendix explains an alternative in accounting for prepaid expenses and unearned revenues. Recording the Prepayment of Expenses in Expense Accounts P4 Explain the alternatives in accounting for prepaids. An alternative method is to record all prepaid expenses with debits to expense accounts. If any prepaids remain unused or unexpired at the end of an accounting period, then adjusting entries must transfer the cost of the unused portions from expense accounts to prepaid expense (asset) accounts. This alternative method is acceptable. The financial statements are identical under either method, but the adjusting entries are different. To illustrate the differences between these two methods, let’s look at FastForward’s cash payment of December 6 for 24 months of insurance coverage beginning on December 1. FastForward recorded that payment with a debit to an asset account, but it could have recorded a debit to an expense account. These alternatives are shown in Exhibit 3A.1. EXHIBIT 3A.1 Alternative Initial Entries for Prepaid Expenses Payment Recorded as Asset Dec. 6 Dec. 6 Prepaid Insurance Cash . . . . . . Insurance Expense Cash . . . . . . ... ... .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Payment Recorded as Expense 2,400 2,400 2,400 2,400 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 111 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 111 At the end of its accounting period on December 31, insurance protection for one month has expired. This means $100 ($2,400 24) of insurance coverage expired and is an expense for December. The adjusting entry depends on how the original payment was recorded. This is shown in Exhibit 3A.2. Payment Recorded as Asset Dec. 31 Dec. 31 Insurance Expense . . . Prepaid Insurance Prepaid Insurance . . . . Insurance Expense .... .... .... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXHIBIT 3A.2 Payment Recorded as Expense Adjusting Entry for Prepaid Expenses for the Two Alternatives 100 100 2,300 2,300 When these entries are posted to the accounts in the ledger, we can see that these two methods give identical results. The December 31 adjusted account balances in Exhibit 3A.3 show Prepaid Insurance of $2,300 and Insurance Expense of $100 for both methods. Payment Recorded as Asset Prepaid Insurance Dec. 6 2,400 Balance Dec. 31 EXHIBIT 3A.3 Payment Recorded as Expense 128 Prepaid Insurance Dec. 31 Dec. 31 2,300 Account Balances under Two Alternatives for Recording Prepaid Expenses 2,300 Insurance Expense 100 128 637 Insurance Expense 100 Dec. 6 2,400 Balance 637 Dec. 31 2,300 100 Recording the Prepayment of Revenues in Revenue Accounts As with prepaid expenses, an alternative method is to record all unearned revenues with credits to revenue accounts. If any revenues are unearned at the end of an accounting period, then adjusting entries must transfer the unearned portions from revenue accounts to unearned revenue (liability) accounts. This alternative method is acceptable. The adjusting entries are different for these two alternatives, but the financial statements are identical. To illustrate the accounting differences between these two methods, let’s look at FastForward’s December 26 receipt of $3,000 for consulting services covering the period December 27 to February 24. FastForward recorded this transaction with a credit to a liability account. The alternative is to record it with a credit to a revenue account, as shown in Exhibit 3A.4. Receipt Recorded as Liability Dec. 26 Dec. 26 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned Consulting Revenue Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consulting Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipt Recorded as Revenue 3,000 EXHIBIT 3A.4 Alternative Initial Entries for Unearned Revenues 3,000 3,000 3,000 By the end of its accounting period on December 31, FastForward has earned $250 of this revenue. This means $250 of the liability has been satisfied. Depending on how the initial receipt is recorded, the adjusting entry is as shown in Exhibit 3A.5. Receipt Recorded as Liability Dec. 31 Dec. 31 Unearned Consulting Revenue . . . Consulting Revenue . . . . . . . Consulting Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned Consulting Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receipt Recorded as Revenue 250 250 2,750 2,750 EXHIBIT 3A.5 Adjusting Entry for Unearned Revenues for the Two Alternatives wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 112 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 112 After adjusting entries are posted, the two alternatives give identical results. The December 31 adjusted account balances in Exhibit 3A.6 show unearned consulting revenue of $2,750 and consulting revenue of $250 for both methods. EXHIBIT 3A.6 Account Balances under Two Alternatives for Recording Unearned Revenues Receipt Recorded as Liability Unearned Consulting Revenue Dec. 31 250 Receipt Recorded as Revenue 236 Dec. 26 3,000 Balance Unearned Consulting Revenue 2,750 Consulting Revenue Dec. 31 236 Consulting Revenue 403 Dec. 31 250 Dec. 31 2,750 2,750 403 Dec. 26 3,000 Balance 250 Summary C1 Explain the importance of periodic reporting and the time period assumption. The value of information is often linked to its timeliness. To provide timely information, accounting systems prepare periodic reports at regular intervals. The time period assumption presumes that an organization’s activities can be divided into specific time periods for periodic reporting. C2 Explain accrual accounting and how it improves financial statements. Accrual accounting recognizes revenue when earned and expenses when incurred—not necessarily when cash inflows and outflows occur. This information is valuable in assessing a company’s financial position and performance. C3 Identify the types of adjustments and their purpose. Adjustments can be grouped according to the timing of cash receipts and cash payments relative to when they are recognized as revenues or expenses as follows: prepaid expenses, unearned revenues, accrued expenses, and accrued revenues. Adjusting entries are necessary so that revenues, expenses, assets, and liabilities are correctly reported. A1 Explain how accounting adjustments link to financial statements. Accounting adjustments bring an asset or liability account balance to its correct amount. They also update related expense or revenue accounts. Every adjusting entry affects one or more income statement accounts and one or more balance sheet accounts. An adjusting entry never affects cash. A2 Compute profit margin and describe its use in analyzing company performance. Profit margin is defined as the reporting period’s net income divided by its net sales. Profit margin reflects on a company’s earnings activities by showing how much income is in each dollar of sales. P1 Prepare and explain adjusting entries. Prepaid expenses refer to items paid for in advance of receiving their benefits. Prepaid expenses are assets. Adjusting entries for prepaids involve increasing (debiting) expenses and decreasing (crediting) assets. Unearned (or prepaid ) revenues refer to cash received in advance of providing products and services. Unearned revenues are liabilities. Adjusting entries for unearned revenues involves increasing (crediting) revenues and decreasing (debiting) unearned revenues. Accrued expenses refer to costs incurred in a period that are both unpaid and unrecorded. Adjusting entries for recording accrued expenses involve increasing (debiting) expenses and increasing (crediting) liabilities. Accrued revenues refer to revenues earned in a period that are both unrecorded and not yet received in cash. Adjusting entries for recording accrued revenues involve increasing (debiting) assets and increasing (crediting) revenues. Explain and prepare an adjusted trial balance. An adjusted trial balance is a list of accounts and balances prepared after recording and posting adjusting entries. Financial statements are often prepared from the adjusted trial balance. Prepare financial statements from an adjusted trial balance. Revenue and expense balances are reported on the income statement. Asset, liability, and equity balances are reported on the balance sheet. We usually prepare statements in the following order: income statement, statement of owner’s equity, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows. A Explain the alternatives in accounting for prepaids. Charging all prepaid expenses to expense accounts when they are purchased is acceptable. When this is done, adjusting entries must transfer any unexpired amounts from expense accounts to asset accounts. Crediting all unearned revenues to revenue accounts when cash is received is also acceptable. In this case, the adjusting entries must transfer any unearned amounts from revenue accounts to unearned revenue accounts. P2 P3 P4 Guidance Answers to Decision Maker and Decision Ethics Prepaid expenses are items paid for in advance of receiving their benefits. They are assets and are expensed as they are used up. The publishing company’s treatment of the signing bonus is Investor acceptable provided future book sales can at least match the $500,000 expense. As an investor, you are concerned about the risk of future book sales. The riskier the likelihood of future book sales is, the more wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/24/2008 5:45 pm Page 113 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 113 likely your analysis is to treat the $500,000, or a portion of it, as an expense, not a prepaid expense (asset). bills, then collectibility of these sales is low. Your analysis must assess this possibility and recognize any expected losses. Depreciation is a process of cost allocation, not asset valuation. Knowing the depreciation schedule is not especially useful in your estimation of what the building and equipment are currently worth. Your own assessment of the age, quality, and usefulness of the building and equipment is more important. Financial Officer Omitting accrued expenses and recognizing revenue early can mislead financial statement users. One action is to request a second meeting with the president so you can explain that accruing expenses when incurred and recognizing revenue when earned are required practices. If the president persists, you might discuss the situation with legal counsel and any auditors involved. Your ethical action might cost you this job, but the potential pitfalls for falsification of statements, reputation and personal integrity loss, and other costs are too great. Entrepreneur Loan Officer Your concern in lending to this store arises from analysis of current-year sales. While increased revenues and income are fine, your concern is with collectibility of these promotional sales. If the owner sold products to customers with poor records of paying Guidance Answers to Quick Checks 1. An annual reporting (or accounting) period covers one year and 8. An accrued expense is a cost incurred in a period that is both refers to the preparation of annual financial statements. The annual reporting period is not always a calendar year that ends on December 31. An organization can adopt a fiscal year consisting of any consecutive 12 months or 52 weeks. Interim financial statements (covering less than one year) are prepared to provide timely information to decision makers. The revenue recognition principle and the matching principle lead most directly to the adjusting process. No. Cash basis accounting is not consistent with the matching principle because it reports revenue when received, not necessarily when earned, and expenses when paid, not necessarily in the period when the expenses were incurred as a result of the revenues earned. No expense is reported in 2010. Under cash basis accounting, the entire $4,800 is reported as an expense in April 2009 when the premium is paid. If the accrued revenues adjustment of $200 is not made, then both revenues and net income are understated by $200 on the current year’s income statement, and both assets and equity are understated by $200 on the balance sheet. A contra account is an account that is subtracted from the balance of a related account. Use of a contra account provides more information than simply reporting a net amount. unpaid and unrecorded prior to adjusting entries. One example is salaries earned but not yet paid at period-end. An unearned revenue arises when a firm receives cash (or other assets) from a customer before providing the services or products to the customer. A magazine subscription paid in advance is one example; season ticket sales is another. Salaries Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 Salaries Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,000 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,000 Paid salary including accrual from December. The probable adjusting entries of Jordan Air are: Insurance Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Prepaid Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 To record insurance expired. Salaries Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,400 Salaries Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,400 To record accrued salaries. Revenue accounts and expense accounts. Statement of owner’s equity. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. mhhe.com/wildFAP19e Key Terms Key Terms are available at the book’s Website for learning and testing in an online Flashcard Format. Accounting period (p. 92) Accrual basis accounting (p. 93) Accrued expenses (p. 99) Accrued revenues (p. 101) Adjusted trial balance (p. 104) Adjusting entry (p. 94) Annual financial statements (p. 92) Book value (p. 98) Cash basis accounting (p. 93) Contra account (p. 97) Depreciation (p. 97) Fiscal year (p. 93) Interim financial statements (p. 92) Matching principle (p. 94) Natural business year (p. 93) Plant assets (p. 97) Prepaid expenses (p. 95) Profit margin (p. 106) Straight-line depreciation method (p. 97) Time period assumption (p. 92) Unadjusted trial balance (p. 104) Unearned revenues (p. 98) wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 08/18/2008 10:14 am Page 114 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: 114 Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements Answers on p. 133 Multiple Choice Quiz mhhe.com/wildFAP19e Additional Quiz Questions are available at the book’s Website. 1. A company forgot to record accrued and unpaid employee wages of $350,000 at period-end. This oversight would a. Understate net income by $350,000. b. Overstate net income by $350,000. c. Have no effect on net income. d. Overstate assets by $350,000. e. Understate assets by $350,000. 2. Prior to recording adjusting entries, the Supplies account has a $450 debit balance. A physical count of supplies shows $125 of unused supplies still available. The required adjusting entry is: a. Debit Supplies $125; Credit Supplies Expense $125. b. Debit Supplies $325; Credit Supplies Expense $325. c. Debit Supplies Expense $325; Credit Supplies $325. d. Debit Supplies Expense $325; Credit Supplies $125. e. Debit Supplies Expense $125; Credit Supplies $125. 3. On May 1, 2009, a two-year insurance policy was purchased for $24,000 with coverage to begin immediately. What is the amount of insurance expense that appears on the company’s income statement for the year ended December 31, 2009? a. $4,000 b. $8,000 Superscript letter A c. $12,000 d. $20,000 e. $24,000 Quiz3 4. On November 1, 2009, Stockton Co. receives $3,600 cash from Hans Co. for consulting services to be provided evenly over the period November 1, 2009, to April 30, 2010—at which time Stockton credited $3,600 to Unearned Consulting Fees. The adjusting entry on December 31, 2009 (Stockton’s yearend) would include a a. Debit to Unearned Consulting Fees for $1,200. b. Debit to Unearned Consulting Fees for $2,400. c. Credit to Consulting Fees Earned for $2,400. d. Debit to Consulting Fees Earned for $1,200. e. Credit to Cash for $3,600. 5. If a company had $15,000 in net income for the year, and its sales were $300,000 for the same year, what is its profit margin? a. 20% b. 2,000% c. $285,000 d. $315,000 e. 5% denotes assignments based on Appendix 3A. Discussion Questions 1. What is the difference between the cash basis and the accrual basis of accounting? 2. Why is the accrual basis of accounting generally preferred over the cash basis? 3. What type of business is most likely to select a fiscal year that corresponds to its natural business year instead of the calendar year? 4. What is a prepaid expense and where is it reported in the financial statements? 5. What type of assets require adjusting entries to record depreciation? 6. What contra account is used when recording and reporting the effects of depreciation? Why is it used? 7. What is unearned revenue and where is it reported in financial statements? 8. What is an accrued revenue? Give an example. 9.AIf a company initially records prepaid expenses with debits to expense accounts, what type of account is debited in the adjusting entries for those prepaid expenses? Review the balance sheet of Best Buy in Appendix A. Identify the asset accounts that require adjustment before annual financial statements can be prepared. What would be the effect on the income statement if these asset accounts were not adjusted? 11. Review the balance sheet of Circuit City in Appendix A. In addition to Prepayments, identify two accounts (either assets or liabilities) requiring adjusting entries. 12. Refer to RadioShack’s balance sheet in Appendix A. What year-end adjusting entry is necessary for accrued interest earned from its notes receivable listed under current assets? 13. Refer to Apple’s balance sheet in Appendix A. If it made an adjustment for unpaid wages at year-end, where would the accrued wages expense be reported on its balance sheet? 10. Denotes Discussion Questions that involve decision making. wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 115 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 115 Available with McGraw-Hill’s Homework Manager In its first year of operations, Case Co. earned $60,000 in revenues and received $52,000 cash from these customers. The company incurred expenses of $37,500 but had not paid $6,000 of them at year-end. The company also prepaid $3,250 cash for expenses that would be incurred the next year. Calculate the first year’s net income under both the cash basis and the accrual basis of accounting. QUICK STUDY QS 3-1 Computing accrual and cash income P1 C2 Classify the following adjusting entries as involving prepaid expenses (PE), unearned revenues (UR), accrued expenses (AE), or accrued revenues (AR). a. To record wages expense incurred but not yet paid (nor recorded). b. To record expiration of prepaid insurance. c. To record revenue earned that was previously received as cash in advance. d. To record annual depreciation expense. e. To record revenue earned but not yet billed (nor recorded). QS 3-2 Adjusting entries affect at least one balance sheet account and at least one income statement account. For the following entries, identify the account to be debited and the account to be credited. Indicate which of the accounts is the income statement account and which is the balance sheet account. a. Entry to record revenue earned that was previously received as cash in advance. b. Entry to record wage expenses incurred but not yet paid (nor recorded). c. Entry to record revenue earned but not yet billed (nor recorded). d. Entry to record expiration of prepaid insurance. e. Entry to record annual depreciation expense. QS 3-3 a. On July 1, 2009, Rendex Company paid $3,000 for six months of insurance coverage. No adjust- QS 3-4 ments have been made to the Prepaid Insurance account, and it is now December 31, 2009. Prepare the journal entry to reflect expiration of the insurance as of December 31, 2009. b. Indus Company has a Supplies account balance of $900 on January 1, 2009. During 2009, it purchased $4,000 of supplies. As of December 31, 2009, a supplies inventory shows $750 of supplies available. Prepare the adjusting journal entry to correctly report the balance of the Supplies account and the Supplies Expense account as of December 31, 2009. Adjusting prepaid expenses a. Andrews Company purchases $45,000 of equipment on January 1, 2009. The equipment is expected QS 3-5 to last five years and be worth $3,000 at the end of that time. Prepare the entry to record one year’s depreciation expense of $8,400 for the equipment as of December 31, 2009. b. Fortel Company purchases $40,000 of land on January 1, 2009. The land is expected to last indefinitely. What depreciation adjustment, if any, should be made with respect to the Land account as of December 31, 2009? Adjusting for depreciation Lakia Rowell employs one college student every summer in her coffee shop. The student works the five weekdays and is paid on the following Monday. (For example, a student who works Monday through Friday, June 1 through June 5, is paid for that work on Monday, June 8.) Rowell adjusts her books monthly, if needed, to show salaries earned but unpaid at month-end. The student works the last week of July—Friday is August 1. If the student earns $100 per day, what adjusting entry must Rowell make on July 31 to correctly record accrued salaries expense for July? QS 3-6 a. Fortune Co. receives $30,000 cash in advance for 4 months of legal services on October 1, 2009, and QS 3-7 records it by debiting Cash and crediting Unearned Revenue both for $30,000. It is now December 31, 2009, and Fortune has provided legal services as planned. What adjusting entry should Fortune make to account for the work performed from October 1 through December 31, 2009? b. Warner Co. started a new publication called Contest News. Its subscribers pay $24 to receive 12 issues. With every new subscriber, Warner debits Cash and credits Unearned Subscription Revenue for Adjusting for unearned revenues Identifying accounting adjustments P1 Recording and analyzing adjusting entries A1 P1 P1 Accruing salaries A1 P1 A1 P1 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 116 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: 116 Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements the amounts received. The company has 100 new subscribers as of July 1, 2009. It sends Contest News to each of these subscribers every month from July through December. Assuming no changes in subscribers, prepare the journal entry that Warner must make as of December 31, 2009, to adjust the Subscription Revenue account and the Unearned Subscription Revenue account. QS 3-8 Preparing adjusting entries C3 P1 QS 3-9 During the year, Sonoma Co. recorded prepayments of expenses in asset accounts, and cash receipts of unearned revenues in liability accounts. At the end of its annual accounting period, the company must make three adjusting entries: (1) accrue salaries expense, (2) adjust the Unearned Services Revenue account to recognize earned revenue, and (3) record services revenue earned for which cash will be received the following period. For each of these adjusting entries (1), (2), and (3), indicate the account from a through i to be debited and the account to be credited. a. Unearned Services Revenue d. Prepaid Salaries g. Salaries Payable b. Accounts Receivable e. Salaries Expense h. Equipment c. Accounts Payable f. Services Revenue i. Cash The following information is taken from Booker Company’s unadjusted and adjusted trial balances. Interpreting adjusting entries Unadjusted C2 P2 Debit Prepaid insurance . . . . . . . Interest payable . . . . . . . . . Adjusted Credit $4,100 Debit Credit $3,700 $ 0 $800 Given this information, which of the following is likely included among its adjusting entries? a. A $400 debit to Insurance Expense and an $800 debit to Interest Expense. b. A $400 debit to Insurance Expense and an $800 debit to Interest Payable. c. A $400 credit to Prepaid Insurance and an $800 debit to Interest Payable. QS 3-10 Determining effects of adjusting entries C3 A1 QS 3-11 Analyzing profit margin A2 QS 3-12A Preparing adjusting entries C3 P4 In making adjusting entries at the end of its accounting period, Chao Consulting failed to record $1,600 of insurance coverage that had expired. This $1,600 cost had been initially debited to the Prepaid Insurance account. The company also failed to record accrued salaries expense of $1,000. As a result of these two oversights, the financial statements for the reporting period will [choose one] (1) understate assets by $1,600; (2) understate expenses by $2,600; (3) understate net income by $1,000; or (4) overstate liabilities by $1,000. Miller Company reported net income of $78,750 and net sales of $630,000 for the current year. Calculate the company’s profit margin and interpret the result. Assume that its competitors earn an average profit margin of 15%. Bevin Consulting initially records prepaid and unearned items in income statement accounts. Given this company’s accounting practices, which of the following applies to the preparation of adjusting entries at the end of its first accounting period? a. Unpaid salaries are recorded with a debit to Prepaid Salaries and a credit to Salaries Expense. b. The cost of unused office supplies is recorded with a debit to Supplies Expense and a credit to Office Supplies. c. Unearned fees (on which cash was received in advance earlier in the period) are recorded with a debit to Consulting Fees Earned and a credit to Unearned Consulting Fees. d. Earned but unbilled (and unrecorded) consulting fees are recorded with a debit to Unearned Consulting Fees and a credit to Consulting Fees Earned. wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 117 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 117 Available with McGraw-Hill’s Homework Manager In the blank space beside each adjusting entry, enter the letter of the explanation A through F that most closely describes the entry. D. To record this period’s depreciation expense. A. To record accrued interest revenue. E. To record accrued salaries expense. B. To record accrued interest expense. F. To record this period’s use of a prepaid C. To record the earning of previously expense. unearned income. ______ 1. ______ 2. ______ 3. ______ 4. ______ 5. ______ 6. Interest Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned Professional Fees . . . . . . . . Professional Fees Earned . . . . . . . . Interest Receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation . . . . . . Salaries Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ ............. ............ ............. ............ ............. ............ ............. ............ ............. ............ ............. . . . . . . . . . . . . EXERCISES Exercise 3-1 Classifying adjusting entries C3 2,208 2,208 3,180 3,180 19,250 19,250 3,300 3,300 38,217 38,217 13,280 13,280 Prepare adjusting journal entries for the year ended (date of) December 31, 2009, for each of these separate situations. Assume that prepaid expenses are initially recorded in asset accounts. Also assume that fees collected in advance of work are initially recorded as liabilities. a. Depreciation on the company’s equipment for 2009 is computed to be $16,000. b. The Prepaid Insurance account had a $6,000 debit balance at December 31, 2009, before adjusting for the costs of any expired coverage. An analysis of the company’s insurance policies showed that $640 of unexpired insurance coverage remains. c. The Office Supplies account had a $325 debit balance on December 31, 2008; and $3,480 of office supplies were purchased during the year. The December 31, 2009, physical count showed $383 of supplies available. d. One-fifth of the work related to $15,000 of cash received in advance was performed this period. e. The Prepaid Insurance account had a $6,800 debit balance at December 31, 2009, before adjusting for the costs of any expired coverage. An analysis of insurance policies showed that $6,160 of coverage had expired. f. Wage expenses of $2,700 have been incurred but are not paid as of December 31, 2009. Exercise 3-2 For each of the following separate cases, prepare adjusting entries required of financial statements for the year ended (date of) December 31, 2009. (Assume that prepaid expenses are initially recorded in asset accounts and that fees collected in advance of work are initially recorded as liabilities.) a. One-third of the work related to $15,000 cash received in advance is performed this period. b. Wages of $7,500 are earned by workers but not paid as of December 31, 2009. c. Depreciation on the company’s equipment for 2009 is $17,251. d. The Office Supplies account had a $240 debit balance on December 31, 2008. During 2009, $6,102 of office supplies are purchased. A physical count of supplies at December 31, 2009, shows $660 of supplies available. e. The Prepaid Insurance account had a $4,000 balance on December 31, 2008. An analysis of insurance policies shows that $1,300 of unexpired insurance benefits remain at December 31, 2009. f. The company has earned (but not recorded) $1,400 of interest from investments in CDs for the year ended December 31, 2009. The interest revenue will be received on January 10, 2010. g. The company has a bank loan and has incurred (but not recorded) interest expense of $2,000 for the year ended December 31, 2009. The company must pay the interest on January 2, 2010. Exercise 3-3 Preparing adjusting entries P1 Check (c) Dr. Office Supplies Expense, $3,422; (e) Dr. Insurance Expense, $6,160 Preparing adjusting entries P1 Check (e) Dr. Insurance Expense, $2,700; (f ) Cr. Interest Revenue, $1,400 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 118 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: 118 Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements Exercise 3-4 Arton Management has five part-time employees, each of whom earns $165 per day. They are normally paid on Fridays for work completed Monday through Friday of the same week. They were paid in full on Friday, December 28, 2009. The next week, the five employees worked only four days because New Year’s Day was an unpaid holiday. Show (a) the adjusting entry that would be recorded on Monday, December 31, 2009, and (b) the journal entry that would be made to record payment of the employees’ wages on Friday, January 4, 2010. Adjusting and paying accrued wages C1 P1 Exercise 3-5 Determine the missing amounts in each of these four separate situations a through d. Determining cost flows through accounts C1 A1 P1 Exercise 3-6 Adjusting and paying accrued expenses A1 P1 Check (b) May 20 Dr. Interest Expense, $3,800 Exercise 3-7 Determining assets and expenses for accrual and cash accounting C2 a Supplies Supplies Supplies Supplies available—prior year-end . . . . . . purchased during the current year available—current year-end . . . . expense for the current year . . . Exercise 3-8 Analyzing and preparing adjusting entries A1 P1 P3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c d $ 350 2,450 800 ? $1,855 6,307 ? 1,555 $ 1,576 ? 2,056 11,507 ? $6,907 800 7,482 The following three separate situations require adjusting journal entries to prepare financial statements as of April 30. For each situation, present both the April 30 adjusting entry and the subsequent entry during May to record the payment of the accrued expenses. a. On April 1, the company retained an attorney at a flat monthly fee of $4,500. This amount is payable on the 12th of the following month. b. A $760,000 note payable requires $5,700 of interest to be paid at the 20th day of each month. The interest was last paid on April 20 and the next payment is due on May 20. As of April 30, $1,900 of interest expense has accrued. c. Total weekly salaries expense for all employees is $12,000. This amount is paid at the end of the day on Friday of each five-day workweek. April 30 falls on Tuesday of this year, which means that the employees had worked two days since the last payday. The next payday is May 3. On November 1, 2007, a company paid a $15,300 premium on a 36-month insurance policy for coverage beginning on that date. Refer to that policy and fill in the blanks in the following table. Balance Sheet Prepaid Insurance Asset Using Accrual Basis Check 2009 insurance expense: Accrual, $5,100; Cash, $0. Dec. 31, 2009, asset: Accrual, $4,250; Cash, $0. .. . .. .. b Dec. 31, 2007 Dec. 31, 2008 Dec. 31, 2009 Dec. 31, 2010 Cash Basis $_______ _______ _______ _______ $_______ _______ _______ _______ Insurance Expense Using Accrual Basis 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total Cash Basis $_______ _______ _______ _______ $_______ $_______ _______ _______ _______ $_______ Following are two income statements for Vix Co. for the year ended December 31. The left column is prepared before any adjusting entries are recorded, and the right column includes the effects of adjusting entries. The company records cash receipts and payments related to unearned and prepaid items in balance sheet accounts. Analyze the statements and prepare the ten adjusting entries that likely were recorded. (Note: 30% of the $6,600 adjustment for Fees Earned has been earned but not billed, and the other 70% has been earned by performing services that were paid for in advance.) wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 119 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 119 VIX CO. Income Statements For Year Ended December 31 Unadjusted Revenues Fees earned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commissions earned . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expenses Depreciation expense—Computers . . . Depreciation expense—Office furniture Salaries expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rent expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Office supplies expense . . . . . . . . . . . Advertising expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utilities expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjusted ........ ........ ........ $24,000 36,500 $60,500 $30,600 36,500 67,100 .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 0 12,500 0 3,800 0 2,500 1,250 20,050 $40,450 1,650 1,925 15,195 1,430 4,500 528 3,000 1,327 29,555 $37,545 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use the following information to compute profit margin for each separate company a through e. Net Income a. $ 6,039 b. 100,890 c. 106,880 Net Sales $ 52,970 471,430 301,920 Net Income d. $67,140 e. 84,780 Net Sales $1,721,520 513,800 Exercise 3-9 Computing and interpreting profit margin A2 Which of the five companies is the most profitable according to the profit margin ratio? Interpret that company’s profit margin ratio. Lowes Construction began operations on December 1. In setting up its accounting procedures, the company decided to debit expense accounts when it prepays its expenses and to credit revenue accounts when customers pay for services in advance. Prepare journal entries for items a through d and the adjusting entries as of its December 31 period-end for items e through g. a. Supplies are purchased on December 1 for $2,000 cash. b. The company prepaid its insurance premiums for $1,540 cash on December 2. c. On December 15, the company receives an advance payment of $13,000 cash from a customer for remodeling work. d. On December 28, the company receives $3,700 cash from another customer for remodeling work to be performed in January. e. A physical count on December 31 indicates that Lowes has $1,840 of supplies available. f. An analysis of the insurance policies in effect on December 31 shows that $340 of insurance coverage had expired. g. As of December 31, only one remodeling project has been worked on and completed. The $5,570 fee for this project had been received in advance. Exercise 3-10A Colgate Company experienced the following events and transactions during July. Exercise 3-11A July 1 6 12 18 27 31 Received $2,800 cash in advance of performing work for Vivian Solana. Received $8,100 cash in advance of performing work for Iris Haru. Completed the job for Solana. Received $7,300 cash in advance of performing work for Amina Jordan. Completed the job for Haru. None of the work for Jordan has been performed. Adjusting for prepaids recorded as expenses and unearned revenues recorded as revenues P4 Check (f ) Cr. Insurance Expense, $1,200; (g) Dr. Remodeling Fees Earned, $11,130 Recording and reporting revenues received in advance P4 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 120 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: 120 Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements a. Prepare journal entries (including any adjusting entries as of the end of the month) to record these Check (c) Fees Earned, $10,900 events using the procedure of initially crediting the Unearned Fees account when payment is received from a customer in advance of performing services. b. Prepare journal entries (including any adjusting entries as of the end of the month) to record these events using the procedure of initially crediting the Fees Earned account when payment is received from a customer in advance of performing services. c. Under each method, determine the amount of earned fees reported on the income statement for July and the amount of unearned fees reported on the balance sheet as of July 31. Available with McGraw-Hill’s Homework Manager PROBLEM SET A Problem 3-1A Identifying adjusting entries with explanations C3 P1 For each of the following entries, enter the letter of the explanation that most closely describes it in the space beside each entry. (You can use letters more than once.) A. To record an accrued revenue. F. To record this period’s earning of prior unearned revenue. B. To record this period’s use of a prepaid expense. G. To record payment of an accrued expense. C. To record payment of a prepaid expense. H. To record receipt of an accrued revenue. D. To record this period’s depreciation expense. I. To record an accrued expense. E. To record receipt of unearned revenue. ______ 1. ______ 2. ______ 3. ______ 4. ______ 5. ______ 6. ______ 7. ______ 8. ______ 9. ______ 10. ______ 11. ______ 12. Problem 3-2A Preparing adjusting and subsequent journal entries C1 A1 P1 Interest Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned Professional Fees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional Fees Earned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest Receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts Receivable (from consulting) . . . . . . . . . Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned Professional Fees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest Receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rent Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 1,000 4,000 4,000 3,000 3,000 4,200 4,200 1,400 1,400 4,500 4,500 6,000 6,000 5,000 5,000 9,000 9,000 7,500 7,500 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 Hormel Co. follows the practice of recording prepaid expenses and unearned revenues in balance sheet accounts. The company’s annual accounting period ends on December 31, 2009. The following information concerns the adjusting entries to be recorded as of that date. a. The Office Supplies account started the year with a $2,900 balance. During 2009, the company purchased supplies for $11,977, which was added to the Office Supplies account. The inventory of supplies available at December 31, 2009, totaled $2,552. wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 121 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 121 b. An analysis of the company’s insurance policies provided the following facts. Policy d. e. f. Months of Coverage Cost A B C c. Date of Purchase April 1, 2008 April 1, 2009 August 1, 2009 24 36 12 $11,640 10,440 9,240 The total premium for each policy was paid in full (for all months) at the purchase date, and the Prepaid Insurance account was debited for the full cost. (Year-end adjusting entries for Prepaid Insurance were properly recorded in all prior years.) The company has 15 employees, who earn a total of $1,830 in salaries each working day. They are paid each Monday for their work in the five-day workweek ending on the previous Friday. Assume that December 31, 2009, is a Tuesday, and all 15 employees worked the first two days of that week. Because New Year’s Day is a paid holiday, they will be paid salaries for five full days on Monday, January 6, 2010. The company purchased a building on January 1, 2009. It cost $800,000 and is expected to have a $45,000 salvage value at the end of its predicted 40-year life. Annual depreciation is $18,875. Since the company is not large enough to occupy the entire building it owns, it rented space to a tenant at $3,000 per month, starting on November 1, 2009. The rent was paid on time on November 1, and the amount received was credited to the Rent Earned account. However, the tenant has not paid the December rent. The company has worked out an agreement with the tenant, who has promised to pay both December and January rent in full on January 15. The tenant has agreed not to fall behind again. On November 1, the company rented space to another tenant for $2,718 per month. The tenant paid five months’ rent in advance on that date. The payment was recorded with a credit to the Unearned Rent account. Required 1. Use the information to prepare adjusting entries as of December 31, 2009. 2. Prepare journal entries to record the first subsequent cash transaction in 2010 for parts c and e. Wells Teaching Institute (WTI), a school owned by Tracey Wells, provides training to individuals who pay tuition directly to the school. WTI also offers training to groups in off-site locations. Its unadjusted trial balance as of December 31, 2009, follows. WTI initially records prepaid expenses and unearned revenues in balance sheet accounts. Descriptions of items a through h that require adjusting entries on December 31, 2009, follow. Additional Information Items An analysis of the school’s insurance policies shows that $3,000 of coverage has expired. An inventory count shows that teaching supplies costing $2,000 are available at year-end 2009. Annual depreciation on the equipment is $10,000. Annual depreciation on the professional library is $5,000. On November 1, the school agreed to do a special six-month course (starting immediately) for a client. The contract calls for a monthly fee of $2,500, and the client paid the first five months’ fees in advance. When the cash was received, the Unearned Training Fees account was credited. The fee for the sixth month will be recorded when it is collected in 2010. f. On October 15, the school agreed to teach a four-month class (beginning immediately) for an individual for $1,600 tuition per month payable at the end of the class. The services are being provided as agreed, and no payment has yet been received. g. The school’s two employees are paid weekly. As of the end of the year, two days’ salaries have accrued at the rate of $120 per day for each employee. h. The balance in the Prepaid Rent account represents rent for December. a. b. c. d. e. Check (1b) Dr. Insurance Expense, $12,280 (1d ) Dr. Depreciation Expense, $18,875 Problem 3-3A Preparing adjusting entries, adjusted trial balance, and financial statements A1 P1 P2 P3 x e cel mhhe.com/wildFAP19e wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 08/18/2008 10:56 am Page 122 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 122 WELLS TEACHING INSTITUTE Unadjusted Trial Balance December 31, 2009 Cash Accounts receivable Teaching supplies Prepaid insurance Prepaid rent Professional library Accumulated depreciation—Professional library Equipment Accumulated depreciation—Equipment Accounts payable Salaries payable Unearned training fees T. Wells, Capital T. Wells, Withdrawals Tuition fees earned Training fees earned Depreciation expense—Professional library Depreciation expense—Equipment Salaries expense Insurance expense Rent expense Teaching supplies expense Advertising expense Utilities expense Totals $ Debit Credit 28,064 0 11,000 16,000 2,178 33,000 $ 10,000 75,800 15,000 39,500 0 12,500 71,000 44,000 111,000 41,000 0 0 52,000 0 23,958 0 8,000 6,000 $ 300,000 $ 300,000 Required Check (2e) Cr. Training Fees Earned, $5,000; (2f ) Cr. Tuition Fees Earned, $4,000; (3) Adj. Trial balance totals, $319,480; (4) Net income, $41,384; Ending T. Wells, Capital $68,384 Problem 3-4A Interpreting unadjusted and adjusted trial balances, and preparing financial statements C3 A1 P1 P2 P3 x e cel mhhe.com/wildFAP19e 1. Prepare T-accounts (representing the ledger) with balances from the unadjusted trial balance. 2. Prepare the necessary adjusting journal entries for items a through h and post them to the T-accounts. Assume that adjusting entries are made only at year-end. 3. Update balances in the T-accounts for the adjusting entries and prepare an adjusted trial balance. 4. Prepare Wells Teaching Institute’s income statement and statement of owner’s equity for the year 2009 and prepare its balance sheet as of December 31, 2009. A six-column table for KLJ Company follows. The first two columns contain the unadjusted trial balance for the company as of July 31, 2009. The last two columns contain the adjusted trial balance as of the same date. Required Analysis Component 1. Analyze the differences between the unadjusted and adjusted trial balances to determine the eight ad- justments that likely were made. Show the results of your analysis by inserting these adjustment amounts in the table’s two middle columns. Label each adjustment with a letter a through h and provide a short description of it at the bottom of the table. Preparation Component Check (2) Net income, $34,460; K. Jenkins, Capital (7/31/2009), $70,460; Total assets, $178,960 2. Use the information in the adjusted trial balance to prepare the company’s (a) income statement and its statement of owner’s equity for the year ended July 31, 2009 (note: K. Jenkins, Capital at July 31, 2008, was $46,000, and the current-year withdrawals were $10,000), and (b) the balance sheet as of July 31, 2009. wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 123 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements Unadjusted Trial Balance Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts receivable . . . Office supplies . . . . . . . Prepaid insurance . . . . . Office equipment . . . . . Accum. depreciation— Office equip. . . . . . . . Accounts payable . . . . . Interest payable . . . . . . Salaries payable . . . . . . . Unearned consulting fees Long-term notes payable K. Jenkins, Capital . . . . . K. Jenkins, Withdrawals . Consulting fees earned . Depreciation expense— Office equip. . . . . . . . Salaries expense . . . . . . ....... ....... Interest expense . . . . . Insurance expense . . . Rent expense . . . . . . . Office supplies expense Advertising expense . . Totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjusted Trial Balance Adjustments $ 86,000 15,000 17,800 6,040 87,000 ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ $ 24,000 9,100 0 0 20,000 54,000 46,000 $ 86,000 19,000 9,000 3,960 87,000 ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 10,000 165,000 123 $ 26,000 24,000 2,500 15,000 13,000 54,000 46,000 10,000 176,000 0 67,990 ____________________ ____________________ 2,000 82,990 1,270 0 14,540 0 12,460 $318,100 ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 3,770 2,080 14,540 8,800 27,360 $356,500 ____________________ $318,100 ____________________ The adjusted trial balance for Clarita Company as of December 31, 2009, follows. Debit Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notes receivable (due in 90 days) . . . . . Office supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automobiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated depreciation—Automobiles Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated depreciation—Equipment . Land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned fees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Long-term notes payable . . . . . . . . . . . S. Clarita, Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S. Clarita, Withdrawals . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fees earned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest earned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [continued on next page] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credit $149,000 50,000 22,600 171,500 16,000 171,000 $356,500 Problem 3-5A Preparing financial statements from the adjusted trial balance and calculating profit margin P3 A1 A2 $ 75,000 146,000 23,000 79,000 101,000 20,000 42,000 36,000 140,000 295,800 47,000 534,000 20,000 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 124 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: 124 Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements [continued from previous page] Depreciation expense—Automobiles Depreciation expense—Equipment . Salaries expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wages expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Office supplies expense . . . . . . . . . Advertising expense . . . . . . . . . . . . Repairs expense—Automobiles . . . Totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26,500 19,500 184,000 43,000 35,600 33,800 65,500 26,800 $1,286,800 $1,286,800 Required Check (1) Total assets, $707,100 1. Use the information in the adjusted trial balance to prepare (a) the income statement for the year ended December 31, 2009; (b) the statement of owner’s equity for the year ended December 31, 2009; and (c) the balance sheet as of December 31, 2009. 2. Calculate the profit margin for year 2009. Problem 3-6AA Recording prepaid expenses and unearned revenues P1 P4 Riso Co. had the following transactions in the last two months of its year ended December 31. Nov. 1 1 30 Dec. 1 15 31 31 Paid $2,000 cash for future newspaper advertising. Paid $2,466 cash for 12 months of insurance through October 31 of the next year. Received $4,200 cash for future services to be provided to a customer. Paid $2,400 cash for a consultant’s services to be received over the next three months. Received $7,250 cash for future services to be provided to a customer. Of the advertising paid for on November 1, $1,300 worth is not yet used. A portion of the insurance paid for on November 1 has expired. No adjustment was made in November to Prepaid Insurance. 31 Services worth $1,600 are not yet provided to the customer who paid on November 30. 31 One-third of the consulting services paid for on December 1 have been received. 31 The company has performed $4,350 of services that the customer paid for on December 15. Required 1. Prepare entries for these transactions under the method that records prepaid expenses as assets and records unearned revenues as liabilities. Also prepare adjusting entries at the end of the year. 2. Prepare entries for these transactions under the method that records prepaid expenses as ex- penses and records unearned revenues as revenues. Also prepare adjusting entries at the end of the year. Analysis Component 3. Explain why the alternative sets of entries in requirements 1 and 2 do not result in different financial statement amounts. PROBLEM SET B Problem 3-1B Identifying adjusting entries with explanations C3 P1 For each of the following entries, enter the letter of the explanation that most closely describes it in the space beside each entry. (You can use letters more than once.) A. To record this period’s earning of F. To record payment of a prepaid expense. prior unearned revenue. G. To record this period’s use of a prepaid B. To record an accrued expense. expense. C. To record payment of an accrued expense. H. To record this period’s depreciation expense. D. To record an accrued revenue. I. To record receipt of unearned revenue. E. To record receipt of accrued revenue. wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 125 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements ______ 1. ______ 2. ______ 3. ______ 4. ______ 5. ______ 6. ______ 7. ______ 8. ______ 9. ______ 10. ______ 11. ______ 12. Interest Receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation . . . . . . . . Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned Professional Fees . . . . . . . Insurance Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts Receivable (from services) Salaries Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest Receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rent Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned Professional Fees . . . . . . . . . . . Professional Fees Earned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 3,500 3,500 9,000 9,000 8,000 8,000 9,000 9,000 4,000 4,000 5,000 5,000 1,500 1,500 7,000 7,000 1,000 1,000 3,000 3,000 7,500 7,500 6,000 6,000 Wu-Tang Co. follows the practice of recording prepaid expenses and unearned revenues in balance sheet accounts. The company’s annual accounting period ends on October 31, 2009. The following information concerns the adjusting entries that need to be recorded as of that date. a. The Office Supplies account started the fiscal year with a $3,950 balance. During the fiscal year, the company purchased supplies for $16,313, which was added to the Office Supplies account. The supplies available at October 31, 2009, totaled $3,476. b. An analysis of the company’s insurance policies provided the following facts. Policy Date of Purchase Months of Coverage Cost A B C April 1, 2008 April 1, 2009 August 1, 2009 24 36 12 $10,824 9,540 8,424 The total premium for each policy was paid in full (for all months) at the purchase date, and the Prepaid Insurance account was debited for the full cost. (Year-end adjusting entries for Prepaid Insurance were properly recorded in all prior fiscal years.) c. The company has 15 employees, who earn a total of $2,610 for each workday. They are paid each Monday for their work in the five-day workweek ending on the previous Friday. Assume that October 31, 2009, is a Tuesday, and all five employees worked the first day of that week. They will be paid salaries for five full days on Monday, November 7, 2009. d. The company purchased a building on November 1, 2008, that cost $695,000 and is expected to have a $41,000 salvage value at the end of its predicted 30-year life. Annual depreciation is $21,800. e. Since the company does not occupy the entire building it owns, it rented space to a tenant at $3,200 per month, starting on September 1, 2009. The rent was paid on time on September 1, and the amount received was credited to the Rent Earned account. However, the October rent has not been paid. The company has worked out an agreement with the tenant, who has promised to pay both October and November rent in full on November 15. The tenant has agreed not to fall behind again. Problem 3-2B Preparing adjusting and subsequent journal entries C1 A1 P1 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 08/18/2008 10:15 am Page 126 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: 126 Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements f. On September 1, the company rented space to another tenant for $2,899 per month. The tenant paid five months’ rent in advance on that date. The payment was recorded with a credit to the Unearned Rent account. Required Check (1b) Dr. Insurance Expense, $9,373; (1d ) Dr. Depreciation Expense, $21,800. Problem 3-3B Preparing adjusting entries, adjusted trial balance, and financial statements A1 P1 P2 P3 1. Use the information to prepare adjusting entries as of October 31, 2009. 2. Prepare journal entries to record the first subsequent cash transaction in November 2009 for parts c and e. Following is the unadjusted trial balance for Augustus Institute as of December 31, 2009, which initially records prepaid expenses and unearned revenues in balance sheet accounts. The Institute provides oneon-one training to individuals who pay tuition directly to the business and offers extension training to groups in off-site locations. Shown after the trial balance are items a through h that require adjusting entries as of December 31, 2009. AUGUSTUS INSTITUTE Unadjusted Trial Balance December 31, 2009 Cash Accounts receivable Teaching supplies Prepaid insurance Prepaid rent Professional library Accumulated depreciation—Professional library Equipment Accumulated depreciation—Equipment Accounts payable Salaries payable Unearned training fees C. Augustus, Capital C. Augustus, Withdrawals Tuition fees earned Training fees earned Depreciation expense—Professional library Depreciation expense—Equipment Salaries expense Insurance expense Rent expense Teaching supplies expense Advertising expense Utilities expense Totals $ Debit 27,000 0 10,000 16,000 2,073 31,000 Credit $ 9,000 72,719 17,000 35,600 0 13,000 66,000 41,000 106,000 39,000 0 0 50,000 0 22,808 0 7,000 6,000 $ 285,600 $ 285,600 Additional Information Items a. b. c. d. e. An analysis of the Institute’s insurance policies shows that $3,000 of coverage has expired. An inventory count shows that teaching supplies costing $3,000 are available at year-end 2009. Annual depreciation on the equipment is $17,000. Annual depreciation on the professional library is $6,000. On November 1, the Institute agreed to do a special six-month course (starting immediately) for a client. The contract calls for a $2,600 monthly fee, and the client paid the first five months’ fees in advance. When the cash was received, the Unearned Training Fees account was credited. The last one month’s fees will be recorded when collected in 2010. wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 127 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 127 f. On October 15, the Institute agreed to teach a four-month class (beginning immediately) to an individual for $3,900 tuition per month payable at the end of the class. The class started on October 15, but no payment has yet been received. g. The Institute’s only employee is paid weekly. As of the end of the year, two days’ wages have accrued at the rate of $170 per day. h. The balance in the Prepaid Rent account represents rent for December. Required 1. Prepare T-accounts (representing the ledger) with balances from the unadjusted trial balance. 2. Prepare the necessary adjusting journal entries for items a through h, and post them to the T-accounts. Assume that adjusting entries are made only at year-end. 3. Update balances in the T-accounts for the adjusting entries and prepare an adjusted trial balance. 4. Prepare the company’s income statement and statement of owner’s equity for the year 2009, and prepare its balance sheet as of December 31, 2009. Check (2e) Cr. Training Fees Earned, $5,200; (2f ) Cr. Tuition Fees Earned, $9,750; (3) Adj. trial balance totals, $318,690; (4) Net income, $38,729; Ending C. Augustus, Capital, $63,729 A six-column table for Fresno Consulting Company follows. The first two columns contain the unadjusted trial balance for the company as of December 31, 2009, and the last two columns contain the adjusted trial balance as of the same date. Problem 3-4B Unadjusted Trial Balance Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts receivable . . . . . . Office supplies . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid insurance . . . . . . . . Office equipment . . . . . . . . Accumulated depreciation— Office equip. . . . . . . . . . . Accounts payable . . . . . . . . Interest payable . . . . . . . . . Salaries payable . . . . . . . . . Unearned consulting fees . . Long-term notes payable . . . Y. Fresno, Capital . . . . . . . . Y. Fresno, Withdrawals . . . . Consulting fees earned . . . . Depreciation expense— Office equip. . . . . . . . . . . Salaries expense . . . . . . . . . Interest expense . . . . . . . . Insurance expense . . . . . . . Rent expense . . . . . . . . . . . Office supplies expense . . . Advertising expense . . . . . . Totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $106,890 9,000 16,600 9,040 85,000 _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ $ 24,000 11,100 0 0 22,000 56,000 54,000 7,500 162,000 0 67,070 1,230 0 14,620 0 12,150 $329,100 Adjustments _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ $329,100 _________________ Adjusted Trial Balance $106,890 18,500 9,000 3,960 85,000 $ 34,000 22,000 1,500 9,000 18,000 56,000 54,000 7,500 175,500 10,000 76,070 2,730 5,080 14,620 7,600 23,050 $370,000 $370,000 Required Analysis Component 1. Analyze the differences between the unadjusted and adjusted trial balances to determine the eight adjustments that likely were made. Show the results of your analysis by inserting these adjustment amounts in the table’s two middle columns. Label each adjustment with a letter a through h and provide a short description of it at the bottom of the table. Interpreting unadjusted and adjusted trial balances, and preparing financial statements C3 A1 P1 P2 P3 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 128 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: 128 Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements Preparation Component Check (2) Net income, $36,350; Y. Fresno, Capital (12/31/09), $82,850; Total assets, $189,350 2. Use the information in the adjusted trial balance to prepare this company’s (a) income statement and Problem 3-5B The adjusted trial balance for Rapid Courier as of December 31, 2009, follows. its statement of owner’s equity for the year ended December 31, 2009 (note: Y. Fresno, Capital at December 31, 2008, was $54,000, and the current-year withdrawals were $7,500), and (b) the balance sheet as of December 31, 2009. Preparing financial statements from the adjusted trial balance and calculating profit margin Debit Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notes receivable (due in 90 days) . . . Office supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated depreciation—Trucks . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated depreciation—Equipment Land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned delivery fees . . . . . . . . . . . Long-term notes payable . . . . . . . . . . R. Rapid, Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. Rapid, Withdrawals . . . . . . . . . . . . Delivery fees earned . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest earned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation expense—Trucks . . . . . Depreciation expense—Equipment . . Salaries expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wages expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Office supplies expense . . . . . . . . . . . Advertising expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repairs expense—Trucks . . . . . . . . . Totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P3 A1 A2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credit $109,000 55,000 23,000 171,000 16,000 174,000 $ 80,000 144,000 44,000 81,000 98,000 20,000 22,000 32,000 156,000 311,800 55,000 474,000 32,000 25,500 22,000 187,000 43,000 36,200 35,600 63,500 29,000 $1,269,800 $1,269,800 Required Check (1) Total assets, $649,000 1. Use the information in the adjusted trial balance to prepare (a) the income statement for the year ended December 31, 2009, (b) the statement of owner’s equity for the year ended December 31, 2009, and (c) the balance sheet as of December 31, 2009. 2. Calculate the profit margin for year 2009. Problem 3-6BA Recording prepaid expenses and unearned revenues P1 P4 Jazz Co. had the following transactions in the last two months of its fiscal year ended May 31. Apr. 1 1 30 May 1 23 Paid $2,600 cash to an accounting firm for future consulting services. Paid $2,484 cash for 12 months of insurance through March 31 of the next year. Received $4,600 cash for future services to be provided to a customer. Paid $2,700 cash for future newspaper advertising. Received $7,450 cash for future services to be provided to a customer. wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/24/2008 10:24 pm Page 129 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 129 31 Of the consulting services paid for on April 1, $1,700 worth has been received. 31 A portion of the insurance paid for on April 1 has expired. No adjustment was made in April to Prepaid Insurance. 31 Services worth $1,400 are not yet provided to the customer who paid on April 30. 31 One-third the advertising paid for on May 1 has not yet been provided. 31 The company has performed $3,000 of services that the customer paid for on May 23. Required 1. Prepare entries for these transactions under the method that records prepaid expenses and unearned revenues in balance sheet accounts. Also prepare adjusting entries at the end of the year. 2. Prepare entries for these transactions under the method that records prepaid expenses and unearned revenues in income statement accounts. Also prepare adjusting entries at the end of the year. Analysis Component 3. Explain why the alternative sets of entries in parts 1 and 2 do not result in different financial state- ment amounts. This serial problem began in Chapter 1 and continues through most of the book. If previous chapter segments were not completed, the serial problem can still begin at this point. It is helpful, but not necessary, to use the Working Papers that accompany the book. SP 3 After the success of the company’s first two months, Adriana Lopez continues to operate Success Systems. (Transactions for the first two months are described in the serial problem of Chapter 2.) The November 30, 2009, unadjusted trial balance of Success Systems (reflecting its transactions for October and November of 2009) follows. No. 101 106 126 128 131 163 164 167 168 201 210 236 301 302 403 612 613 623 637 640 652 655 676 677 684 Account Title Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Office equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated depreciation—Office equipment . . . Computer equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated depreciation—Computer equipment Accounts payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wages payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned computer services revenue . . . . . . . . A. Lopez, Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Lopez, Withdrawals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer services revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation expense—Office equipment . . . . . . Depreciation expense—Computer equipment . . . Wages expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rent expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer supplies expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advertising expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mileage expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repairs expense—Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Debit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credit $ 48,052 12,618 2,545 2,220 3,300 8,000 $ 0 20,000 0 0 0 0 83,000 5,600 25,659 0 0 2,625 0 0 0 1,940 704 250 805 $108,659 $108,659 SERIAL PROBLEM Success Systems wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/24/2008 5:45 pm Page 130 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 130 Success Systems had the following transactions and events in December 2009. Dec. 2 3 4 10 14 15 16 20 22–26 28 29 31 Paid $1,025 cash to Hillside Mall for Success Systems’ share of mall advertising costs. Paid $500 cash for minor repairs to the company’s computer. Received $3,950 cash from Alex’s Engineering Co. for the receivable from November. Paid cash to Lyn Addie for six days of work at the rate of $125 per day. Notified by Alex’s Engineering Co. that Success’s bid of $7,000 on a proposed project has been accepted. Alex’s paid a $1,500 cash advance to Success Systems. Purchased $1,100 of computer supplies on credit from Harris Office Products. Sent a reminder to Gomez Co. to pay the fee for services recorded on November 8. Completed a project for Liu Corporation and received $5,625 cash. Took the week off for the holidays. Received $3,000 cash from Gomez Co. on its receivable. Reimbursed Lopez’s business automobile mileage (600 miles at $0.32 per mile). A. Lopez withdrew $1,500 cash from the company for personal use. The following additional facts are collected for use in making adjusting entries prior to preparing financial statements for the company’s first three months: a. The December 31 inventory count of computer supplies shows $580 still available. b. Three months have expired since the 12-month insurance premium was paid in advance. c. As of December 31, Lyn Addie has not been paid for four days of work at $125 per day. d. The company’s computer is expected to have a four-year life with no salvage value. e. The office equipment is expected to have a five-year life with no salvage value. f. Three of the four months’ prepaid rent has expired. Required 1. Prepare journal entries to record each of the December transactions and events for Success Systems. Check (3) Adjusted trial balance totals, $119,034 (6) Total assets, $93,248 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Post those entries to the accounts in the ledger. Prepare adjusting entries to reflect a through f. Post those entries to the accounts in the ledger. Prepare an adjusted trial balance as of December 31, 2009. Prepare an income statement for the three months ended December 31, 2009. Prepare a statement of owner’s equity for the three months ended December 31, 2009. Prepare a balance sheet as of December 31, 2009. BEYOND THE NUMBERS REPORTING IN ACTION C1 C2 A1 A2 BTN 3-1 Refer to Best Buy’s financial statements in Appendix A to answer the following. 1. Identify and write down the revenue recognition principle as explained in the chapter. 2. Research Best Buy’s footnotes to discover how it applies the revenue recognition principle. Report what you discover. 3. What is Best Buy’s profit margin for fiscal years ended March 3, 2007, and February 25, 2006. Fast Forward 4. Access Best Buy’s financial statements (10-K) for fiscal years ending after March 3, 2007, at its Website (BestBuy.com) or the SEC’s EDGAR database (www.SEC.gov). Compare the March 3, 2007, fiscal year profit margin to any subsequent year’s profit margin that you are able to calculate. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS A2 BTN 3-2 Key figures for the recent two years of both Best Buy and RadioShack follow. Key Figures ($ millions) Net income . . . . . . . . . . Net sales . . . . . . . . . . . . Best Buy RadioShack Current Year Prior Year $ 1,377 35,934 $ 1,140 30,848 Current Year $ 73 4,778 Prior Year $ 270 5,082 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/23/2008 9:12 pm Page 131 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 131 Required 1. Compute profit margins for (a) Best Buy and (b) RadioShack for the two years of data shown. 2. Which company is more successful on the basis of profit margin? Explain. BTN 3-3 Jerome Boland works for Sea Biscuit Co. He and Farah Smith, his manager, are preparing adjusting entries for annual financial statements. Boland computes depreciation and records it as Depreciation Expense —Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment . . . . . . . . ETHICS CHALLENGE C1 C2 A1 123,000 123,000 Smith agrees with his computation but says the credit entry should be directly to the Equipment account. She argues that while accumulated depreciation is technically correct, “it is less hassle not to use a contra account and just credit the Equipment account directly. And besides, the balance sheet shows the same amount for total assets under either method.” Required 1. How should depreciation be recorded? Do you support Boland or Smith? 2. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Smith’s reasons for preferring her method. 3. Indicate whether the situation Boland faces is an ethical problem. Explain. BTN 3-4 The class should be divided into teams. Teams are to select an industry (such as automobile manufacturing, airlines, defense contractors), and each team member is to select a different company in that industry. Each team member is to acquire the annual report of the company selected. Annual reports can be downloaded from company Websites or from the SEC’s EDGAR database at (www.SEC.gov). COMMUNICATING IN PRACTICE C1 A2 Required 1. Use the annual report to compute the return on assets, debt ratio, and profit margin. 2. Communicate with team members via a meeting, e-mail, or telephone to discuss the meaning of the ratios, how different companies compare to each other, and the industry norm. The team must prepare a single memo reporting the ratios for each company and identifying the conclusions or consensus of opinion reached during the team’s discussion. The memo is to be copied and distributed to the instructor and all classmates. BTN 3-5 Access the Gap’s Website (GapInc.com) to answer the following requirements. Required 1. What are Gap’s main brands? 2. Access Gap’s 2007 annual report (10-K) either at the company’s Website or at www.SEC.gov. What 3. 4. 5. 6. is Gap’s fiscal year-end? What is Gap’s net sales for the period ended February 2, 2008? What is Gap’s net income for the period ended February 2, 2008? Compute Gap’s profit margin for the year ended February 2, 2008. Do you believe Gap’s decision to use a year-end of early February or late January relates to its natural business year? Explain. TAKING IT TO THE NET C1 A2 wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 08/18/2008 10:56 am Page 132 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: 132 Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements TEAMWORK IN ACTION BTN 3-6 Four types of adjustments are described in the chapter: (1) prepaid expenses, (2) unearned revenues, (3) accrued expenses, and (4) accrued revenues. C3 A1 P1 Required 1. Form learning teams of four (or more) members. Each team member must select one of the four adjustments as an area of expertise (each team must have at least one expert in each area). 2. Form expert teams from the individuals who have selected the same area of expertise. Expert teams are to discuss and write a report that each expert will present to his or her learning team addressing the following: a. Description of the adjustment and why it’s necessary. b. Example of a transaction or event, with dates and amounts, that requires adjustment. c. Adjusting entry(ies) for the example in requirement b. d. Status of the affected account(s) before and after the adjustment in requirement c. e. Effects on financial statements of not making the adjustment. 3. Each expert should return to his or her learning team. In rotation, each member should present his or her expert team’s report to the learning team. Team discussion is encouraged. ENTREPRENEURIAL DECISION A2 BTN 3-7 Review the opening feature of this chapter dealing with PopCap Games. Required 1. Assume that PopCap sells a $300 gift certificate to a customer, collecting the $300 cash in advance. Prepare the journal entry for the (a) collection of the cash for delivery of the gift certificate to the customer and (b) revenue from the subsequent delivery of games when the gift certificate is used. 2. How can keeping no inventories help to improve PopCap profit margin? 3. PopCap understands that many companies carry inventories, and the owners are thinking of carrying an inventory of games on CDs. The owners desire your advice on the pros and cons of carrying such inventory. Provide at least one reason for and one reason against carrying inventories. HITTING THE ROAD C1 GLOBAL DECISION A2 C1 C2 BTN 3-8 Visit the Website of a major company that interests you. Use the Investor Relations link at the Website to obtain the toll-free telephone number of the Investor Relations Department. Call the company, ask to speak to Investor Relations, and request a copy of the company’s most recent annual report. You should receive the requested report within one to two weeks. Once you have received your report, use it throughout the term to see that the principles you are learning in class are being applied in practice. BTN 3-9 DSG international plc is the United Kingdom’s largest retailer of consumer electronics. Access its financial statements for the year ended April 28, 2007, at the company’s Website (www.DSGiplc.com). Required 1. Locate the notes to its financial statements, and read note 1.3 Revenue. When is sales revenue rec- ognized by DSG? 2. What is DSG’s profit margin for the year ended April 28, 2007? 3. Compute DSG’s current ratio for both the current year and the prior year. (DSG’s balance sheet is in a slightly different format than the examples in the text: current assets follow fixed assets, and current liabilities follow current assets.) wiL79549_ch03_0090-0133 07/24/2008 5:45 pm Page 133 pinnacle 201:MHBR055:mhwiL19:wiL19ch03: Chapter 3 Adjusting Accounts and Preparing Financial Statements 133 ANSWERS TO MULTIPLE CHOICE QUIZ 1. b; the forgotten adjusting entry is: dr. Wages Expense, cr. Wages Payable. 2. c; Supplies used $450 $125 $325 3. b; Insurance expense $24,000 (8 24) $8,000; adjusting entry is: dr. Insurance Expense for $8,000, cr. Prepaid Insurance for $8,000. 4. a; Consulting fees earned $3,600 (2 6) $1,200; adjusting entry is: dr. Unearned Consulting Fee for $1,200, cr. Consulting Fees Earned for $1,200. 5. e; Profit margin $15,000 $300,000 5% ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2011 for the course ACC 111 taught by Professor Jessicajones during the Fall '09 term at Chandler-Gilbert Community College.

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