151Chap7Guo - 10/27/2009 Chemistry, The Central Science,...

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10/27/2009 1 Chapter 7 Periodic Properties Chemistry, The Central Science , 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Periodic Properties of the Elements of the Elements Development of Periodic Table • Elements in the same group generally have Periodic Properties of the Elements similar chemical properties. • Properties are not identical, however. Development of Periodic Table Section 7.1 Reading Assignment Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer Periodic Properties of the Elements independently came to the same conclusion about how elements should be grouped. Periodic e Periodic e-Configurations Configurations Periodic Properties of the Elements Periodic Trends • In this chapter, we will rationalize observed trends in ¾ Sizes of atoms and ions. Periodic Properties of the Elements ¾ Ionization energy. ¾ Electron affinity. Effective Nuclear Charge • In a many-electron atom, electrons are both attracted to the Periodic Properties of the Elements nucleus and repelled by other electrons. • The nuclear charge that an electron experiences depends on both factors.
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10/27/2009 2 Effective Nuclear Charge The effective nuclear charge, Z eff , is found this way: Z ef = Z S Periodic Properties of the Elements eff where Z is the atomic number and S is a screening ( shielding ) constant, usually close to the number of inner electrons. Sizes of Atoms The bonding atomic radius is defined as one-half of the Periodic Properties of the Elements distance between covalently bonded nuclei. Sizes of Atoms Bonding atomic radius tends to… …decrease from left to right across a row Periodic Properties of the Elements due to increasing Z eff . …increase from top to bottom of a column due to increasing value of n Sizes of Ions • Ionic size depends upon: ¾ Nuclear charge. Cation < Atom < Anion Periodic Properties of the Elements For the same element ¾ Trends similar to atomic size within cations and anions. ¾ Isoelectronic Series Sizes of Ions • Cations are smaller than their parent atoms. ¾
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2011 for the course CHM 151 taught by Professor Yiguo during the Fall '09 term at Chandler-Gilbert Community College.

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151Chap7Guo - 10/27/2009 Chemistry, The Central Science,...

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