The Hofstede Model - Global Branding & Advertising

The Hofstede Model - Global Branding & Advertising...

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± 85 International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), pp. 85–110 © 2010 Advertising Association Published by Warc, DOI: 10.2501/S026504870920104X The Hofstede model Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research Marieke de Mooij and Geert Hofstede Recent years have seen increasing interest in the consequences of culture for global mar- keting and advertising. Many recent studies point at the necessity of adapting branding and advertising strategies to the culture of the consumer. In order to understand cultural differences, several models have been developed of which the Hofstede model is the most used. This article describes elements of this model that are most relevant to brand- ing and advertising, and reviews studies that have used the model for aspects of inter- national branding and for advertising research. It provides some cautious remarks about applying the model. Suggestions for more cross-cultural research are added. Introduction The study of culture for understanding global advertising results from the global–local dilemma: whether to standardise advertising for efficiency reasons or to adapt to local habits and consumer motives to be effective. Only recently have studies included performance criteria and several have demonstrated that an adaptation strategy is more effective (Dow 2005; Calantone et al . 2006; Okazaki et al. 2006; Wong & Merrilees 2007). As a result, understanding culture will be viewed as increasingly important. In the past decades, various models have emerged of which the Hofstede model has been applied most to global marketing and advertising. 1 Geert Hofstede’s dimensional model of national culture has been applied to vari- ous areas of global branding and advertising, and the underlying theories of consumer behaviour. The model has been used to explain differences 1 When we use the term global marketing and advertising, we refer to advertising worldwide, not to standardised advertising.
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86 ± INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING, 2010, 29(1) of the concepts of self, personality and identity, which in turn explain variations in branding strategy and communications. Another area is infor- mation processing, including differences in perception and categorisation that influence interpersonal and mass communication, and the working of advertising. This article summarises various elements of consumer behaviour that affect global branding and advertising strategy, and that have been explained by the Hofstede model. Referring to several issues from Taylor’s (2005, 2007) research agenda, we not only cover advertising research, but also questions concerning global brand image, brand equity, advertising and consumer behaviour theories in cross-cultural contexts. We have pulled a number of topics of this article together in Figure 1.
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The Hofstede Model - Global Branding & Advertising...

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