The Republic - Plato -...

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Unformatted text preview: amtnm‘nx‘wflwfihvwmwwlm4flmlflw To my mother and father Copyright © 1968 by Allan Bloom Preface to the paperback edition copyright © 1991 by Allan Bloom Library of Congress Catalog Number: 68—54141 ISBN 0465-0695356 (cloth) ISBN 0—465—06936—3 (first edition paper) ISBN 0—465—06934—7 (second edition paper) Manufactured in the United States of America Designed by jacqueline Sehuman 929394 SP/HC9876543 M W MVW>WWWM<M~AM w WM W» mva mam ‘ «mume-wumwmw v ‘ « NVWM... “W a...» _MM. w M ‘ r X ‘ ‘ ‘ , o “W r WW M,MMW”M.W.M.WX “ “WWW WWW ' ' WM ’ a ‘ ’ “ WWAWWMux W, THE REPUBLIC SOCRATES /GLAUCON 511 61 “You have made a most adequate exposition,” I said. “And, talotnlg with me, take these four affections arising in the soul 1n refittifin oht i: four segments: intellection in relation to the highest oneilari t toug ina— relation to the second; to the third assign trust, and to t e as lgllagse - tion.39 Arrange them in a proportion, and believe thlilt as rte. age ments to which they correspond participate in truth, so t ey pa rcip in clarit “I rilnderstand,” he said. “And I agree and arrange them as you » say. [192] BOOK VII Next, then,” I said, ‘lnake an Image of our nature in its educa- iionrandwwantwofeducwatjpp, likening it to a condition of the following kind. See human beings as though they were in an underground cave- like dwelling with its entrance, a long one, Open to the light across the whole width of the cave. They are in it from childhood with their legs and necks in bonds so that they are fixed, seeing only in front of them, unable because of the bond to turn their heads all the way around. Their light is from a fire burning far above and behind them. Between the fire and the prisoners there is a road above, along which see a wall, built like the partitions puppet-handlers set in front of the human beings and over which they show the puppets.” “I see,” he said. “Then also see along this wall human beings carrying all sorts of artifacts, which project above the wall, and statues of men and other animals wrought from stone, wood, and every kind of material; as is to be expected, some of the carriers utter sounds While others are silent.” “It’s a strange image,” he said, “and strange prisoners you’re Of: , z.” / “They’re likeiusfi: I said. “For in the first place, do you suppose Such men would have seen anything of themselves and one another Other than the shadows cast by the fire on the side of the cave facing them?” [193] 514a [9 515a GLAUCON/SOCRATES 5150 b 5160 THE REPUBLIC “How could they,” he said, they had been compelled to keep their heads motionless throughout'life?” “And what about the things that are carried by? Isn’t it the same with them?” “Of course.” “If they were able to discuss things with one another, don’t you believe they would hold that they are naming these things going by before them that they see?”1 “Necessarily.” “And what if the prison also had an echo from the side facing them? Whenever one of the men passing by happens to utter a sound, do you suppose they would believe that anything other than the passing shadow was uttering the sound?” “No, by Zeus,” he said. “I don’t.” “Then most certainly,” I said, “such men would hold that the truth is nothing other than the shadows of artificial things.” “Most necessarily,” he said. “Now consider,” I said, “what their release and healing from bonds and folly would be like if something of this sort wereflby nature to happen to them. Take a man who is released and suddenly com- pelled to stand up, to turn his neck around, to walk and look up toward the light; and who, moreover, in doing all this is in pain and, becaust- he is dazzled, is unable to make out those things whose shadows he saw before. What do you suppose he’d say if someone were to tell him that before he saw silly nothings, while now, because he is somewhat nearer to what is and more turned toward beings, he sees more correctly; and, in particular, showing him each of the things that pass by, were to com- pel the man to answer his questions about what they are? Don’t you suppose he’d be at a loss and believe that what was seen before is truer than what is now shown?” “Yes,” he said, “by far.” “And, if he compelled him to look at the light itself, would his eyes hurt and would he flee, turning away to those things that he is able to make out and hold them to be really clearer than what is being shown?” “So he would,” he’said. “And if,” I said, “@meone dragged him away from there by fierce along the rough, steep, upward way and didn’t let him go before he had dragged him out into the light of the sun, wouldn’t he be distresm-d and annoyed at being so dragged? And when he came to the light, woulan he have his eyes full of its beam and be unable to see even one of the things now said to be true?” [1941 Book VII / 5150-5170 GLAUCON/SOCRATES “$1223: wouldn’t,” he said, “at least not right away.” see What’s u s:p)pose he d have to get accustomed, if he were going to and after thapth 0v}? At first he d most easily make out the shadows- water and lat e phantoms of the human beings and the other things in to be}; 1d“, er, t e things themselves. And from there he could tur 0 ing the things in heaven and heaven itself, more easily at night—looking at the 11' h g t of th t day—‘looking at the sun and sunlighi.”S 3“ and the moon—than by (Of course.” “Then finally I suppose he would be able t n I ' o mak bzoittaiplpfifgpvces inwater or some alien place, but fheOLSlltlndl”: n _, . , . ,, “Necessarily,” he saiggion and see what 1t s like. “And after that he would already about it that this is the source of the sea steward of all things in the visible plac cause of all those things he and his co “It’s plain,” he said, “What then? When there, and his fellow priso consider himself happy “Quite so.” “And be in a position to conclude sons and the years, and is the e, and is in a certain way the “ mpanions had been seein ” that this would be his next step.” g. he recalled his first home and the wisdom f ners in that time, don’t you suppose he would or the change and pity the others?” rather than to opine those th' “Yes,” he said, “I suppose rather than live that way.” “Now reflect on this too ” I ' “ ‘ down a i ‘ I , said. If such a man were to onId and sit in the same seat, on coming suddenl from thcome “ n is eyes get mfected with darkness?” y 8 sun Very much so,” he said. “And Prisoners i *ion was 5 till d' - 3 [IN-(led for 1m, before 1115 eyes had recovered, and if the time n getting accustomed were not at all short, wouldn’t he be [195] if he once more had to a, I, . . compete with those 9 m 1 ,. n forming Judgments about those shadows Whifi V: .2 516a e, .47, b SOCRATES/GLAUCON 5170 518 0 THE REPUBLIC the source of laughter, and wouldn’t it be said of that he wen]: and came back with his eyes corrupted, and that itslnot event their trying to go up? And if they were somehow ab e tocl gle d u hands on and kill the man who attempts to release an ea p, wouldn’t they kill him?” h .d “ d bt about it,” esai . “ l I “\Nkfellouthen my dear Glaucon,” I said, this image as a whole must be connected with what was said before. Liken the domain re; vealed through sight to the prison home, and the hghtsftfihe Sign? (if . . . e n’s ower; and, in applying the gomg up.an , $1122: :bovepto the souls journey up to the intelligible plac§,dy0ili)tll ' ' ‘ desire to hear it. A go on - not mistake my expectation, Since you ‘ ‘ th ' ‘ At all events, this IS the way e less knows if it happens to be true. . d ‘ ' ble the last thing to be seen, an henomena look to me. in the knowa ‘ fhat with considerable effort, is the idea of the good; but once'sclelen, 15 must be concluded that this is in fact the cause of all that is rig an . fair in everything—in the visible it gave birth to light and its soiia-reign, the intelligible, itself sovereign, it provided truth and inte igence ——and that the man who is going to act prudently in private or in ublic must see it” ” . u I p “I too join you in supposing that, he said, at least in the way I can. “Come then ” I said, “and join me in supposing this, too, and don’t be surprised that the men who get to that pointharent mind the business of human beings, but rather that tleirifsoizlsed 1h.“ ways eager to spend their time above. Surely”that s like y, in e . , too, follows the image of which I told before. “ ’ ’s likel ,” he said. i . . H «(zifidoylvrhsailabout this? Do you suppose it is anything suirprésmg. I said, “if a man, come from acts of divine contemplation tfii evils, is graceless and looks quite ridiculous when—:ith his slilrmu.mL dim and before he has gotten sufficiently accustome to t e ts 11mm ing darkness—he is compelled in courts or elsewhere to] cohn es‘i the the shadows of the just or the representations .of whic tdey {50d h" shadows, and to dispute about the way these things are un ers _ men who have never seen justice itself? It s not at all surprising, he 8&1” . “ I ‘ t “But if a man were intelligent, I said, he would rememht r did there are two kinds of disturbances of the eyes, .stemmiéig ill-:11: sources—when they have been transferred from light tom: flu“; held when they have been transferred from darkness to light.h W In“. that that these same things happen to a soul too, whenever e sadly! high is confused and unable to make anything out, he wou , r” :_ si‘iger ~ .. 1* x», -« SOCRATES/GLAUCON Book VII / 51 7a—519b u without reasoning but would go o _ to consider whether come from a 518 a to greater brightness, it is dazzled by the greater brilliance. And th 11 he would deem the first soul happy 19 for its condition and its life, whi he would pity the second. And, if he wanted to laugh at the second oul, his laughing in this case would be less a laugh of scorn than has come from above out of th light.” 0 : ._. o. r a ._.. W (13 S. on M n. (‘7' :- m U! o E. 2 E‘ O :3- “Then, if this is true,” said, “we it to be. They presumably sert that they put into the soul knowledge that isn’t in it, as though the were putting sight into blind eyes.” “Yes,” he said, “they d indeed assert that.” "But the pr sent argu ent, on t other hand," I said, “indicates that this power % in the 5 ul of eacf‘iE and that the instrument with which each learns*—just as an eye is . t able to turn toward the light from the dark without the whole body—*must be turned around from that which is coming into being together with the whole soul until it is able to endure looking at that which is and the brightest part of that which is. And we affirm that this is the good, don’t we?” d ' “Yes.” “There would, therefore,” I said, “be an artwof"mthfiwturning. amde, concerned with the way in which this power can most easily- and efficiently be turned around, not an art of producing sight in it. Rather, this art takes as given that sight is there, but not rightly turned nor looking at what it ought to look at, and accomplishes this object. ” ’3 “So it seems,” he said. if if ‘4, {pa-9} gsgéitfiirgr “Therefore, the other virtues of a soul, as they are called, are piob- ably somewhat close to those of the body. For they are really not there beforehand and are later produced by habits and exercises, while the virtue of exercising prudence is more than anything somehow more di- vine, it seems; it never loses its power, but according to the way it is turned, it becomes useful and helpful or, again, useless and harmful. Or haven’t you yet reflected about the men who are said to be vicious but Wise, how shrewdly their petty soul sees and how sharply it dis- tinguishes those things toward which it is turned, showing that it doesn’t have poor vision although it is compelled to serve vice; so that the sharper it sees, the more evil it accomplishes?” “Most certainly,” he said. “However,” I said, “if this part of such a nature were trimmed in earliest childhood and its ties of kinship with becoming were cut Off—dike leaden weights’, which eating and such pleasures as well as (C, N, X j [197] / socm’res/cmucow 519 b THE REPUBLIC their refinements naturally attach to the soul and turn 1ts VISSJIlthtWI: ward——if, I say, it were rid of them and turned aroundléovllar t ethreum things, this same part of the same human beings wou ha 1510 see ow is most sharply, just as it does those things toward w ic l n turned.” h d “ ’ ' " e sai . about this? Isn’t it likely,” I said, “and necessary, {:5 a consequence of what was said before, that those who are w1tdouf education and experience of truth would never be adequate stewar s o a city, nor would those who have been allowed to spend the; timhe in education continuously to the end——the formerbecause they 1(lint tlave any single goal in life at which they must mm In domg eviryt (Z do in private or in public, the latter because they wont e1w1 lIfIgth act, believing they have emigrated to a colony on the Is es 0 e Blessed4 while they are still alive?” “ ” ‘aid. oi:3 job as founders,”_l said, to compel the best natui‘liles to go to the study which we were saying before 18 the greatest, to sic 6 good and to go up that ascent; and, when they have gone up an seen sufficiently, not to/permit them what is now permitted; a > p” Q» I “ghiiélizttheref 1 saidz, 7‘and_n9t,_b6,_willinst§ gadowaeisfsf'f among those prisoners or share their labors and hon sawhether ti: _\ ' serious. M‘H‘Xre we to do them an injustice, and make them live a worse life when a better is possible for them? “ . , I | “My friend, you have again forgotten, I said, that its n(1)lt 1:1: concern of law that any one class in the city fare exceptionally , }u’ it contrives to bring this about in the city as a whole, harmonlzirlilg l u- citizens by persuasion and compulsion, makingthem share Wit um another the benefit that each is able to bring to the comrrlitin- wealth. And it produces such men in the city not in order to leg I .1 in turn whichever way each wants, but in order that it may use t em; in binding the city together; “I d d f t ” “ ‘ ’ ” ai . i or e. Eelasucon," I said,g“consider that we won’t be doing Book VII / 51919-5212) SOCRATES/GLAUCON the price of rearing to anyone. ‘But you we have begotten for your- 52019 selves and for the rest of the city like leaders and kings in hives; you have been better and more perfectly educated and are more able to par— ticipate in both lives. So you must go down, each in his turn, into the common dwelling of the others and get habituated along with them to seeing the dark things. And, in getting habituated to it, you will see ten thousarid tiiliwesbfietter than the men there, and you’ll know what each of the phantoms is, and of what it is a phantom, because you have seen the truth about fair, just, and good things. And thus, the city will be governed by us and by you in a state of waking, not in a dream as the many cities nowadays are governed by men who fight over shadows with one another and form factions for the sake of ruling, as though it were some great good. But the truth is surely this: that city in which“i d those who are going to rule are least eager to rule is necessarily ' governed in the way that is best and freest from faction, while the one that gets the opposite kind of rulers is governed in the opposite/3 ;» way. “Most certainly,” he said. “Do you suppose our pupils will disobey us when they hear this and be unwilling to join in the labors of the city, each in his turn, while living the greater part of the time with one another in the pure re- gion?” Z “Impossible,” he said. “F or surely we shall be laying just injunc- tions on just men. However, each of them will certainly approach ruling as a necessary thing—which is the opposite of what is done by those who now rule in every city.” “That’s the way it is, my comrade,” I said. you discover a life better thanruling ,for those who are going,to§’rule,witis possible that 521 a your well~governed city will come into being. For herealone will the really rich rule, rich not in gold but in those riches required by the hap- py man, rich in a good and prudent life. But if beggars, men hungering for want of private goods, go to public affairs supposing that in them they must seize the good, it isn’t possible. When ruling becomes a thing fought over, such a war—a domestic war, one within the family—de- stroys these men themselves and the rest of the city as well.” “That’s very true,” he said. injustice to the philosophers who come to be among us, but rather «Have you,» I said, «any other life that despises political Offices b (A , i i we will say Just things to them while compelling them begldes to N“ Other than that Of true philosophy?” I} ‘33,, ‘ for and guard the others. We’ll say that when such men tionfihthlm “No’ by Zeus,» he 831: d. “I d011,“, / ~ v r . . . . - ' ‘ e L - .. , . . . xi??? b in the other cities 11:13 fitting f0; tillfozlt:::;:£:r::§::te 3116 will “f H“, ‘ 1 futmenliavfliioharent lovers of ruhng must go5 to it; otherwrse. t“ ‘ cities. or t ey grow U , _. ‘ I‘lva overs wi t.” Egg; in each; and a nature that gr0ws by itself and doesnt "“" "a. «Of course.» g rearing to anyone has justice on its side when it is not eager to 11a) 0 [ 199 l i 198 l ...
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The Republic - Plato -...

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