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10.26.2010 MENA Notes

10.26.2010 MENA Notes - MENA Notes Battle of Algiers Review...

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MENA Notes 10/26/2010 - Battle of Algiers Review o Albert Memmi o Fannon (Black Man, White Mask; Wretched of the Earth) Both trained in French Colonialism and used Battle of Algiers as examples. o Indigenous people don’t often distinguish between “good” and “bad” colonizers. o “Terrorism” – were the French guilty of this? Define “terrorism” – Organized violence/threat of violence promotes fear. Organized – states and groups. Political in nature with goals. Targeting civilians. Continued Notes… - Iraq and Transjordan o Syria – Faisal, son of Hussein became the King of Syria, but was not Syrian. From the Arabian Peninsula Led revolt against Ottomans, captured Damascus and proclaimed King. French mandated Later removed by French Faisal was a Hasemite king o Iraq British mandate Revolt against the British occupation. Engineered the nomination of Faisal as King of Iraq in 1921 Overthrown in July 1958; coup led by General Kareem Kassim (pg. 81) o Jordan Carved out of the British mandate of Palestine. Adbullah made King – Hashemaite Kingdom of Jordan (brother of Faisal). Through splitting the Palestine mandate, the British hoped to “defuse Paestinian nationalism.” Dividing Palestinians helped to decrease pressure from Palestinians against the British. o Iran Pahlavi Dynasty (1925-79) Reza Shah (1925-41) o Not of royal blood, but rose in the military ranks. o Exiled by the Allied Forces and died in South Africa because he declared Iran neutral during WWII. Wanted to ship supplies to the Soviets. Mohammed Reza Pahlavi (1941-79). o Cold War British withdraw in 1971
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US consider the Persian Gulf very vulnerable due to the Iraq/Soviet alliance. o Containment against the Soviets. Iran decides to become pro-West Nixon Doctrine – provide weapons to allies around the world to defend themselves against Communists. People can defend for themselves rather than with US direct military support (a la Vietnam). Iran became the largest customer for sophisticated technology during this time. Iran had close relations with Israel during this time and sold them oil (severed in 1979). o Oil and Nationalism Democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh (1951-53) “The Iranian oil will belong to the Iranian people.” British didn’t like this because they lost oil interested. o
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