COGS 102

COGS 102 - COGS 102A DISCUSSION Sec$on: Week 1 ...

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Unformatted text preview: COGS 102A DISCUSSION Sec$on: Week 1 Monday, September 26th Who is this Luke kid? •  I’m a 2nd year graduate student. •  I work with Ayse Saygin on ac$on percep$on and the brain. •  Like most of you I’m new to DCog! •  Office hours: Wednesday noon to 2 in CSB 233 •  Email: [email protected] Important Links •  Class website: hLp:// •  NetLogo: hLp:// •  Calibrated Peer Review (CPR): hLp:// –  Remember to establish your user ID before class! •  Plagarism Quiz & Tutorial: hLp://$ons/sshl/guides/ course- subject- guides/index.html –  Don’t forget to take it before class tomorrow!!! Course Overview Grading Plagiarism Tutorial 5% 4 wriLen assignments 18% x 4 = 72% Midterm exam (Oct. 27?) 8% Final Exam 15% Tips for class success •  There are readings, do them! •  Think criDcally about what you learn/read. •  Come to every sec$on (ideally with ques$ons/ comments!). Sec$on Overview •  Sec$on is every Monday in WLH 2207. •  Sec$on is op#onal, however it is to your benefit to come! •  Things to do before sec$on: –  Read the reading(s) for Tuesday. –  Look over the “Reading Prep” •  Don’t be afraid to ask ques$ons! •  This sec$on will be a group discussion (this is a DCOG class aker all!) Hutchins (2001). Cogni$on, Distributed •  What dis$nguishes distributed cogni$on (DCOG) from classical approaches to cogni$on?! •  Two theore$cal principles 1.  2.  Unit of analysis is not just in the head, but can encompass the individual and the environment. The range of cogni$ve mechanisms/events is not limited to the “skin or skull of an individual” but can extend to the material environment. •  Three kinds of distribu$on of cogni$on. 1.  Cogni$ve processes may be distributed across social groups. 2.  The opera$on of the cogni$ve system may involve coordina$on between both internal and external structure. 3.  Products of earlier events can transform the nature of later events. Mind in Society “In the same way that epidemiology addresses the distribu$on of pathogens in a popula$on, anthropology should treat ques$ons about the distribu$on of representa$ons in a community.” •  Processes that a distributed among social groups include… –  Memory, beliefs, representa$ons •  Science is a great example of a distributed process! What are some examples that demonstrate this? The Society of Mind “to explain intelligence we need to consider a large system of experts or agencies that can be assembled together in various configura$ons to get things done.” “Both what is in the mind and what the mind is in are socie$es” “Every high- level cogni$ve func$on appears twice: first as an interpsychological process and only later as an intrapsychological process.” •  Interac$ons among component parts can give rise to new levels of organiza$on that can only exist in aggregate. –  Linguis$c structure as arising from the interac$on of other speakers The material environment “Cogni$ve ar$facts are involved in a process of organizing func$onal skills into cogni$ve func$onal systems.” •  Why don’t cogni$ve ar$facts (e.g. wri$ng) merely amplify cogni$ve process (e.g. memory)? •  Examples from boat naviga$on –  “3- minute rule” and “nomograms” –  The cogni$ve work being done by the individual alone is insufficient for the necessary computa$on. •  Manipula$on of the environment can also lead to differences in later cogni$ve performance. Any Ques$ons/par$ng thoughts? Resnick (1994) Learning about Life •  Centralized vs. Decentralized views of life. –  Example: Aggrega$on of slime- mold cells –  Centralized view: the clustering of slime- mold cells are due to “founder” cells (a leader). –  Decentralized view: clustering occurs due to simple rules. –  Other examples: gene$cs, origin of fossils, ex$nc$ons •  What are some examples related to cogni$ve science? Key Concepts •  Self organizaDon: Order arises from group interac$on. •  Emergence: complex structures (and behavior) arises from simple parts. –  E.g. line- following LEGO turtle, termite program •  Decentralized local interacDons: The simple pieces act with those around them, not the whole. •  Mutual causaDon: Causa$on at different levels goes both ways. •  Levels of organizaDon: Mul$ple levels of interac$on. Five guidelines •  PosiDve feedback isn’t always negaDve –  Exponen$ally posi$ve inputs can some$mes lead to self- organiza$on. •  Randomness can help create order –  Random fluctua$ons act as seeds from which paLerns and structures grow. •  A flock isn’t a big bird –  The behavior of one level (e.g. the birds) can be completely different than the behavior of another level (e.g. the flock). •  A traffic jam isn’t just a collecDon of cars –  Large collec$ons of individuals can be viewed as “emergent objects” (irrespec$ve of the individuals that compose it) •  The hills are alive –  The environment is something to be interacted with, not just acted on! •  What about some NetLogo examples? *Hint: This will help you conceptualize your first CPR assignment! Slime- mold Cells NetLogo Link Rules: 1.  Follow the chemical gradient of other turtles (slime- mold cells). What about the guidelines? Posi$ve Feedback? Randomness? Levels? Changing composi$on? Environmental interac$on? Termites NetLogo Link Rules 1.  2. If the termite bumps into a woodchip, it picks it up. When it bumps into another woodchip, it puts it down in an empty space. What about the guidelines? Posi$ve Feedback? Randomness? Levels? Changing composi$on? Environmental interac$on? Flocks of Birds NetLogo Link Rules: 1.  2.  3.  Align with the heading of other close birds. Separate from birds that become too close Move towards nearby birds (unless they are too close). What about the guidelines? Posi$ve Feedback? Randomness? Levels? Changing composi$on? Environmental interac$on? Traffic Jams NetLogo Link Rules 1.  2.  A car accelerates when it doesn’t see a car ahead. A car decelerates when it does see a car ahead. What about the guidelines? Posi$ve Feedback? Randomness? Levels? Changing composi$on? Environmental interac$on? Any ques$ons?!?!!? ...
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This document was uploaded on 10/16/2011.

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