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506575966 - Week 3 Sec(on COGS 102A Luke ...

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Unformatted text preview: Week 3 Sec(on COGS 102A Luke Miller Reminders •  Complete CPR evalua(ons by 8 PM tomorrow. •  Don’t forget to read the second half of chapter two in CItW. •  Any ques(ons? How do we know what is cogni(ve? •  AOribu(on Problem –  Mind must be inferred from behavior (reason- respec*ng) •  How can the physical phenomena of the mind be explained? –  Humans manipulate symbols. –  The computer also manipulates symbols? –  Therefore, maybe the mind is just a computer? decontextualization! decontextualization Symbolic systems weave or surrounds with relation to •  Symbols: abstract types that express the iden(ty Accounting Systems! not Early to make or take of mul(ple tokens. –  Tokens vs. types the act •  Expressions: Structures containing symbols. •  Designa*on: The rela(on between the symbol and what it refers to (encoding). •  Interpreta*on: Realiza(on of the designa(on An envelope, its contents of tokens, and (decoding). corresponding markings. 3300 B.C. •  Formal opera*ons: Rules for manipula(on The The Secret of Our Success! The world of things and events Encoding Falling object Falls 490m in 10 seconds Decoding t=0 x=0 a = g = 9.8m/sec2 v = gt x = 1/2gt2 t = 10 sec. x = 1/2 g 100 = 50g meters PSSH: The mind is nothing more than symbol manipula(on. Is the mind a computer?!?! Physical symbol system hypothesis •  The necessary and sufficient condi(ons for intelligence. •  Cogni(on happens at the level of symbol manipula(on Test The Turing ! (representa(onal level). •  Mind can therefore be reverse engineered! •  Turing machine and Turing test •  3 pieces of early Cog Sci –  Formal system –  Meaning from mindless rule following –  Symbol manipula(on •  “If you take care of the syntax the seman(cs will follow” (Symbol grounding problem) •  Internal symbolic processing (Brains?) Searle’s Chinese Room •  Man is inside a room that has only a door and a stack of papers with all of the input and output rules for Chinese. •  An outsider sends an “input” of Chinese under the door, and eventually gets an “output”. •  He thinks “Wow! Whoever is on the other side is great at Chinese!”. •  Does the man speak Chinese? Does the room? Is the brain a meat computer? •  Mindware is to neural hardware as digital so]ware is to silicon hardware. •  The iden+ty of the brain states doesn’t maOer, only the current func(on of the brain states! •  Func*onalism: The physical instan(a(on does not maOer, the programs (rules) are what maOers. –  If we knew the program, we could put human intelligence on a computer! –  Physical symbol systems, duh! Limita(ons •  Is the Turing test really a good test? •  Humans are social, computers are not. •  PSSH proponents are forced to limit the domain of inquiry. •  Sure, the PSSH may be able to explain reason respec(ng thought (e.g. playing chess). •  But what about … –  –  –  –  Consciousness Qualia Affect/emo(on Embodiment Any ques(ons on the PSSH? •  Representational/algorithmic Representational/algorithmic Distance, Rate, and Time Constraint •  Implementational Implementational of possibilities. in play. possibilities •  A particular constraintbe combined to restrict the range •  Constraints can may leave many of possibilities possibilities in play. in play. •  Sometimes is possible to restrict constraints •  Constraints can beitcombined to combine the range in a way that play. of possibilities in leaves only a single possibility. •  Sometimes it is possible to combine constraints in a way that leaves only a single possibility. Computa(on in Naviga(on •  Thinking of the brain in terms of a PSS might not be the best, but it works great for a socio- Line of Position cultural system (i.e. naviga(on)! Arc of Position Line of Position Circle of 360 degrees Arc of Position Marr’s 3 Levels of Analysis Computa*onal: What does the system do? Representa*onal/algorithmic: How is the system organized? Implementa*onal: What kind of stuff is the system? •  How do each of these levels relate to naviga(on? •  What are constraints and why are they important? •  Are there differences in Western and Micronesian naviga(on? At what level(s) do these differences occur? Marr’s 3 Levels and Naviga(on Computa*onal: –  “Where are we?” –  “Given that we are where we are, how shall we proceed to arrive at a par(cular somewhere else?” Representa*onal/algorithmic: –  Longitude and la(tude –  Etaks (temporal segments of a voyage) –  Frames of reference (birds eye view vs. egocentric) Implementa*onal –  GPS systems (Western) –  Star paths (Micronesian) Where are we? •  Pepper Canyon Hall 106 at UCSD. –  Latitude 32° 52’ 39.56” N Implementa(on and Naviga(on •  Different cultural concep(ons of naviga(on. •  Material anchors •  How do these relate to symbol manipula(on (with inputs and outputs)? ...
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