Review for Exam 3 - Review for Exam 3 Endocrine System 1...

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Review for Exam 3: Endocrine System: 1. What are the 5 endocrine glands, what hormones do they secrete, and what is their function? Pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, and pineal gland Pituitary gland - growth hormone (GH), Prolactin (PRL), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), and Oxytocin; thyroid Gland- Thyroid Hormone (TH) and Calcitonin; Parathyroid Gland- Parathyroid hormone (PTH); Adrenal Gland- Epinephrine, norepinephrine, gonadocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and glucocorticoids; Pineal Gland- Melatonin Pituitary gland- regulates release of hormones from other glands. Thyroid gland- secretes thyroid hormone and serotonin. Regulate metabolism and absorb calcium by bone. Parathyroid gland- target cell is bone, causes bone to be broken down to increase Ca++ levels in blood Adrenal gland- (Adrenal Medulla) fight or flight response- prolongs sympathetic nervous system (Adrenal Cortex) estrogen and testosterone released, regulates Na+ and K+ in blood, and increase metabolism to increase blood glucose levels during stress Pineal gland- light inhibits secretion, regulates sleep patterns, seasonal depression caused by increased melatonin. 2. What are the symptoms and causes of the following disorders? Giantism- Increased production of GH during childhood Dwarfism- decreased production of GH during childhood Acromegaly- increased production of GH during adulthood Diabetes Isipidus- Decreased production of ADH, increased urine output and thirst, body dehydrates Goite- caused by lack of iodine, enlarged thyroid gland Diabetes Mellitus I and II- (type I) juvenile diabetes, autoimmune disease attacks own body and causes increased blood glucose level, increased thirst, hunger and urination (type II) adult onset, decreased sensitivity to insulin, fatty acids from adipose tissue increase resistance to insulin and decrease insulin secretion Cretinism- decrease in TH during development or infancy, mental retardation, short stature Myxederma- decrease in TH during adulthood Graves’ Disease- over secretion of TH during adulthood, autoimmune disease, increased HR and metabolism, nervousness, weight loss, and protruding eyes Addison’s Disease- decrease in aldosterone and glucocorticoids, weight loss, fatigue, elecrolyte imbaland, decrease stress response, and bronzing of skin Cushing’s Syndrome- increased glucocorticoids, redistribution of body fat, high blood pressure and glucose levels SAD- seasonal depression caused by increased melatonin Skeletal System 3. What is the function of the skeletal system?
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Support (provide framework), movement (attachment site for muscles), protection (shields internal organs), storage of minerals (calcium and phosphorus), storage of fat (yellow marrow), and blood cell production (red marrow) 4. What is the ratio of compact and spongy bone in long bones vs. flat bones? In long bones there is a lot more compact bone than spongy bone and in flat bones there is a lot more
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Review for Exam 3 - Review for Exam 3 Endocrine System 1...

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