Outline for final - RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Definitions o...

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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Definitions o Breating- CO2 output, O2 input o External respiration- O2 enters blood, CO2 leaves blood Occurs in lungs o Gas Transport- O2 to tissues, CO2 to lungs thru blood vessels o Internal Respiration- O2 leaves blood, CO2 enters blood Occurs at tissues Structures o Upper Respiratory System- nasal cavity, pharynx o Lower Respiratory System- larynx, epiglottis, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, alveoli Functions in Breathing o Nose- warms, filters, cleans, and moistens air o Pharynx- pathway for food and liquid o Larynx- voice box (only air) o Epiglottis- close over opening to larynx when swallow o Lungs- (trachea/bronchi) cartilage ring for support (Bronchioles) no cartilage ring/construction-dilation (alveoli) Provide surface area for gas exchange Pathway for Air o Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea lungs (bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli) What does swallowing close? o Epiglottis closes the opening into the larynx to prevent food from going into the lungs Position of vocal cords o Quiet breathing- near sides of larynx and glottis is open o Speech- stretched over glottis and vibrate as air passes through them Structures in lungs that contain cartilage rings? Purpose of cartilage rings? o Structures- trachea and bronchi o Purpose- support airway How is the diameter of bronchioles controlled? o Smooth muscles lining walls of bronchioles How does pressure in the thoracic cavity change during inhalation and exhalation? o Inhalation- increase size, decrease pressure o Exhalation- decrease size, increase pressure Definitions o Total Lung Capacity- total amount of air in lungs after max. Inhalation o Tidal Volume- air in/out lungs normal breath o IRV- maximum amount of air inhalation o ERV- maximum amount of air exhalation o Vital capacity- IRV+ERV+TV o Residual Volume- air that remains in lungs
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What does decrease in expiratory reserve volume mean? What does an increase in residual volume indicate? o (Decrease in ERV) Characteristics of obstructive lung diseases such as bronchitis and asthma o (Increase in RV) Characteristics of emphysema, makes a person feel short of breath How is oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in the blood? Transport of gases o Oxygen- 99% hemoglobin; 1% plasma o Carbon Dioxide- 10% plasma; 20% hemoglobin; 70% bicarbonate ion o Transport of gases CO2+H20 H2CO3 broken into H+ + HCO3- :tissues go to HCO3-; lungs go to H2CO3 How is breathing regulated by nervous system and by level of CO2 in blood? o Nervous system- medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex o Chemical controls- detect level H+ (HCO3-), critical H+ receptors signal medulla to stop contracting breathing muscles, relax muscles (exhale) What causes each and what are they? o
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This note was uploaded on 10/15/2011 for the course ZOOLOGY 116 taught by Professor Davidpennock during the Spring '11 term at Miami University.

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Outline for final - RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Definitions o...

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