Part II for exam 2

Part II for exam 2 - PART II: POLITICAL THINKING AS ANSWERS...

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PART II: POLITICAL THINKING AS ANSWERS A. Aristotle’s Politics - known as first political scientist 1. Introduction a) Life and times- Born in Macedonia, Greece. Born 380 BC. At 17 was sent to Athens to get an education & went to Plato’s University. Remained there for 20 years until Plato died. Then he traveled to Turkey Macedonia. Tutored Alexander; went back to Athens and found his own school, Lyceum (335 BC). Focused on Bio and history. Died at 62. b) Works Treatises (notes for lectures at the Lyceum). Ranged greatly in knowledge. Aristotle is focused on the answers. Wrote a lot on ethics and politics. Wrote 2 big books politics and ethics. The excellence of the moral virtue and practice is the practical action (have to live in reality). Not only interested in theory but also in practice c) Ethics Study of ethics teaches us how to live well. *Aristotle, like Plato, saw the soul as the source of life—it is capable of generating 3 types of life >vegetative: the life of nutrition & growth (Irrational; nutritional virtue) >appetitive: the life of sense perception (Rational; life of the soul) >calculative: the life of reason (Rational; intellectual virtue) *The soul thus has both rational & irrational elements—elements that can reason and choose the good, as well as elements driven by desires *The 3 types of life lead to 3 types of virtue (SEE
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Part II: Political Thinking as Answers ILLUSTRATION ON SLIDE “Aristotle’s Ethics—the soul”) *** Greatest happiness found at rational life and point of politics is to help humans find that (live a good life). *** Good statesmanship will give you a good soul; virtue and habits Humans need go legislation to promote the moral virtues Calculative— Intellectual Virtue Rational Appetitive—Moral Virtue Irration al Vegetative– Nutritional Virtue 2/The mean 3/The virtues- mean between extremes (moderation); virtue is found between too much or too little of a quality. *The 10 most important virtues Vice of deficiency Virtuous mean Vice of excess Cowardice Courage Rashness Insensibility Temperance Self indulgence Stinginess Generosity Extravagance Excessive humility Pride (High-mindedness) Vanity Want of ambition Right ambition Over-ambition Apathy Good temper Irascibility Unpleasantness Friendliness Obsequiousness Boorishness Wittiness Buffoonery Shamelessness Modesty Bashfulness Envy Righteous Spitefulness 2
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Part II: Political Thinking as Answers Indignation d) The personal and the political Key to a good regime lies within its citizens and rulers who are committed to public interest. Classic Tradition - looks for excellence in persons (mirrors for princes) 2. Aristotle’s teaching on regimes a) 2 key questions: 1/Who governs?—this will tell us where power lies in the regime Formal- rules and structures and rights and duties of citizens Informal- was the way of life, habits, and moral dispositions ***Regime gives the people and its city their identity Citizen- are held together by friendship and loyalty
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Part II for exam 2 - PART II: POLITICAL THINKING AS ANSWERS...

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