ISLAMTERMS - 1 Ottomans Constantinople fell in 1453 before...

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- Ottomans : Constantinople fell in 1453 before Turkish Muslims, the Byzantine capital was renamed Istanbul and became the seat of the Ottoman empire -- heir to Genghis Khan Mongol-Turkish, formed warrior heritage with Islamic tradition, believing in jihad as defenders of Islam --expansion was checked by failure of siege in Vienna in 1683 -- Istanbul was international and Islamized center of power and culture -- relied on strong military of slave-soldiers supported by gunpowder technology - 15-18 th c., western technology and Chinese developments - western paradigms to reform military --Quran schools, mosque-universities (madrasas), ulama became religious aristocracy -- millet system, variant of dhimmi -- collapsed in post WWI period during French and British Mandate period. -Safavids: Persian/Iran empire centered in Isfahan, established Shii Islam as state’s religion, began as Sufi revivalist brotherhood -- shii messianism and armed struggle (against other Muslim regimes) -- made Shiism official religion of Islamic empire through persecution and doctrinal interpretation -- asserted religious legitimacy by saying he was twelfth hidden imam as Shah -- matyrdom of Husayn as Karbala became central symbol, which became alternative pilgrimage site to Mecca -- Shah Abbas: state building through reforms -- fell in 1736 -Mughals: in Delhi -- Akbar made empire a reality through harmony and universal tolerance -- Muslims and Hindu’s, royal patronage sponsorship, -- royal patronage sponsored building and House of Worship for theological discussion -- not universally accepted -- Din-i Ilahi : state sponsored religious cult, religion of God, which emphasized the truth to be found in all religions - eternal truth for all religions Aurangzeb dismantled Akbar’s pluralistic system of governance and supported more exclusive ulama of poll tax, Islamic law, and destruction of Hindu temples -- emphasis on religious synthesis as opposed to legalism of conservative ulama. -- Taj Mahal - florescence of accomplishments -- lingered subservient to Britian until 1857, when formally declared a colony all citizens were members of a transnational community of believers, citizens of dal- al-Islam, professed faith in on god, his relevation, and prophet all bore the title ‘sultan’ with blend of military strength and religious legitimacy Islamic law enjoyed place as official law of the state social and moral decline of these empire would contribute to a wave of Islamic revivalist movements - Al-Azhar: 969, traditional ulama 1
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- paradigm for western education - Abbasid’s golden age - black gowns, undergrad/grad - discussion style - sunni - founded by Fatimid dynasty -Jihad: so called holy war, defensive in nature, obligation of all Muslims to strive or struggle to follow God’s will -- lead a virtuous life and universal mission to spread Gods rule and law through teaching, preaching and where necessary, armed struggle -- sometimes referred to as sixth pillar of Islam, though with no official
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2011 for the course NELC 102 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at UPenn.

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ISLAMTERMS - 1 Ottomans Constantinople fell in 1453 before...

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