POST EXAM - Gunpowder Empires Ottomans Safavids and Mughals...

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Gunpowder Empires: Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals 10/22/08 Ottomans 1299-1922- Sunni, Turkish Empire Safavids 1501-1722: Shiite, Persian empire - located around Iran - legacy that was manifested in Iranian polities Mughals 16-19 c.: Sunni, Turko-Mongol-Indian Empire these empires shape perceptions Ottomans were longest lasting (and in world history), and closest to west - kings rulers of a dynasty: unique success - epicenter so expanded - height of power in 16 th and 17 th c. - western perception if Islam was shaped by fear or admiration of Ottoman version of Islam o changed into oriental despotism on a political level - religion: Sunni! Yet included previous Turkish practices into religious and political cultures o formed a new version in Islam - fighting for booty - did not hesitate to recruit people to their ranks from non-Muslim ranks - Turks did not care much about orthodox Islamic practices - No longer engaged in dividing land amongst all siblings, now eldest son won the thrown - Practiced dual system: yasa or sultanic law (larger political and economic issues) and sharia (individual family matters) o Sultanic law is hierarchly more important - 1517 Ottomans conquered Arabs - Ottomans, however, did become more orthodox by 16 th c. o Yet still Sultanic Law as priority o Reached natural boundaries with conquering with Hapsburgs and Safavids on either side o Champion of Sunni Islam with Christian West and heretic Shia on East - 1683 Second Seige of Vienna o further West because land is better as are women o yet failure and signs of decline o 10/23/08 The Safavids - established themselves as a state at the beginning of 16 th c - dynasty empire based on Sunni/Sufi ideas o yet became Shia because in opposition to Ottoman, Sunni - became more clear political entity - founder was Shah o appropriated title and was first great ruler of empire - based on Twelver and became state religion o suppressed other religions - flourishment in Persian art and architecture - empire decline beginning of 18 th c because it became complacent and corrupt make country more Shiite : used persecution and suppressed others, and brought in scholars were united because of fight against Ottomans, yet once truce occurs the Safavids did not have much political cost to keep their territory united leads to decline
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Mughals - gunpowder group - founded in 1526 and declined by middle of 18 th c. - one of most sophisticated empires with height around 1700 - unique civilization with its own religion and own architecture and administrative system - Sunni was official religion o Heavenly and Holy religion: transcended and combined with other religions o Met with resistance from orthodox ulama 10/27/08 Islam and the West, Islam vs. the West Islam encounters Judaism and Christianity Crusades (11 th -13 th c.) Al-Andalus (9 th -15 th c.) Otoomans (14 th -20 th ) Colonialism (18 th -19 th ) Decolonization (20 th ) American Century and Neocolonialism (20 th c.) Russian Imperialism (20 th c.) Islam and the West (20
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POST EXAM - Gunpowder Empires Ottomans Safavids and Mughals...

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