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STUDYGUIDE - Question 1 On Colonialism and rise of Islamic...

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Question 1: On Colonialism and rise of Islamic states and Islamic movements Week 10 - Colonialist Challenge and Modern Reform Shahrough AKhavi “Islam and the West in World History” o Began in 10 th c., 1258 Mongols destroyed Baghdad, Crusaders invaded Muslim heartland, barbaric Franks who dared to threaten the abode of Islam Threats by Turkic tribes, Mongols, and Crusaders o Dante placed Muhammad in hell in Divine Comedy (European scholars lost interest in muslim philosophy) o Ejection of Muslims from Iberian peninsula by late 15 th c. after peaceful coexistence, a golden age of tolerance o French Revolution introduced European political ideas to Muslim countries Spread of communication and intensification of European travel to those areas. Muslim rulers believed western-based reforms would ensure their societies survival without losing their cultural identity. European powers pressued Ottoman, Iranian and Mughal governments to modernize their societies so they could more efficiently impose their colonial control there Conservative clergy resisted worried about sharia, whereas reformist-minded were prepared to experiment Yet limits to how far modernists would go because of western acts against Muslims such as supporting Zionist movement to convert Palestine into a jewish state o liberal, facist (libya and Somalia, failure to control thse), Marxist all failed o western states were willing to encourage democracy at home but sought to prevent real democracy from taking root in Muslim societies i.e. electoral laws were written in such a way as to deny broad enfranchisement o were pushed to ‘Islam’ as a solution after WWII when European states withdrew, Muslim societies established independent states authoritarian regimes took over, enjoyed being ruled by natives, yet incompetence and despotism narrowed their support lost wars to Israel, and the fate of the Palestinians o failure of western models and historical precedent after WWI Ottoman Sultan raised banner of pan-Islamism to save his realm in late 1920’s Muslim Brotherhood created in Egypt to establish rule of Islamic law, and expel British minimalist perspective of violence-prone Islamist groups: Hamas in Gaza Strip (which Israel supported to weaken secular PLO), FIS in Algeria, Iranian Revolution, and geurrilla organizations in Pakistan and Afghanistan, no tolerance maximalist perspective: restoring integration of religion and politics and making sharia the exclusive law War of 1967 launched revival of political Islam Muslims argued that Israeli’s won because they remained faithful to God whereas Mulsim were secularized Marked decline of Arab nationalism under leadership of Egypt,
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had been discredited o Paradigmatic leaders of Islamists have been Khomeini argued Shiite law that clergy must rule society until return of Hidden Imam, whose reapparance marks the beginning of justice in the world, and Mawdudi (rejected rule of Pakistani
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2011 for the course NELC 102 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at UPenn.

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STUDYGUIDE - Question 1 On Colonialism and rise of Islamic...

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