Metal Matrix Composite{chapter(1)}

Metal Matrix Composite{chapter(1)} - Metal Matrix...

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Unformatted text preview: Metal Matrix Composites (bilingual teaching) School of materials science and engineering Jilin University Professor Yu­guang ZHAO Zhao yu­guang, working in the Department of Zhao yu­guang, Materials Processing Engineering as a Professor. Main research fields (directions) include: The particulate­reinforced MMCs wear resistant alloy materials special alloys and their liquid­forming techniques high T oxidation of metals and their surface modification liquid metal treatment and solidified microstructure control during metallurgy and materials forming surface metallurgy elevated temperature and high speed tribology etc. strengthening and toughening of metallic materials Electro­strengthening of metallic materials For a student: study hard, think independently, challenge all. For career success: matter­of­fact attitude, innovative spirit, scientific mode of thinking, lenient and large mind. For a job: gather information, take action now, never abandon. Chapter 1, Introduction (2 class hours) Chapter 1, ( 绪绪 ,2 绪绪) Chapter 2, Theory of composites (2 class hours) )绪绪绪绪 ,2 绪绪) Chapter 3, solidification Theory of particulates reinforced MMCs (2 class hours) 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 ,2 绪绪绪 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 Chapter 4, Interface and compatibility of composites (2 class hours) ( 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 ,2 绪绪 ) Chapter 5, Reinforcements and matrices of MMCs (2 class hours) ( 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 ,2 绪绪 ) Chapter 6, fabricated methods of MMCs I (2 class hours) 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 I 绪 2 绪绪 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 Chapter 7, fabricated methods of MMCs II (2 class hours) Chapter 7, 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 II 绪 2 绪绪 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 Chapter 8, fabricated methods of MMCs III (2 class hours) 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 III 绪 2 绪绪 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 Chapter 9, Reclaim and Reprocessing of MMCs (2 class hours) 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 2 绪绪 Chapter 10, Functional MMCs (2 class hours) 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 2 绪绪 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 Chapter 11, Biomimetic composites materials (2 class hours) 绪绪绪绪绪绪 2 绪绪 Chapter 12, Prospect and Development of Metal matrix composites (2 class hours) 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 2 绪绪 Teaching materials and references Teaching materials and references [1] Metal Matrix Composites Edited by Karl U. Kainer 2006 WILEY­VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim ISBN: 3­527­31360­5 [2] Composites manufacturing: materials, product, and process engineering / by Sandjay K. Mazumdar. CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. [3] Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of in situ metal matrix composites, S.C. Tjong, Z.Y. Ma, Materials Science and Engineering, 29 (2000) 49­113 Reports: A Review Journal. If you have some difficulties to read English teaching materials, you can look up Chinese book as follow: [4] )))))))绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 1996 绪 7 绪绪 [5] )))))))绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 1995 绪 5 绪绪 [6] )))) , 绪绪绪 绪绪 , 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 2000.12 [7] ))))))) , T.W. 绪绪绪绪 P.J. 绪绪绪 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 1996.11 [8] ))))))) , 绪绪绪 .G.. 绪绪绪 绪绪绪绪绪绪 绪绪绪绪绪绪 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 1982.11 [9] )))))))) , 绪绪绪 , 绪绪绪 绪绪 , 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 , 2004.01 Chapter 1, Introduction (2 class hours) Chapter 1, 1. Definition of Composites )))))))) ) )))))))) 2. Characteristics of composites )))))))) ) )))))))) 3. History and Actuality of composites ))))))))))))) ) ))))))))))))) 4. Classification of composites 4. Classification of composites )))))))) ) )))))))) 5. Naming of composites ( ))))))) ) 1. Definition of Composites 1. Definition of Composites )))))))) ) A composite material is made by combining two or more materials to give a unique combination of properties. The above definition is more general and can include metals alloys, plastic co­polymers, minerals, and wood. Fiber­reinforced composite materials differ from the above materials in that the constituent materials are different at the molecular level and are mechanically separable. The possibility of taking advantage of particular properties of the constituent materials to meet specific demands is the most important motivation to meet specific demands is the most important motivation for the development of composites. A composite is a material made with several different constituents intimately bonded. This definition is very large, and includes a lot of materials such as the Roman ways (constituted of different layers of stones, chalk and sand), wood, human body etc... A more restrictive definition is used by industries and materials scientists: a composite is a material that consists of constituents produced via a physical combination of pre­existing ingredient materials to obtain a new material with unique properties when compared to the monolithic material properties. This definition distinguishes a composite from other multiphase materials which are produced by bulk processes where one or more phases result from phase transformation ("in­situ" composites) The terms matrix and reinforcement are often used. The matrix is a percolating “soft” phase (with in general excellent ductility, formability and thermal conductivity) in which are embedded the “hard” reinforcements (high stiffness and low thermal expansion). ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))))))) 6 ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))))))))))))) , )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 2. Characteristics of composites 2. Characteristics of composites )))))))) ) The development objectives for metal matrix composite materials are: Increase in yield strength and tensile strength at room temperature and above while maintaining the minimum ductility or rather toughness, Increase in creep resistance at higher temperatures compared to that of conventional alloys, Increase in fatigue strength, especially at higher temperatures, Improvement of thermal shock resistance, Improvement of corrosion resistance, Increase in Young’s modulus, Reduction of thermal elongation. To summarize, an improvement in the weight specific properties can result, offering the possibilities of extending the application area, substitution of common materials and optimisation of component properties. With functional materials there is another objective, the precondition of maintaining the appropriate function of the material. Objectives are for example: Increase in strength of conducting materials while maintaining the high conductivity, Improvement in low temperature creep resistance (reactionless materials), Improvement of burnout behavior (switching contact), Improvement of wear behavior (sliding contact), Increase in operating time of spot welding electrodes by reduction of burn outs, Production of layer composite materials for electronic components, Production of ductile composite superconductors, Production of magnetic materials with special properties. Characteristics composites ))) Characteristics composites )))))) Characteristics of properties( )))) ): )))))))))) ))))))) )))))))))) )))))))))))) )))))))))) ))))))))))))) ))))))))))) )))))))) )))))))))))))) ))))))))))))))) Characteristics in design and fabricating( )))))) ) ): )))))))))) )))))))))) )))))))))))) )))))))))))) ))))))))))))))))))))))) ))))))))))))))))))))))) Superposition (Overlay) effect( )))) ) ) ))))) )))))))))))))))))))) ))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 3. History and Actuality of composites 3. History and Actuality of composites ))))))))))))) ) Composite materials have been utilized to solve technological problems for a long time but only in the 1960s did these materials start capturing the attention of industries with the introduction of polymeric­based composites. Since then, composite materials have become common engineering materials and are designed and manufactured for various applications including automotive components, sporting goods, aerospace parts, consumer goods, and in the marine and oil industries. The growth in composite usage also came about because of increased awareness regarding product performance and increased competition in the global market for lightweight components. Among all materials, composite materials have the potential to replace widely used steel and aluminum, and many times with better performance. Replacing steel components with composite components can save 60 to 80% in component weight, and 20 to 50% weight by replacing aluminum parts. Today, it appears that composites are the materials of choice for many engineering applications. ))))))) ))))))) History and Actuality of composites Ancientry —— 绪绪绪绪绪绪 / 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 / 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 / 绪绪绪绪 modern times —— 1 generation 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 / 绪绪绪“绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 / 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 / 绪绪绪 2 generation 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 / 绪绪绪 3 generation :C /metal 绪 C /C 绪 SiC /Metal 绪 Al O /M f f f 23 next generation 绪 hybrid reinforcement hybrid reinforcement ( 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 ) nano­composites 4. Classification of composites 4. Classification of composites )))))))) ) The composites are classified by: (1) their matrix (polymer, ceramic, metal), (2) their reinforcement, which includes the chemical nature (oxides, carbides, nitrides), shape (continuous fibers, short fibers, whiskers, particulates) and orientation, (3) their processing routes. Metal matrix composites can be classified in various ways. One classification is the consideration of type and contribution of reinforcement components in particle­, layer­, fiber­ and penetration composite materials. Fiber composite materials can be further classified into continuous fiber composite materials (multi­ and monofilament) and short fibers or, rather, whisker composite materials . The reinforcements can be continuous or discontinuous, orientated or disorientated. Classification of composites by matrices Classification of composites by matrices ( ))))))) ) ) )))))) )))) )))) ))) )) ))) )) ))) )))) ))) ) ))) ) ))) ))) ))) )))) ))) ))) ) ))) )) ))) )) ))) )))) ))) )) ))) )) Classification of composites by reinforcement shapes )))) Classification of composites by reinforcement shapes ))) ) )))))) )))) )))) )))) )))) ))))) )))) )))) )))) ))) ) ))) ) ))) ) ))) ) )) ))) ) )))) )))) ))) ) ))) )))) )) )) )) )) ) )) )) Classification of composites by purpose Classification of composites by purpose )))))) ) structural composites ( 绪绪绪绪绪绪 )—— 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 Functional composites( 绪绪绪绪绪绪 ) —— 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 Common composites, advanced composites 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 Classification of MMCs Classification of MMCs ))))))) ))))))))))) ))))))))))) )) )) )))))) )) )) ))))))) )) )) ))) )) )) )) )) )) )) )))) )) )) )))) )) )))) )))) )))) Naming of composites Naming of composites ( ))))))) ) 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪… 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪… 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪…… 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪…… 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪… 绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪绪… 绪绪绪 Cf /Al, SiCp/Ti, Ai2O3w/Mg…… )))))) )))))) Composite materials —— )))) Reinforcement —— ))) , Matrix —— )) )) Interface —— ))) compatibility —— )))) Interface —— ))) compatibility —— )))) Ceramic matrix composite —— ))))))) Ceramic matrix composite —— Metal matrix composite —— ))))))) Polymer matrix composite —— )))))))) Fiber —— ))) short fiber —— )))) ))) short fiber —— mono filaments —— ))) continuous fiber —— )))) ))) continuous fiber —— Carbon fiber —— )))) Boron fiber —— )))) )))) Boron fiber —— Kevlar fiber —— ))))) ))))) Whisker —— )) , Particulate , particle —— )) Whisker —— ceramic particles —— ))))) oxide —— )))) Carbide —— )))) Boride —— )))) Nitride —— ))) Fiber reinforced metal ) ceramic ) rubber ) plastics —— ))))))))))))))) ceramic rubber hybrid reinforcement —— )))) hybrid reinforcement particle­reinforced brake discs Ex­situ methods, In situ methods Powder metallurgical processes Melting metallurgical processes Infiltration, squeeze casting, vacuum infiltration or pressure infiltration; reaction infiltration of fiber­ or particle preform Thixocasting, extrusion , forging, compo­casting or melt stirring solid­liquid reaction process vapor­liquid­solid reaction process Self­propagating high­temperature synthesis (SHS) combustion wave thermodynamics and kinetics exothermic dispersion (XD) process reactive hot pressing (RHP) Combustion assisted cast (CAC) )) solidification )) )) crystallization )) nucleation )) growth )))))) solidification temperature region )))) solute concentration )))) solute concentration )) wetting )) filling )) melting back )))) solidification heat latent )))) homogeneous nucleation )))) heterogeneous nucleation )))) nucleation substrate )))))) critical nucleus radius ))))) nucleation activation energy ))) inoculation period ) inoculation time )))) constitutional fluctuation )))) structural fluctuation ))) supercooing,undercooling )))) constitutional undercooling )))) growth rate )))) cooling rate )))) solid fraction )))) )))) liquid fraction )))))) dynamitic solidification curve ))))) solidification interface )))))))))))) L/S interface energy, L/S interface tension ))))))) solute partition ratio,solute partition coefficient ))))) initial transient region ))))) steady state region ))))) final transient region )))))) liquid­solid interface morphology, )))))) planar growth interface,planar liquid­solid interface ))) dendrite growth,dendritic crystal,dendrite morphology ))) columnar crystal ))) equiaxed grain,equi­axed grain ))))) constrained crystal growth, constrained crystallization )))))) free crystal growth, non­constrained crystal growth ))))) interface stability ))))) planar­cellular ) interface transition ))))) cellular­dendrite interface transition ))))) absolute stability )))))) dendrite tip radius )))) dendrite spacing )))) dendrite coarsening )))) eutectic solidification )))) eutectic spacing )))) lamellar eutectic )))) )))) regular eutectic )))) regular eutectic ))))) non­regular eutectic ))))) hypoeutectic,hypo­eutectic ))))) hypereutectic,hyper­eutectic ))) pseudo­eutectic,pseudoeutectic )))) divorced eutectic ))) coupled growth zone ))) leading phase )))))) bridging growth of lamellar eutectic )))) peritectic solidification,peritectic reaction ))) primary phase ))) second phase )))) monotectic solidification,monotectic reaction )))) monotectic solidification,monotectic reaction )))))) local solidification time ) )))) unidirectional solidification, directional solidification )))) (EP ) )exothermic powder method ))))) (PD ) )power down method ))))) (HRS ) )high rate solidification ))))))) (LMC ) )liquid metal cooling method )))))) continuous directional solidification ))))) directional solidification furnace ))))) )))) single crystal growth ))) seeded single crystal growth ))) Selective single crystal growth )))))) electromagnetic shaping ))) zone melting )))) melting interface )))) rapid solidification ))))) near rapid solidification ))))) near rapid solidification )))) equilibrium solidification ))))) non­equilibrium solidification ))))) near­equilibrium solidification )))) metastable phase )) chilling ))))) single roller process, single roller chilling, chill block melt spinning ))))) double­roller quenching, twin roller process, twin roller casting ))))))) planar flow casting ))))) gas atomization )))) water atomization ))))) rotating electrode process )))) / )) / )))) rotating disk / cup /screen (mesh) ))) Taylor method ))) piston­anvil quenching method ))) melt overflow process ))))) melt extraction ))))) melt extraction ))) deep undercooling ))) ))))))) deep undercooling rapid solidification ))))))) deep undercooling rapid solidification ))))))) glass fluxing technique ))))) levitation melting )))) electromagnetic levitation ))) acoustic levitation )))) gas flow levitation )))) spray deposition )))) melt drop diameter ))))) micro­gravity solidification ))))) high­gravity solidification ))))) high­gravity solidification ))))) double diffusion convection )) levitation )) dropping pipe )))) high pressure solidification )) casting )) mold, mould )) mould making,mold making )) core making )) melting )))) proportional solidification )))) Sand casting )))) special casting ))))))))))) lost­wax casting )))) shell mold casting ))))) permanent mold casting )))) centrifugal casting ))))) bimetal casting ))) cast­in process,insert method ))))) plaster mould casting ))))) )))) continuous casting ))))) counter­gravity casting )))) low pressure casting )))) adjusted pressure casting )))) pressure differential casting )))) vacuum suction casting )) die­casting )))))))“)))))” full mold casting, vacuum evaporation pattern casting ) V­EPC )) lost foam casting (LFC) )))) magnetic mold casting )))) castability )))) filling capacity ))) recycling materials )))))))“)))” master alloy )) flux )))) modification )))) inoculation process, inoculation treatment )))) grain refinement )))) mechanical grain refinement )))) chemical grain refinement )))) surface grain refinement ))) grain refiner ))) ))) modifier ))) inoculants,inoculation addition )))) temperature treatment )))) superheating,superheat treatment )))) Pouring temperature )) holding )) pre­heating )))) On­site analyses )) pouring )) pouring ))) superheating temperature )) filling )) pressure head ))) static pressure head ))))))))))) mushy solidification,solidification with mushy zone ))))))))))) shell solidification ))))))))))) mushy zone )))) solidification front ))) chill zone )))) columnar zone )))) equiaxed zone grain size­­ )))) grain size­­ equivalent thickness­ ))))))))))))))))))) square root relationship­ ))))) feeding bounary­ )))) feeding channel­ )))) feeding difficulty zone­ ))))) effective feeding distance­ )))))) casting defects­ )))) porosity, micro­porosity­ )))))“))))” shrinkage cavity­ )) grain multiplication­ )))) crystal shower­ ))) macro­segregation­ )))) micro­segregation­ )))) positive segregation­ ))) negative segregation­ ))) normal segregation­ )))) inverse segregation­ ))) grain boundary segregation­ )))) hot­top­segregation= )))) A type segregation ) A­segregation ­A ))) ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/15/2011 for the course ENG 209 taught by Professor Zhao during the Spring '10 term at Tsinghua University.

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