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100_review_exam_2 - Biology 100 Human Biology Spring 2009...

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Biology 100 – Human Biology Spring 2009 REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM #2 Disclaimer: You will be tested for your understanding of all material covered in lecture and on the following specific textbook pages : p. 57 (stem cells), p. 67 (nerve regeneration), p. 76 (Botox), p. 98 (preventing cardiovascular disease), p. 124 (prions), and pp. 526-527 (medicinal value of living organisms). 1. Know the basic structure of a triglyceride. What’s the molecular difference between saturated fats, monounsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fats? Know examples of each. Which of these fats seems to be the best choice to have in the diet? What are the specific health problems associated with fats? 2. What does it mean that a fat or oil has been “hydrogenated” or “partially hydrogenated”? Why is that done? 3. What are omega-3 fatty acids … where do they come from? Are they good for you or not? Explain. 4. What are trans -fats … where do they come from? Are they good for you or not? Explain. 5. What is cardiovascular disease? What is a heart attack? What is a stroke? Know atherosclerosis: plaque, its cause, which arteries are especially vulnerable, health effects, connection to blood clots, connection to heart attacks, connection to strokes. What is bypass surgery? What is balloon angioplasty? What is a stent? (From p. 98 in text): What factors affect a person’s risk of cardiovascular disease? 6. What is a steroid? Know some examples. To which class of macromolecules do steroids belong? 7. Know what the body uses cholesterol for. In which body organ is cholesterol made? Where is cholesterol found in our diet? Which affects blood cholesterol more: cholesterol in the diet or fats in the diet? 8. Why is it bad to have too much cholesterol in the blood? Know HDL and LDL … what are these? Why can’t cholesterol travel on its own in the blood, without being with HDL and LDL? Which of these is “good” and which is “bad”? Why? Know the effects of each of the following on HDL and/or LDL levels: saturated fat, dietary fiber, trans fatty acids, monounsaturated fats, exercise, omega-3 fatty acids, smoking, low carb vs. low fat diet.
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