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Unformatted text preview: CRUCIAL PERIODS IN AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY: 1619 TO THE PRESENT PRE‐SLAVERY ERA (1619 – 1641) 21 YEARS (NEUTRAL) Race was initially not a factor with regards to society’s participation and upward mobility. However, by 1641, African racial differences were deemed characteristics of an inferior status. Dominant popular status: Exotic humans, Legal status: initially no specific designation but slowly deteriorated into state sanction slavery by colonial governments) THE ERA OF SLAVERY (1642 – 1865) 223 YEARS (SEVERELY REPRESSIVE) Africans were denied human and civil rights. Dominant popular designation: less than human or inferior human. Legal status: pariah, less than human or inferior human THE ERA OF RECONSTRUCTION (1865 – 1877) 12 YEAR (FACILITATIVE) After the civil war, African American men were granted civil rights, yet African American women were denied these rights. These rights were always contested and virtually universally unenforceable by 1877. Dominant popular designation: less than human or inferior human. Legal status. Dejure state sanctioned citizenship (13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments were ratified) existed yet it unenforced and gradually nullified by colorblind strategies which negatively impacted African Americans. THE NADIR (THE LOWEST POINT) (1867 – 1909) 32 YEARS (REPRESSIVE) The rise of dejure and defacto segregation in the South via Jim Crow laws. The Klan, white primary, literacy tests, and poll taxes. Dominant popular designation: less than human or inferior human. Legal status: inferior human with no nationally enforced civil rights. THE ERA OF THE NAACP: (1910 – 1954) 44 YEARS (FACILITATIVE) The NACCP challenged segregation and other forms of discrimination. Brown v Board was the culminating case which abolished segregation 1954. Brown II posited the strategy of “all deliberate speed” which allow segregation to continue. Dominant popular designation: inferior human. Legal status: human but inferior with no citizenship rights. THE POST WWII CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT: 1955 – 1969 (FACILITATIVE) This movement brought about dejure equal protection of the law. Abolished segregation, provide voting rights and access to open housing. Dominant popular designation: innate equality among races begins to clearly challenge the commonly accepted notion of white supremacy. Legal status: De jure equal protection of the law was established for the first time in US history. 1 THE POST CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT ERA: THE ERA OF DEJURE EQUAL PROTECTION OF THE LAW 1970 ‐ THE PRESENT (FACILITATIVE? REPRESSIVE? OR BOTH?) When the US Supreme Court ended “freedom of choice” with its ruling in Alexander v Holmes County Board of Education (1969), it ended a 327 year period where race mattered in the American polity or in its colonies. Those centuries of state sanctioned discrimination ended and the calls for color blind public policies began. Dominant popular designation: no innate racial superiority, legal designation: equal protection of the law for all. 2 ...
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- Spring '11