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Damer_s+Glossary+of+Fallacies-1 - Accent, ,...

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1 Damer’s Glossary of Fallacies Accent, Improper – This fallacy consists in directing an opponent toward an unwarranted conclusion by placing improper or unusual emphasis on word, phrase or particular aspect of an issue or claim. It is sometimes committed by taking portions of another’s statement out of its original context in a way that conveys a meaning not intended by that person. Ad Hominem , Abusive ‐ This fallacy consists in attacking one’s opponent in a personal and abusive way as a means of ignoring or discrediting his or her criticism or arguments. Ambiguity ‐ This fallacy consists in presenting a claim or arguments that uses a word, phrase or grammatical construction that can be interpreted in two or more distinctly different ways, without making clear which meaning is intended. Arguing in a Circle ‐ This fallacy consists in either explicitly or implicitly asserting in one to the premises of an argument what is asserted in the conclusion of that argument. Attacking a Straw Man ‐ This fallacy consists in misrepresenting an opponent’s position or argument, usually for the purpose of making it easier to attack. Authority, Irrelevant or Questionable ‐ This fallacy consists in attempting to support a claim by quoting the judgment of one who is not an authority in the field, the judgment of an unidentified authority, or the judgment of an authority who is likely to be biased in some way. Causal Oversimplification ­ This fallacy consists in oversimplifying the relevant causal antecedents of an event by specifying causal factors that are insufficient to account for the event in question or by overemphasizing the role of one more of those factors. Common Cause, Neglect of a ‐ This fallacy consists in failing to recognize that two seemingly related events may not be causally related events may not be causally related at all, but rather are effects of common cause. Common Opinion, Appeal to ‐ This fallacy consists in urging the acceptance of apposition simply on the ground that a large number of people accept it or in urging the rejection of a position on the ground that very few people accept it. Complex Question ‐ This fallacy consists in formulating a question in a way that presupposes that a definite answer has already been given to some other, unasked question, or in treating a series of questions as if it involved only one question. Composition, Fallacy of ‐ This fallacy consists in assuming that what is true of the parts of some whole is therefore true of the whole. Confusion of a Necessary with a Sufficient Condition‐ this fallacy consists in assuming that a necessary condition of an event is also a sufficient one. Confusion of Cause and Effect ‐ This fallacy consists in confusing the cause with the effect of an event or in failing to recognize that there may be a reciprocal causal relation between the two events in question.
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2 Continuum, Fallacy of the ‐ This fallacy consists in assuming that small movements or
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