Abnormal_Psych - Psychological Disorders General Psychology...

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1 Psychological Disorders General Psychology 47.101 Psychopathology • Conceptions of psychopathology • What is Abnormal? • Diagnostic system: DSM IV • Causes • Types of Disorders – Dissociative –Anx ie ty – Schizophrenia –Mood – Personality Body Ritual of the Naricema… What is Abnormal? • How can abnormal be differentiated from normal? • How is abnormal diagnosed? What is Abnormality? • Criteria – Infrequent in the population – Socially deviant – Maladaptive • Personal distress – Psychologically disorganized No sharp boundaries – Continuum is more reasonable
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2 Diagnosing Disorders • Use diagnostic interview • Performance on Psychological Tests – e.g., MMPI, Projective tests • Compare patient information to pre-established psychological disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) –DSM IV : Agreed-upon criteria for diagnosing psychological disorders DSM IV Axes Axis I: Primary Diagnosis Axis II: Axis III: Physical disorders Axis IV: Stressors in last year, situational contributors Axis V: How well the person has coped with stress in the past “Axes” refer to different major diagnostic categories of psychological disorders Advantages Advantages: • grouping of similar symptoms may help to identify underlying causes • facilitates communication May seem dehumanizing for patients – Better to apply diagnostic labels to the disorder and NOT to the people themselves May lead clinicians to overlook unique aspects of each case – Label becomes a lens through which we see and evaluate a person’s behavior Disadvantages Disadvantages: Labeling… How important is it really? Demo… “On being sane in insane places” Investigation by Rosenhan, Seligman, et al. Discovering Psychology #21: Psychopathology
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3 Causation 1. Predisposition In place before onset of disorder • genetic characteristics, learned beliefs, sociocultural factors 2. Precipitating causes Immediate events that bring on the disorder Stress, Negative or positive life changes Diathesis-stress model People may have predisposition for disorder that is only brought out under stress Low High Predisposition Low High Stress manifested Not manifested Causation 1. Predisposition In place before onset of disorder • genetic characteristics, learned beliefs, sociocultural factors 2. Precipitating causes Immediate events that bring on the disorder Stress, Negative or positive life changes 3. Maintaining causes Effects of disorder that serve to perpetuate it – depressed person may withdraw from social interactions – Schizophrenics are reacted to strangely or violently, enhancing their stress, which enhances the disorder Major Classes of Disorders
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Abnormal_Psych - Psychological Disorders General Psychology...

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