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Cognition_and_Language

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1 Cognition (Thought) General Psychology 47.101 Roadmap ± Approaches to problem solving ± Barriers to effective problem solving ± Decision making Approaches to problem solving ± Trial and Error ² Trying possible solutions and discarding those that are in error until one works ± Algorithm ² Systematic, step by step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in search of a solution ² Guarantees solution to the problem ± IHCRA ± Heuristic ² Rule of Thumb ± Narrow problem space BUT do not guarantee solution. Heuristics used in Problem Solving ± Means-ends analysis ± Forming sub-goals ± Working backwards ± Searching for analogies Means ends analysis ± Anchored by 1) current situation and 2) final goal ² Check current options against goal continuously until goal is reached… ² Ex: Getting to the airport… Forming Sub-goals ± “Hanoi tower problem” ² Move all three pegs to C in same form… ² 2 rules ± Can only move top rung (one at a time) ± A larger ring must never be placed above a smaller ring

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2 Left side of room close your eyes… ± Start off by the green rung to B ABC Solve… what are the steps? ± Time yourself…How long does it take to solve? Forming Sub-goals ± “Hanoi tower problem” ² Move all three pegs to C ± Can only move top rung ± A ring must never be placed above a smaller ring ² Dividing into sub-goals makes it easier… Working backwards ± Water lily problem… ² Water lilies on the surface of a small pond double every 24 hours. From the time the first water lily appears until the time the pond is completely covered takes 60 days. On what day is the pond half covered with lilies?
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