Learning - Learning General Psychology 47.101 Road map Why...

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1 Learning General Psychology 47.101 | Why go to a scary movie on a first date? Or, maybe to a theme park? Road map | Definition of learning | Classical conditioning | Operant conditioning | Biology and learning | Cognitive Influences on learning | Observational Learning What is learning? | Definition: Process that results in relatively consistent change in behavior or behavior potential and is based on experience z Change in behavior Æ can’t directly observe learning; apparent in performance z Consistent change Æ must be consistent over different occasions Does not mean has to be permanent Ex: Playing pool z Experience Æ taking in information and making responses that affect the environment Key figures in Learning | Ivan P. Pavlov (1849 -1936) z Classical conditioning model | John Watson (1878-1958) z Father of American Behaviorism | B.F. Skinner (1904- 1990) z Operant conditioning model | The Behaviorism Movement Introspection is poppycock!
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2 Classical Conditioning Learning predictable signals Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning One of Psychology’s most famous accidents… Food Salivate Tone Reflex Does not need to be learned AND will always happen Nothing. .. BEFORE conditioning Food Salivate Tone Reflex Does not need to be learned AND will always happen Food Salivate Tone Reflex Does not need to be learned AND will always happen Learned Association – the product of Classical conditioning
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3 Food Salivate Tone Reflex Does not need to be learned AND will always happen | Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) z Any stimulus naturally elicits a behavior Æ Food | Unconditioned response (UR) z Any response that is naturally elicited (not “learned”) Æ Salivation in response to food | Conditioned Stimulus (CS) z Neutral stimulus that becomes associated with response Æ tone | Conditioned response (CR) z Response to CS Æ Salivation in response to tone Food Salivate Tone UCS UCR CS CR Æ when it is ONLY elicited by CS alone Processes of conditioning | Acquisition | Extinction | Spontaneous recovery | Stimulus generalization | Stimulus discrimination Acquisition | Repeated pairings of CS with UCS Æ CR | Timing is critical z CS and UCS close enough to become associated (some exceptions e.g. taste aversion) Delay conditioning Onset of CS precedes UCS and stays until UCS presented Trace conditioning Onset of CS precedes UCS and ends just before UCS presented Simultaneous conditioning CS and UCS presented at same time Backward conditioning CS presented after UCS z Do some work better than others? Why? Acquisition: We know how but WHY? | Pavlov Æ ANY pairing between CS and UCS | Rescola (1966) z Temporally contiguous is important but not enough… z CS must be predictive Half CS (tone) was delivered randomly vs. UCS (shock) Half CS (tone) always preceded UCS (shock) z CS must be informative Tone plus light?
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 201 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at University of Massachusetts Boston.

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Learning - Learning General Psychology 47.101 Road map Why...

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