MotEmot - Road Map Motivation Motivation General Psychology...

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1 Motivation General Psychology 47.101 Road Map - Motivation • Defining motivation and motives • 4 Theories of Motivation • Hunger • Achievement • Measuring Motivation What is motivation? • Motivation: The influences that account for the initiation , persistence , and intensity • Motive – Need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal . – Reason or purpose of a behavior • Can’t be seen Æ must be inferred Types of motives • Biological/Physiological – Food, water, sex • Emotional – Anger, love, fear • Cognitive – Beliefs, expectations •Soc ia l – Reactions to parents, friends Biological Social What have you done in the last 24 hours? • 5 mins to write down 25 things • Likely common themes – Probably example of each type of motive – Same behavior may satisfy multiple motives 4 theories of motivation • Instinct Theory • Drive-reduction Theory
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2 Instinct theory • Popular in early 1900s • Automatic, unlearned, involuntary behavior patterns consistently triggered by particular stimuli – Emphasis on genetic component • Criticisms – Too many to be useful…at some point 10,000! – Descriptive – Diversity of behavior unlikely to be “fixed” Current Perspective – Certain behaviors present at birth • Reflexes, facial expressions • Do not have to learn to be hungry or thirsty Drive Reduction Theory • Emphasis on homeostasis • Homeostasis Æ Physiological systems at equilibrium by constantly making responses to change – Analogy of the thermostat • Imbalance in homeostasis creates a drive – Feeling of arousal that prompts action – Goal is to decrease that arousal • Distinction between primary and secondary drives –P r ima ry Æ Biological/unlearned (Hunger) – Secondary Æ Learned association with a primary drive (e.g. Money) Arousal Theory • Able to account for behaviors that seek to increase arousal • Motivated to maintain an optimal arousal level • Many biological motives Æ increase arousal Æ goal is therefore to decrease… • Level of arousal too low Æ look for excitement – Stimulus motives such as curiosity • Relationship between performance and arousal – Yerkes-Dodson law Sleeping Excitement/Panic Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Some needs are more important than others… • Only able to focus on needs higher up the hierarchy when those below are satisfied •No tf ixed • Does not always explain behavior • ex. hunger strike Maslow’s Hierarchy
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MotEmot - Road Map Motivation Motivation General Psychology...

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