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F11 Lecture 8 - 310 - General brain damage2, visualizing brainR

F11 Lecture 8 - 310 - General brain damage2, visualizing brainR

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Brain damage 2, Visualizing the brain 8 – September 28, 2011
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Admin Assignments not yet fixed Review q’s 7/8 after class
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Brain Injury Main types 1. Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) Penetrating/open head injuries Closed head injuries 1. Tumors 2. Cerebrovascular accidents/disorders 3. Infections Less common 5. Neurotoxins 6. Genetic factors
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Metastasized tumors Metastasis Circulation and spreading of cancer cells to locations distal to organ/tissue of origin Metastatic tumors in secondary sites are not of the same type as the infiltrated organ/tissue Growth in secondary sites upsets metabolic needs and functions of the resident cells Primary Tumor Secondary (metastatic) tumor Chest
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‘Stroke’/ Cerebrovascular Accidents Anoxia vs. hypoxia Cerebrovascular Accidents : Clinical syndromes caused by blockage in blood supply or bleeding in brain Temporary ‘strokes’ TIA temporary ischemic attack Anterior circulation: temp clumsiness, weak limbs, aphasia Posterior circulation: dizziness, double vision, numb or weak extremities Ischemia vs. infarction
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Narrowing in blood vessel due to, for example, atherosclerosis. Increases chances of thrombus or other type of embolism blocking vessel. Purple area represents ischaemic penumbra (area not receiving oxygen) of distressed, dying or dead brain tissue. This can be caused by thrombosis
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Cerebrovascular Accidents Stroke – Serious loss in blood supply resulting in infarction Causes of Stroke: blockage of brain artery (or arteries) Clot (i.e. thrombus – clump of coagulated blood) Embolus (eg., air bubble or some other particle) NOTE : embolus typically a substance that travels in blood until it creates a blockage Symptoms: Sudden reduction or loss of Consciousness Sensation (numbness, vision problems) Voluntary movement
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Other vascular problems Aneurysms Hemorrhages Intracerebral Subarachnoid
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Infections Caused by exogenous pathogen
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