Chap14_2sakai - Vulcanism Origin and movement of molten...

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Vulcanism Origin and movement of molten rock!
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Volcanoes: surface expressions of igneous activity magma rises when is less dense than mantle or crust associated with subduction zones and mantle plumes
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Active Volcanoes and the “Ring of Fire” Spatially correlates with the Pacific Ocean Basin 75% of world volcanoes (active and inactive) are at the Ring of Fire
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Masaya volcano, Nicaragua Inactive crater
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Masaya volcano, Nicaragua Active crater
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Anatomical form of volcanoes depends on - where they form (divergent or subducting plate boundary) - chemistry of magma. High silica magma (felsic) -is thicker than low silica (mafic) high gas content explosive mostly related with melting of granitic crust Low silica magma (mafic) less thick than felsic magma low gas content non explosive lava flow related to melting of basaltic crust
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Mt. St. Helens (Washington ) Explosive Composite Volcano
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Composite volcano Very steep, alternate lava flows with explosions
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Shield Volcano Basaltic lava flows, not explosive, not very steep
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Hawaiian islands Mantle plumes Shield volcanoes
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-Stationary over long periods -Plate keeps moving and carries volcano off the hot spot
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Chap14_2sakai - Vulcanism Origin and movement of molten...

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