8 kg in less than 6 h for carcasses of 18 to 36 kg

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Unformatted text preview: and in less than 8 h for carcasses more than 3.6 kg. Meeting these requirements today is not difficult since the slow air chilling is largely replaced by the rapid immersion chilling in tanks of slush ice. Immersion chilling has the added benefit that it not only prevents dehydration, but it causes a net absorption of water and thus increases the mass of salable product. Cool air chilling of unpacked poultry can cause a moisture loss of 1 to 2 percent, while water immersion chilling can cause a moisture absorption of 4 to 15 percent (Fig. 4–42). Water spray chilling can cause a moisture absorption of up to 4 percent. Most water absorbed is held between the flesh and the skin and the connective tissues in the skin. In immersion chilling, some soluble solids are lost from the carcass to the water, but the loss has no significant effect on flavor. Many slush ice tank chillers today are replaced by continuous flow-type immersion slush ice chillers. Continuous slush ice-chillers can reduce the internal temperature of poultry from 32 to 4°C in about 30 minutes at a rate up to 10, 000 birds per hour. Ice requirements depend on the inlet and exit temperatures of the carcass and the water, but 0.25 kg of ice per kg of carcass is usually adequate. However, bacterial contamination such as salmonella remains a concern with this method, and it may be necessary to chloride the water to control contamination. Tenderness is an important consideration for poultry products just as it is for red meat, and preserving tenderness is an important consideration in the cooling and freezing of poultry. Birds cooked or frozen before passing through rigor mortis remain very tough. Natural tenderization begins soon after slaughter and is completed within 24 h when birds are held at 4°C. Tenderization is rapid during the first three hours and slows down thereafter. Immersion in hot water and cutting into the muscle adversely affect tenderization. Increasing the scalding temperature or the scalding time has been observed to increase toughness, and decreasing the scalding time has been observed to increase tenderness. The beating action of mechanical feather-picking machines causes considerable toughening. Therefore, it is recommended that any cutting be done after tenderization. Cutting up the bird into pieces before natural tenderization is completed reduces tenderness considerably. Therefore, it is recommended that any cutting be done after tenderization. Rapid chilling of poultry can also have a toughening cen58933_ch04.qxd 9/10/2002 9:13 AM Page 247 247 CHAPTER 4 Storage life (days) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 –2 0 5 10 15 20 25 Storage temperature, °C FIGURE 4–43 The storage life of fresh poultry decreases exponentially with increasing storage temperature. 9 8 7 Freezing time, hours effect. It is found that the tenderization process can be speeded up considerably by a patented electrical stunning process. Poultry products are highly perishable, and thus they should be kept at the lowest possible temperature to maximize their shelf life. Studies have shown that the populations of certain bacteria double every 36 h at 2°C, 14 h at 0°C, 7 h at 5°C, and less than 1 h at 25°C (Fig. 4–43). Studies have also shown that the total bacterial counts on birds held at 2°C for 14 days are equivalent to those held at 10°C for 5 days or 24°C for 1 day. It has also been found that birds held at 1°C had 8 days of additional shelf life over those held at 4°C. The growth of microorganisms on the surfaces of the poultry causes the development of an off-odor and bacterial slime. The higher the initial amount of bacterial contamination, the faster the sliming occurs. Therefore, good sanitation practices during processing such as cleaning the equipment frequently and washing the carcasses are as important as the storage temperature in extending shelf life. Poultry must be frozen rapidly to ensure a light, pleasing appearance. Poultry that is frozen slowly appears dark and develops large ice crystals that damage the tissue. The ice crystals formed during rapid freezing are small. Delaying freezing of poultry causes the ice crystals to become larger. Rapid freezing can be accomplished by forced air at temperatures of 23 to 40°C and velocities of 1.5 to 5 m/s in air-blast tunnel freezers. Most poultry is frozen this way. Also, the packaged birds freeze much faster on open shelves than they do in boxes. If poultry packages must be frozen in boxes, then it is very desirable to leave the boxes open or to cut holes on the boxes in the direction of airflow during freezing. For best results, the blast tunnel should be fully loaded across its cross-section with even spacing between the products to assure uniform airflow around all sides of the packages. The freezing time of poultry as a function of refrigerated air temperature is given in Figure 4–44. Thermal properties of poultry are given in Table 4–7. Other freezing methods for poultry include sandwiching between cold plates, immersion into a refrigerated liquid such as glycol or calcium chloride brine, and cryogenic cooling with liquid nitrogen. Poultry can be frozen...
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This note was uploaded on 01/28/2010 for the course HEAT ENG taught by Professor Ghaz during the Spring '10 term at University of Guelph.

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