Using figure 445 determine how long it will take to

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Unformatted text preview: th. 4–98C What is the proper storage temperature of frozen poultry? What are the primary methods of freezing for poultry? 4–99C What are the factors that affect the quality of frozen fish? 4–100 The chilling room of a meat plant is 15 m 18 m 5.5 m in size and has a capacity of 350 beef carcasses. The power consumed by the fans and the lights in the chilling room are 22 and 2 kW, respectively, and the room gains heat through its envelope at a rate of 11 kW. The average mass of beef carcasses is 280 kg. The carcasses enter the chilling room at 35°C, after they are washed to facilitate evaporative cooling, and are cooled to 16°C in 12 h. The air enters the chilling room at 2.2°C and leaves at 0.5°C. Determine (a) the refrigeration load of the chilling room and (b) the volume flow rate of air. The average specific heats of beef carcasses and air are 3.14 and 1.0 kJ/kg · °C, respectively, and the density of air can be taken to be 1.28 kg/m3. 4–101 Turkeys with a water content of 64 percent that are initially at 1°C and have a mass of about 7 kg are to be frozen by submerging them into brine at 29°C. Using Figure 4–45, determine how long it will take to reduce the temperature of the turkey breast at a depth of 3.8 cm to 18°C. If the temperature at a depth of 3.8 cm in the breast represents the average Brine –29°C Turkey 7 kg 1°C 4–91C How does (a) the air motion and (b) the relative humidity of the environment affect the growth of microorganisms in foods? 4–92C The cooling of a beef carcass from 37°C to 5°C with refrigerated air at 0°C in a chilling room takes about 48 h. FIGURE P4–101 cen58933_ch04.qxd 9/10/2002 9:13 AM Page 261 261 CHAPTER 4 temperature of the turkey, determine the amount of heat transfer per turkey assuming (a) the entire water content of the turkey is frozen and (b) only 90 percent of the water content of the turkey is frozen at 18°C. Take the specific heats of turkey to be 2.98 and 1.65 kJ/kg · °C above and below the freezing point of 2.8°C, respectively, and the latent heat of fusion of Answers: (a) 1753 kJ, (b) 1617 kJ turkey to be 214 kJ/kg. 4–102E Chickens with a water content of 74 percent, an initial temperature of 32°F, and a mass of about 6 lbm are to be frozen by refrigerated air at 40°F. Using Figure 4–44, determine how long it will take to reduce the inner surface temperature of chickens to 25°F. What would your answer be if the air temperature were 80°F? 4–103 Chickens with an average mass of 2.2 kg and average specific heat of 3.54 kJ/kg · °C are to be cooled by chilled water that enters a continuous-flow-type immersion chiller at 0.5°C. Chickens are dropped into the chiller at a uniform temperature of 15°C at a rate of 500 chickens per hour and are cooled to an average temperature of 3°C before they are taken out. The chiller gains heat from the surroundings at a rate of 210 kJ/min. Determine (a) the rate of heat removal from the chicken, in kW, and (b) the mass flow rate of water, in kg/s, if the temperature rise of water is not to exceed 2°C. 4–104 In a meat processing plant, 10-cm-thick beef slabs (ρ 1090 kg/m3, Cp 3.54 kJ/kg · °C, k 0.47 W/m · °C, and α 0.13 10–6 m2/s) initially at 15°C are to be cooled in the racks of a large freezer that is maintained at 12°C. The meat slabs are placed close to each other so that heat transfer from the 10-cm-thick edges is negligible. The entire slab is to be cooled below 5°C, but the temperature of the steak is not to drop below 1°C anywhere during refrigeration to avoid “frost bite.” The convection heat transfer coefficient and thus the rate of heat transfer from the steak can be controlled by varying the speed of a circulating fan inside. Determine the heat transfer coefficient h that will enable us to meet both temperature constraints while keeping the refrigeration time to a Answer: 9.9 W/m2 · °C. minimum. Air –12°C Meat 10 cm FIGURE P4–104 between the two plates has bonded them together. In an effort to melt the ice between the plates and separate them, the worker takes a large hairdryer and blows hot air at 50°C all over the exposed surface of the plate on the top. The convection heat transfer coefficient at the top surface is estimated to be 40 W/m2 · °C. Determine how long the worker must keep blowing hot air before the two plates separate. Answer: 482 s 4–106 Consider a curing kiln whose walls are made of 30-cm-thick concrete whose properties are k 0.9 W/m · °C and 0.23 10 5 m2/s. Initially, the kiln and its walls are in equilibrium with the surroundings at 2°C. Then all the doors are closed and the kiln is heated by steam so that the temperature of the inner surface of the walls is raised to 42°C and is maintained at that level for 3 h. The curing kiln is then opened and exposed to the atmospheric air after the stream flow is turned off. If the outer surfaces of the walls of the kiln were insulated, would it save any energy that day during the period the kiln was used for curing for 3 h only,...
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