High temperature ussr 2 1964 pp 6568 6 f w dittus

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Unformatted text preview: on of the Circumstances Which Determine Whether the Motion of Water Shall Be Direct or Sinuous, and the Law of Resistance in Parallel Channels.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 174 (1883), pp. 935–982. 7. D. K. Edwards, V. E. Denny, and A. F. Mills. Transfer Processes. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Hemisphere, 1979. 8. V. Gnielinski. “New Equations for Heat and Mass Transfer in Turbulent Pipe and Channel Flow.” International Chemical Engineering 16 (1976), pp. 359–368. 9. S. E. Haaland. “Simple and Explicit Formulas for the Friction Factor in Turbulent Pipe Flow.” Journal of Fluids Engineering (March 1983), pp. 89–90. 10. J. P. Holman. Heat Transfer. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997. 11. F. P. Incropera and D. P. DeWitt. Introduction to Heat Transfer. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996. 24. H. Schlichting. Boundary Layer Theory. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979. 25. R. K. Shah and M. S. Bhatti. “Laminar Convective Heat Transfer in Ducts.” In Handbook of Single-Phase Convective Heat Transfer, ed. S. Kakaç, R. K. Shah, and W. Aung. New York: Wiley Interscience, 1987. 26. E. N. Sieder and G. E. Tate. “Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Liquids in Tubes.” Industrial Engineering Chemistry 28 (1936), pp. 1429–1435. 12. S. Kakaç, R. K. Shah, and W. Aung, eds. Handbook of Single-Phase Convective Heat Transfer. New York: Wiley Interscience, 1987. 27. C. A. Sleicher and M. W. Rouse. “A Convenient Correlation for Heat Transfer to Constant and Variable Property Fluids in Turbulent Pipe Flow.” International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer 18 (1975), pp. 1429–1435. 13. W. M. Kays and M. E. Crawford. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. 28. N. V. Suryanarayana. Engineering Heat Transfer. St. Paul, MN: West, 1995. 14. W. M. Kays and H. C. Perkins. Chapter 7. In Handbook of Heat Transfer, ed. W. M. Rohsenow and J. P. Hartnett. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972. 29. F. M. White. Heat and Mass Transfer. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1988. 15. F. Kreith and M. S. Bohn. Principles of Heat Transfer. 6th ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole, 2001. 16. A. F. Mills. Basic Heat and Mass Transfer. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999. 17. L. F. Moody. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flows.” Transactions of the ASME 66 (1944), pp. 671–684. 18. M. Molki and E. M. Sparrow. “An Empirical Correlation for the Average Heat Transfer Coefficient in Circular Tubes.” Journal of Heat Transfer 108 (1986), pp. 482–484. 19. B. R. Munson, D. F. Young, and T. Okiishi. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics. 4th ed. New York: Wiley, 2002. 20. R. H. Norris. “Some Simple Approximate Heat Transfer Correlations for Turbulent Flow in Ducts with Rough 30. S. Whitaker. “Forced Convection Heat Transfer Correlations for Flow in Pipes, Past Flat Plates, Single Cylinders, and for Flow in Packed Beds and Tube Bundles.” AIChE Journal 18 (1972), pp. 361–371. 31. W. Zhi-qing. “Study on Correction Coefficients of Laminar and Turbulent Entrance Region Effects in Round Pipes.” Applied Mathematical Mechanics 3 (1982), p. 433. cen58933_ch08.qxd 9/4/2002 11:29 AM Page 452 452 HEAT TRANSFER PROBLEMS* General Flow Analysis 8–1C Why are liquids usually transported in circular pipes? 8–2C Show that the Reynolds number for flow in a circular · tube of diameter D can be expressed as Re 4m /( D ). 8–3C Which fluid at room temperature requires a larger pump to move at a specified velocity in a given tube: water or engine oil? Why? 8–4C What is the generally accepted value of the Reynolds number above which the flow in smooth pipes is turbulent? 8–5C What is hydraulic diameter? How is it defined? What is it equal to for a circular tube of diameter? 8–6C How is the hydrodynamic entry length defined for flow in a tube? Is the entry length longer in laminar or turbulent flow? 8–7C Consider laminar flow in a circular tube. Will the friction factor be higher near the inlet of the tube or near the exit? Why? What would your response be if the flow were turbulent? 8–8C How does surface roughness affect the pressure drop in a tube if the flow is turbulent? What would your response be if the flow were laminar? 8–9C How does the friction factor f vary along the flow direction in the fully developed region in (a) laminar flow and (b) turbulent flow? 8–10C What fluid property is responsible for the development of the velocity boundary layer? For what kinds of fluids will there be no velocity boundary layer in a pipe? 8–11C What is the physical significance of the number of · transfer units NTU hA/m Cp? What do small and large NTU values tell about a heat transfer system? 8–12C What does the logarithmic mean temperature difference represent for flow in a tube whose surface temperature is constant? Why do we use the logarithmic mean temperature instead of the arithmetic mean temperature? 8–13C How is the thermal entry length defined for flow in a tube? In what region is the...
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