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Unformatted text preview: e liquid film to be negligible, which is usually the
case. However, when the vapor velocity is high, the vapor will “pull” the liquid at the interface along since the vapor velocity at the interface must drop to
the value of the liquid velocity. If the vapor flows downward (i.e., in the same
direction as the liquid), this additional force will increase the average velocity
of the liquid and thus decrease the film thickness. This, in turn, will decrease
the thermal resistance of the liquid film and thus increase heat transfer.
Upward vapor flow has the opposite effects: the vapor exerts a force on the cen58933_ch10.qxd 9/4/2002 12:38 PM Page 541 541
CHAPTER 10 liquid in the opposite direction to flow, thickens the liquid film, and thus
decreases heat transfer. Condensation in the presence of high vapor flow is
studied [e.g., Shekriladze and Gomelauri (1966), Ref. 23] and heat transfer relations are obtained, but a detailed analysis of this topic is beyond the scope of
this introductory text. The Presence of Noncondensable Gases in Condensers
Most condensers used in steam power plants operate at pressures well below
the atmospheric pressure (usually under 0.1 atm) to maximize cycle thermal
efficiency, and operation at such low pressures raises the possibility of air (a
noncondensable gas) leaking into the condensers. Experimental studies show
that the presence of noncondensable gases in the vapor has a detrimental effect on condensation heat transfer. Even small amounts of a noncondensable
gas in the vapor cause significant drops in heat transfer coefficient during condensation. For example, the presence of less than 1 percent (by mass) of air in
steam can reduce the condensation heat transfer coefficient by more than half.
Therefore, it is common practice to periodically vent out the noncondensable
gases that accumulate in the condensers to ensure proper operation.
The drastic reduction in the condensation heat transfer coefficient in the
presence of a noncondensable gas can be explained as follows: When the vapor mixed w...
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This note was uploaded on 01/28/2010 for the course HEAT ENG taught by Professor Ghaz during the Spring '10 term at University of Guelph.
- Spring '10