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Unformatted text preview: cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 717 CHAPTER MASS TRANSFER
o this point we have restricted our attention to heat transfer problems
that did not involve any mass transfer. However, many significant heat
transfer problems encountered in practice involve mass transfer. For example, about onethird of the heat loss from a resting person is due to evaporation. It turns out that mass transfer is analogous to heat transfer in many
respects, and there is close resemblance between heat and mass transfer relations. In this chapter we discuss the mass transfer mechanisms and develop relations for the mass transfer rate for some situations commonly encountered
in practice.
Distinction should be made between mass transfer and the bulk fluid motion
(or fluid flow) that occurs on a macroscopic level as a fluid is transported from
one location to another. Mass transfer requires the presence of two regions at
different chemical compositions, and mass transfer refers to the movement of
a chemical species from a high concentration region toward a lower concentration one relative to the other chemical species present in the medium. The
primary driving force for fluid flow is the pressure difference, whereas for
mass transfer it is the concentration difference. Therefore, we do not speak of
mass transfer in a homogeneous medium.
We begin this chapter by pointing out numerous analogies between heat and
mass transfer and draw several parallels between them. We then discuss
boundary conditions associated with mass transfer and onedimensional
steady and transient mass diffusion. Following is a discussion of mass transfer in a moving medium. Finally, we consider convection mass transfer and
simultaneous heat and mass transfer. T 14
CONTENTS
14–1 Introduction 718
14–2 Analogy between Heat
and Mass Transfer 719
14–3 Mass Diffusion 721
14–4 Boundary Conditions 727
14–5 Steady Mass Diffusion
through a Wall 732
14–6 Water Vapor Migration
in Buildings 736
14–7 Transient Mass Diffusion 740
14–8 Diffusion in a
Moving Medium 743
14–9 Mass Convection 754
14–10 Simultaneous Heat
and Mass Transfer 763 717 cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 718 718
HEAT TRANSFER 14–1
Water Salty
water Salt
(a) Before (b) After FIGURE 14–1
Whenever there is concentration
difference of a physical quantity in
a medium, nature tends to equalize
things by forcing a flow from the
high to the low concentration region. I INTRODUCTION It is a common observation that whenever there is an imbalance of a
commodity in a medium, nature tends to redistribute it until a “balance” or
“equality” is established. This tendency is often referred to as the driving
force, which is the mechanism behind many naturally occurring transport
phenomena.
If we define the amount of a commodity per unit volume as the concentration of that commodity, we can say that the flow of a commodity is always in
the direction of decreasing concentration; that is, from the region of high concentration to the region of low concentration (Fig. 14–1). The commodity simply creeps away during redistribution, and thus the flow is a diffusion process.
The rate of flow of the commodity is proportional to the concentration gradient dC/dx, which is the change in the concentration C per unit length in the
flow direction x, and the area A normal to flow direction and is expressed as
Flow rate (Normal area)(Concentration gradient) or
·
Q 1
Initial N2
concentration 0.79
Initial O2
concentration
0.21 0
x
N2 N2 Air O2 FIGURE 14–2
A tank that contains N2 and air in its
two compartments, and the diffusion
of N2 into the air when the partition
is removed. kdiff A dC
dx (141) Here the proportionality constant kdiff is the diffusion coefficient of the
medium, which is a measure of how fast a commodity diffuses in the medium,
and the negative sign is to make the flow in the positive direction a positive
quantity (note that dC/dx is a negative quantity since concentration decreases
in the flow direction). You may recall that Fourier’s law of heat conduction,
Ohm’s law of electrical conduction, and Newton’s law of viscosity are all in the
form of Equation 14–1.
To understand the diffusion process better, consider a tank that is divided
into two equal parts by a partition. Initially, the left half of the tank contains
nitrogen N2 gas while the right half contains air (about 21 percent O2 and
79 percent N2) at the same temperature and pressure. The O2 and N2 molecules are indicated by dark and light circles, respectively. When the partition
is removed, we know that the N2 molecules will start diffusing into the air
while the O2 molecules diffuse into the N2, as shown in Figure 14–2. If we
wait long enough, we will have a homogeneous mixture of N2 and O2 in the
tank. This mass diffusion process can be explained by considering an imaginary plane indicated by the dashed line in the figure as: Gas molecules move
randomly, and thus the probability of a molecule moving to the right or to the
left is the same. Consequently, half of the molecules on one side of the dashed
line at any given moment will move to the other side. Since the concentration
of N2 is greater on the left side than it is on the right side, more N2 molecules
will move toward the right than toward the left, resulting in a net flow of N2
toward the right. As a result, N2 is said to be transferred to the right. A similar
argument can be given for O2 being transferred to the left. The process continues until uniform concentrations of N2 and O2 are established throughout
the tank so that the number of N2 (or O2) molecules moving to the right equals cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 719 719
CHAPTER 14 the number moving to the left, resulting in zero net transfer of N2 or O2 across
an imaginary plane.
The molecules in a gas mixture continually collide with each other, and the
diffusion process is strongly influenced by this collision process. The collision
of like molecules is of little consequence since both molecules are identical
and it makes no difference which molecule crosses a certain plane. The collisions of unlike molecules, however, influence the rate of diffusion since unlike molecules may have different masses and thus different momentums, and
thus the diffusion process will be dominated by the heavier molecules. The
diffusion coefficients and thus diffusion rates of gases depend strongly on
temperature since the temperature is a measure of the average velocity of gas
molecules. Therefore, the diffusion rates will be higher at higher temperatures.
Mass transfer can also occur in liquids and solids as well as in gases. For example, a cup of water left in a room will eventually evaporate as a result of
water molecules diffusing into the air (liquidtogas mass transfer). A piece of
solid CO2 (dry ice) will also get smaller and smaller in time as the CO2 molecules diffuse into the air (solidtogas mass transfer). A spoon of sugar in a
cup of coffee will eventually move up and sweeten the coffee although the
sugar molecules are much heavier than the water molecules, and the molecules of a colored pencil inserted into a glass of water will diffuse into the
water as evidenced by the gradual spread of color in the water (solidtoliquid
mass transfer). Of course, mass transfer can also occur from a gas to a liquid
or solid if the concentration of the species is higher in the gas phase. For example, a small fraction of O2 in the air diffuses into the water and meets the
oxygen needs of marine animals. The diffusion of carbon into iron during
casehardening, doping of semiconductors for transistors, and the migration of
doped molecules in semiconductors at high temperature are examples of solidtosolid diffusion processes (Fig. 14–3).
Another factor that influences the diffusion process is the molecular
spacing. The larger the spacing, in general, the higher the diffusion rate.
Therefore, the diffusion rates are typically much higher in gases than they are
in liquids and much higher in liquids than in solids. Diffusion coefficients in
gas mixtures are a few orders of magnitude larger than these of liquid or solid
solutions. 14–2 I ANALOGY BETWEEN
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER We have spent a considerable amount of time studying heat transfer, and we
could spend just as much time (perhaps more) studying mass transfer. However, the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer are analogous to each other,
and thus we can develop an understanding of mass transfer in a short time
with little effort by simply drawing parallels between heat and mass transfer.
Establishing those “bridges” between the two seemingly unrelated areas will
make it possible to use our heat transfer knowledge to solve mass transfer
problems. Alternately, gaining a working knowledge of mass transfer will help
us to better understand the heat transfer processes by thinking of heat as
a massless substance as they did in the nineteenth century. The shortlived
caloric theory of heat is the origin of most heat transfer terminology used Air Air Water vapor CO2 Liquid
water Dry
ice (a) Liquid to gas (b) Solid to gas Coffee Iron Sugar Carbon (c) Solid to liquid (d) Solid to solid FIGURE 14–3
Some examples of mass transfer that
involve a liquid and/or a solid. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 720 720
HEAT TRANSFER
70°C
Heat
10°C
Heat concentration today and served its purpose well until it was replaced by the kinetic theory.
Mass is, in essence, energy since mass and energy can be converted to each
other according to Einstein’s formula E mc2, where c is the speed of light.
Therefore, we can look at mass and heat as two different forms of energy and
exploit this to advantage without going overboard. Temperature Mass concentration
70%
CO2
Mass
10%
CO2 FIGURE 14–4
Analogy between
heat and mass transfer. The driving force for heat transfer is the temperature difference. In contrast,
the driving force for mass transfer is the concentration difference. We can
view temperature as a measure of “heat concentration,” and thus a high temperature region as one that has a high heat concentration (Fig. 14–4). Therefore, both heat and mass are transferred from the more concentrated regions to
the less concentrated ones. If there is no temperature difference between two
regions, then there is no heat transfer. Likewise, if there is no difference between the concentrations of a species at different parts of a medium, there will
be no mass transfer. Conduction
Thermal
radiation
No mass
radiation
Hot
body Mass You will recall that heat is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation. Mass, however, is transferred by conduction (called diffusion) and convection only, and there is no such thing as “mass radiation” (unless there is
something Scotty knows that we don’t when he “beams” people to anywhere
in space at the speed of light) (Fig. 14–5). The rate of heat conduction in a direction x is proportional to the temperature gradient dT/dx in that direction and
is expressed by Fourier’s law of heat conduction as FIGURE 14–5
Unlike heat radiation, there is
no such thing as mass radiation. Temperature
profile A ·
Q cond A Concentration profile
of species A
dC
·
—
mdiff = – D A — A
AB
dx FIGURE 14–6
Analogy between heat conduction
and mass diffusion. dT
dx (142) where k is the thermal conductivity of the medium and A is the area normal to
·
the direction of heat transfer. Likewise, the rate of mass diffusion m diff of a
chemical species A in a stationary medium in the direction x is proportional to
the concentration gradient dC/dx in that direction and is expressed by Fick’s
law of diffusion by (Fig. 14–6) ·
dT
Qcond = – kA —
dx x kA ·
m diff DAB A dCA
dx (143) where DAB is the diffusion coefficient (or mass diffusivity) of the species in
the mixture and CA is the concentration of the species in the mixture at that
location.
It can be shown that the differential equations for both heat conduction and
mass diffusion are of the same form. Therefore, the solutions of mass diffusion equations can be obtained from the solutions of corresponding heat
conduction equations for the same type of boundary conditions by simply
switching the corresponding coefficients and variables. Heat Generation
Heat generation refers to the conversion of some form of energy such as electrical, chemical, or nuclear energy into sensible heat energy in the medium. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 721 721
CHAPTER 14 Heat generation occurs throughout the medium and exhibits itself as a rise in
temperature. Similarly, some mass transfer problems involve chemical reactions that occur within the medium and result in the generation of a species
throughout. Therefore, species generation is a volumetric phenomenon, and
the rate of generation may vary from point to point in the medium. Such reactions that occur within the medium are called homogeneous reactions and are
analogous to internal heat generation. In contrast, some chemical reactions
result in the generation of a species at the surface as a result of chemical reactions occurring at the surface due to contact between the medium and the
surroundings. This is a surface phenomenon, and as such it needs to be treated
as a boundary condition. In mass transfer studies, such reactions are called
heterogeneous reactions and are analogous to specified surface heat flux. Convection
You will recall that heat convection is the heat transfer mechanism that involves both heat conduction (molecular diffusion) and bulk fluid motion.
Fluid motion enhances heat transfer considerably by removing the heated
fluid near the surface and replacing it by the cooler fluid further away. In the
limiting case of no bulk fluid motion, convection reduces to conduction. Likewise, mass convection (or convective mass transfer) is the mass transfer
mechanism between a surface and a moving fluid that involves both mass diffusion and bulk fluid motion. Fluid motion also enhances mass transfer considerably by removing the high concentration fluid near the surface and
replacing it by the lower concentration fluid further away. In mass convection,
we define a concentration boundary layer in an analogous manner to the thermal boundary layer and define new dimensionless numbers that are counterparts of the Nusselt and Prandtl numbers.
The rate of heat convection for external flow was expressed conveniently by
Newton’s law of cooling as
hconv As(Ts T) (144) where hconv is the heat transfer coefficient, As is the surface area, and Ts T
is the temperature difference across the thermal boundary layer. Likewise, the
rate of mass convection can be expressed as (Fig. 14–7)
hmass As(Cs C) (145) MASS DIFFUSION Fick’s law of diffusion, proposed in 1855, states that the rate of diffusion of a
chemical species at a location in a gas mixture (or liquid or solid solution) is
proportional to the concentration gradient of that species at that location. Mass
convection: ·
mconv Heat
convection: ·
Q conv → 14–3 I → where hmass is the mass transfer coefficient, As is the surface area, and Cs C
is a suitable concentration difference across the concentration boundary layer.
Various aspects of the analogy between heat and mass convection are explored in Section 14–9. The analogy is valid for low mass transfer rate cases
in which the flow rate of species undergoing mass flow is low (under 10 percent) relative to the total flow rate of the liquid or gas mixture. Concentration
difference
678
hmass As(Cs C )
hconv As(Ts T )
123 → ·
m conv Mass
transfer
coefficient Heat
transfer
coefficient → ·
Q conv Temperature
difference FIGURE 14–7
Analogy between convection heat
transfer and convection mass transfer. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 722 722
HEAT TRANSFER
A + B mixture B A V = VA = VB
m = mA + mB
ρ = ρA + ρB
C = CA + CB
Mass basis:
ρA
mA
m
–
–
ρA = — , ρ = — , wA = —
V
V
ρ
Mole basis:
NA
CA
N
–
–
CA = — , C = — , yA = —
V
V
C
Relation between them:
ρA
MA
–
–
CA = — , wA = yA —
MA
M FIGURE 14–8
Different ways of expressing the
concentration of species A of
a binary mixture A and B. Although a higher concentration for a species means more molecules of that
species per unit volume, the concentration of a species can be expressed in
several ways. Next we describe two common ways. 1 Mass Basis
On a mass basis, concentration is expressed in terms of density (or mass concentration), which is mass per unit volume. Considering a small volume V at
a location within the mixture, the densities of a species (subscript i) and of the
mixture (no subscript) at that location are given by (Fig. 14–8)
Partial density of species i:
Total density of mixture: i (kg/m3) mi /V
m/V mi / V i Therefore, the density of a mixture at a location is equal to the sum of the
densities of its constituents at that location. Mass concentration can also be
expressed in dimensionless form in terms of mass fraction w as
Mass fraction of species i: wi mi /V
m /V mi
m i (146) Note that the mass fraction of a species ranges between 0 and 1, and the conservation of mass requires that the sum of the mass fractions of the constituents of a mixture be equal to 1. That is, wi 1. Also note that the density
and mass fraction of a constituent in a mixture, in general, vary with location
unless the concentration gradients are zero. 2 Mole Basis
On a mole basis, concentration is expressed in terms of molar concentration
(or molar density), which is the amount of matter in kmol per unit volume.
Again considering a small volume V at a location within the mixture, the molar concentrations of a species (subscript i) and of the mixture (no subscript)
at that location are given by
Partial molar concentration of species i: Ci
Total molar concentration of mixture:
C Ni /V
N/V (kmol/m3)
Ni /V Ci Therefore, the molar concentration of a mixture at a location is equal to the
sum of the molar concentrations of its constituents at that location. Molar
concentration can also be expressed in dimensionless form in terms of mole
fraction y as
Mole fraction of species i: yi Ni
N Ni /V
N/V Ci
C (147) Again the mole fraction of a species ranges between 0 and 1, and the sum of
the mole fractions of the constituents of a mixture is unity, yi 1.
The mass m and mole number N of a substance are related to each other by
m NM (or, for a unit volume,
CM) where M is the molar mass (also
called the molecular weight) of the substance. This is expected since the mass
of 1 kmol of the substance is M kg, and thus the mass of N kmol is NM kg.
Therefore, the mass and molar concentrations are related to each other by cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 723 723
CHAPTER 14 Ci i (for species i) and Mi C (for the mixture) M (148) where M is the molar mass of the mixture which can be determined from
M Ni Mi
N m
N Ni
M
Ni yi Mi (149) The mass and mole fractions of species i of a mixture are related to each
other by
wi i Ci Mi
CM yi Mi
M (1410) Two different approaches are presented above for the description of concentration at a location, and you may be wondering which approach is better
to use. Well, the answer depends on the situation on hand. Both approaches
are equivalent, and the better approach for a given problem is the one that
yields the desired solution more easily. Special Case: Ideal Gas Mixtures
At low pressures, a gas or gas mixture can conveniently be approximated as
an ideal gas with negligible error. For example, a mixture of dry air and water
vapor at atmospheric conditions can be treated as an ideal gas with an error
much less than 1 percent. The total pressure of a gas mixture P is equal to the
sum of the partial pressures Pi of the individual gases in the mixture and is expressed as P
Pi. Here Pi is called the partial pressure of species i, which
is the pressure species i would exert if it existed alone at the mixture temperature and volume. This is known as Dalton’s law of additive pressures. Then
using the ideal gas relation PV NRuT where Ru is the universal gas constant
for both the species i and the mixture, the pressure fraction of species i can
be expressed as (Fig. 14–9)
Pi
P Ni RuT/V
NRuT/V Ni
N yi (1411) Therefore, the pressure fraction of species i of an ideal gas mixture is equivalent to the mole fraction of that species and can be used in place of it in mass
transfer analysis. Fick’s Law of Diffusion:
Stationary Medium Consisting of Two Species
We mentioned earlier that the rate of mass diffusion of a chemical species in
a stagnant medium in a specified direction is proportional to the local concentration gradient in that direction. This linear relationship between the rate of
diffusion and the concentration gradient proposed by Fick in 1855 is known
as Fick’s law of diffusion and can be expressed as
Mass flux Constant of proportionality Concentration gradient 2 mol A
6 mol B
P 120 kPa A mixture of two ideal gases A and B
yA
PA NA
2
N
26
yAP 0.25 0.25
120 30 kPa FIGURE 14–9
For ideal gas mixtures, pressure
fraction of a gas is equal to
its mole fraction. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 724 724
HEAT TRANSFER
Higher
concentration
of species A Lower
concentration
of species A dC
—
slope = — A
dx
Area
A But the concentration of a species in a gas mixture or liquid or solid solution
can be defined in several ways such as density, mass fraction, molar concentration, and mole fraction, as already discussed, and thus Fick’s law can be expressed mathematically in many ways. It turns out that it is best to express the
concentration gradient in terms of the mass or mole fraction, and the most appropriate formulation of Fick’s law for the diffusion of a species A in a stationary binary mixture of species A and B in a specified direction x is given by
(Fig. 14–10)
Mass basis: jdiff, A CA(x)
Concentration
profile of species A Mole basis: ¯diff, A
j ·
m diff, A
A
·
Ndiff, A
A d( A/ )
dx
d(CA/C)
CDAB
dx DAB dwA
dx
dyA
CDAB
dx
DAB (kg/s · m2)
(mol/s · m2) (1412) x
Mass basis:
dw
·
—
mdiff = – ρADAB — A
dx
d(ρA/ρ)
= – ρADAB ———
dx
dρ
—
= –ADAB — A (if ρ = constant)
dx Here jdiff, A is the (diffusive) mass flux of species A (mass transfer by diffusion
per unit time and per unit area normal to the direction of mass transfer, in
j
kg/s · m2) and ¯diff, A is the (diffusive) molar flux (in kmol/s · m2). The mass
flux of a species at a location is proportional to the density of the mixture at
CA CB is the
that location. Note that
A
B is the density and C
molar concentration of the binary mixture, and in general, they may vary
throughout the mixture. Therefore, d( A / ) d A or Cd(CA /C) dCA. But
in the special case of constant mixture density or constant molar concentration C, the relations above simplify to Mole basis:
dy
·
—
Ndiff, A = – CADAB — A
dx Mass basis ( dC
—
= –ADAB — A (if C = constant)
dx FIGURE 14–10
Various expressions of Fick’s law of
diffusion for a binary mixture. Mass
diffusivity
·
mA DAB A ·
Q dT
kA
→ dx dx → Heat conduction: → Mass diffusion: Concentration gradient →
dA Thermal
Temperature
conductivity
gradient FIGURE 14–11
Analogy between Fourier ’s law of
heat conduction and Fick’s
law of mass diffusion. jdiff, A Mole basis (C d(CA/C)
–
= – CADAB ———
dx constant):
constant): ¯
jdiff, A dA
dx
dCA
DAB
dx
DAB (kg/s · m2)
(kmol/s · m2) (1413) The constant density or constant molar concentration assumption is usually
appropriate for solid and dilute liquid solutions, but often this is not the case
for gas mixtures or concentrated liquid solutions. Therefore, Eq. 14–12 should
be used in the latter case. In this introductory treatment we will limit our consideration to onedimensional mass diffusion. For two or threedimensional
cases, Fick’s law can conveniently be expressed in vector form by simply replacing the derivatives in the above relations by the corresponding gradients
DAB wA).
(such as jA
Remember that the constant of proportionality in Fourier ’s law was defined
as the transport property thermal conductivity. Similarly, the constant of proportionality in Fick’s law is defined as another transport property called the
binary diffusion coefficient or mass diffusivity, DAB. The unit of mass diffusivity is m2/s, which is the same as the units of thermal diffusivity or momentum diffusivity (also called kinematic viscosity) (Fig. 14–11).
Because of the complex nature of mass diffusion, the diffusion coefficients
are usually determined experimentally. The kinetic theory of gases indicates
that the diffusion coefficient for dilute gases at ordinary pressures is essentially independent of mixture composition and tends to increase with temperature while decreasing with pressure as
DAB T 3/2
P or DAB, 1
DAB, 2 P2 T1
P1 T2 3/2 (1414) cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 725 725
CHAPTER 14 This relation is useful in determining the diffusion coefficient for gases at different temperatures and pressures from a knowledge of the diffusion coefficient at a specified temperature and pressure. More general but complicated
relations that account for the effects of molecular collisions are also available.
The diffusion coefficients of some gases in air at 1 atm pressure are given in
Table 14–1 at various temperatures.
The diffusion coefficients of solids and liquids also tend to increase with
temperature while exhibiting a strong dependence on the composition. The
diffusion process in solids and liquids is a great deal more complicated than
that in gases, and the diffusion coefficients in this case are almost exclusively
determined experimentally.
The binary diffusion coefficient for several binary gas mixtures and solid
and liquid solutions are given in Tables 14–2 and 14–3. We make these two
observations from these tables:
1. The diffusion coefficients, in general, are highest in gases and lowest
in solids. The diffusion coefficients of gases are several orders of
magnitude greater than those of liquids.
2. Diffusion coefficients increase with temperature. The diffusion
coefficient (and thus the mass diffusion rate) of carbon through iron
during a hardening process, for example, increases by 6000 times as
the temperature is raised from 500°C to 1000°C.
Due to its practical importance, the diffusion of water vapor in air has been
the topic of several studies, and some empirical formulas have been developed
for the diffusion coefficient DH2O–air. Marrero and Mason proposed this popular formula (Table 14–4): TABLE 14–1
Binary diffusion coefficients of
some gases in air at 1 atm pressure
(from Mills, Ref. 13, Table A.17a,
p. 869)
Binary Diffusion Coefficient,*
m2/s 105
T, K O2 200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000 0.95
1.88
5.25
4.75
6.46
8.38
10.5
12.6
15.2
20.6
26.6
33.2
40.3
48.0 CO2 H2 0.74
3.75
1.57
7.77
2.63 12.5
3.85 17.1
5.37 24.4
6.84 31.7
8.57 39.3
10.5
47.7
12.4
56.9
16.9
77.7
21.7
99.0
27.5 125
32.8 152
39.4 180 NO
0.88
1.80
3.03
4.43
6.03
7.82
9.78
11.8
14.1
19.2
24.5
30.4
37.0
44.8 *Multiply by 10.76 to convert to ft2/s. TABLE 14–2
Binary diffusion coefficients of dilute gas mixtures at 1 atm
(from Barrer, Ref. 2; Geankoplis, Ref. 5; Perry, Ref. 14; and Reid et al., Ref. 15)
Substance
A Substance
B Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air Acetone
Ammonia, NH3
Benzene
Carbon dioxide
Chlorine
Ethyl alcohol
Ethyl ether
Helium, He
Hydrogen, H2
Iodine, I2
Methanol
Mercury
Napthalene
Oxygen, O2
Water vapor T,
K
273
298
298
298
273
298
298
298
298
298
298
614
300
298
298 DAB or DBA,
m2/s
1.1
2.6
0.88
1.6
1.2
1.2
0.93
7.2
7.2
0.83
1.6
4.7
0.62
2.1
2.5 10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10 Substance
B Substance A
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5 Argon, Ar
Carbon dioxide,
Carbon dioxide,
Carbon dioxide,
Carbon dioxide,
Carbon dioxide,
Hydrogen, H2
Hydrogen, H2
Oxygen, O2
Oxygen, O2
Oxygen, O2
Oxygen, O2
Water vapor
Water vapor
Water vapor CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2 Nitrogen, N2
Benzene
Hydrogen, H2
Nitrogen, N2
Oxygen, O2
Water vapor
Nitrogen, N2
Oxygen, O2
Ammonia
Benzene
Nitrogen, N2
Water vapor
Argon, Ar
Helium, He
Nitrogen, N2 T,
K
293
318
273
293
273
298
273
273
293
296
273
298
298
298
298 DAB or DBA,
m2/s
1.9
0.72
5.5
1.6
1.4
1.6
6.8
7.0
2.5
0.39
1.8
2.5
2.4
9.2
2.5 10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10 Note: The effect of pressure and temperature on DAB can be accounted for through DAB ~ T3/2/P. Also, multiply DAB values by 10.76 to convert them to ft2/s. 5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5 cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 726 726
HEAT TRANSFER TABLE 14–3
Binary diffusion coefficients of dilute liquid solutions and solid solutions at 1 atm
(from Barrer, Ref. 2; Reid et al., Ref. 15; Thomas, Ref. 19; and van Black, Ref. 20)
(a) Diffusion through Liquids
Substance
A (Solute) Substance
B (Solvent) Ammonia
Benzene
Carbon dioxide
Chlorine
Ethanol
Ethanol
Ethanol
Glucose
Hydrogen
Methane
Methane
Methane
Methanol
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Water
Water
Water
Chloroform Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Ethanol
Ethylene glycol
Methanol
Methanol T,
K (b) Diffusion through Solids
Substance
A (Solute) DAB, m2/s 285
293
298
285
283
288
298
298
298
275
293
333
288
298
298
298
298
298
288 1.6
1.0
2.0
1.4
0.84
1.0
1.2
0.69
6.3
0.85
1.5
3.6
1.3
2.6
2.4
1.2
0.18
1.8
2.1 10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10 9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9 DH2O–Air TABLE 14–4
In a binary ideal gas mixture of
species A and B, the diffusion
coefficient of A in B is equal to
the diffusion coefficient of B in A,
and both increase with temperature T, °C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
50
100
150 DH2O–Air or DAir–H2O
at 1 atm, in m2/s
(from Eq. 14–15)
2.09
2.17
2.25
2.33
2.42
2.50
2.59
2.68
2.77
2.96
3.99
5.18 10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10 5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5 Substance B
(Solvent) Carbon dioxide
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Helium
Helium
Helium
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Cadmium
Zinc
Zinc
Antimony
Bismuth
Mercury
Copper
Copper
Carbon
Carbon Natural rubber
Natural rubber
Natural rubber
Pyrex
Pyrex
Silicon dioxide
Iron
Nickel
Nickel
Copper
Copper
Copper
Silver
Lead
Lead
Aluminum
Aluminum
Iron (fcc)
Iron (fcc) 1.87 10 10 T 2.072
P (m2/s), 280 K T,
K
298
298
298
773
293
298
298
358
438
293
773
1273
293
293
293
773
1273
773
1273 T DAB, m2/s
1.1
1.5
2.1
2.0
4.5
4.0
2.6
1.2
1.0
2.7
4.0
5.0
3.5
1.1
2.5
4.0
1.0
5.0
3.0 450 K 10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10 10
10
10
12
15
14
13
12
11
19
18
13
25
20
19
14
10
15
11 (1415) where P is total pressure in atm and T is the temperature in K.
The primary driving mechanism of mass diffusion is the concentration
gradient, and mass diffusion due to a concentration gradient is known as the
ordinary diffusion. However, diffusion may also be caused by other effects.
Temperature gradients in a medium can cause thermal diffusion (also called
the soret effect), and pressure gradients may result in pressure diffusion.
Both of these effects are usually negligible, however, unless the gradients are
very large. In centrifuges, the pressure gradient generated by the centrifugal
effect is used to separate liquid solutions and gaseous isotopes. An external
force field such as an electric or magnetic field applied on a mixture or solution can be used successfully to separate electrically charged or magnetized
molecules (as in an electrolyte or ionized gas) from the mixture. This is called
forced diffusion. Also, when the pores of a porous solid such as silicagel are
smaller than the mean free path of the gas molecules, the molecular collisions
may be negligible and a free molecule flow may be initiated. This is known as
Knudsen diffusion. When the size of the gas molecules is comparable to the
pore size, adsorbed molecules move along the pore walls. This is known as
surface diffusion. Finally, particles whose diameter is under 0.1 m such as
mist and soot particles act like large molecules, and the diffusion process of
such particles due to the concentration gradient is called Brownian motion.
Large particles (those whose diameter is greater than 1 m) are not affected cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 727 727
CHAPTER 14 by diffusion as the motion of such particles is governed by Newtons laws. In
our elementary treatment of mass diffusion, we will assume these additional
effects to be nonexistent or negligible, as is usually the case, and refer the interested reader to advanced books on these topics.
EXAMPLE 14–1 Determining Mass Fractions from Mole Fractions The composition of dry standard atmosphere is given on a molar basis to be
78.1 percent N2, 20.9 percent O2, and 1.0 percent Ar and other constituents
(Fig. 14–12). Treating other constituents as Ar, determine the mass fractions of
the constituents of air. AIR
78.1% N2
20.9% O2
1.0% Ar SOLUTION The molar fractions of the constituents of air are given. The mass
fractions are to be determined.
Assumptions The small amounts of other gases in air are treated as argon.
Properties The molar masses of N2, O2, and Ar are 28.0, 32.0, and 39.9
kg/kmol, respectively (Table A–1).
Analysis The molar mass of air is determined to be M yi Mi 0.781 28.0 0.209 32.0 0.01 39.9 FIGURE 14–12
Schematic for Example 14–1. 29.0 kg/kmol Then the mass fractions of constituent gases are determined from Eq. 14–10 to
be N2: wN2 O2: wO2 Ar: wAr MN2
M
MO2
yO2
M
MAr
yAr
M
yN2 (0.781) 28.0
29.0 0.754 (0.209) 32.0
29.0 0.231 (0.01) 39.9
29.0 0.014 Therefore, the mass fractions of N2, O2, and Ar in dry standard atmosphere are
75.4 percent, 23.1 percent, and 1.4 percent, respectively. 14–4 I x
Air BOUNDARY CONDITIONS We mentioned earlier that the mass diffusion equation is analogous to the heat
diffusion (conduction) equation, and thus we need comparable boundary conditions to determine the species concentration distribution in a medium. Two
common types of boundary conditions are the (1) specified species concentration, which corresponds to specified temperature, and (2) specified species
flux, which corresponds to specified heat flux.
Despite their apparent similarity, an important difference exists between
temperature and concentration: temperature is necessarily a continuous function, but concentration, in general, is not. The wall and air temperatures at a
wall surface, for example, are always the same. The concentrations of air on
the two sides of a water–air interface, however, are obviously very different
(in fact, the concentration of air in water is close to zero). Likewise, the
concentrations of water on the two sides of a water–air interface are also different even when air is saturated (Fig. 14–13). Therefore, when specifying a yH 2O, 0 Jump in
concentration gas side (0) yH 2O, liquid side = 1.0 Water
Concentration
profile FIGURE 14–13
Unlike temperature, the concentration
of species on the two sides of a
liquid–gas (or solid–gas or
solid–liquid) interface are
usually not the same. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 728 728
HEAT TRANSFER boundary condition, specifying the location is not enough. We also need to
specify the side of the boundary. To do this, we consider two imaginary surfaces on the two sides of the interface that are infinitesimally close to the
interface. Whenever there is a doubt, we indicate the desired side of the interface by specifying its phase as a subscript. For example, the water (liquid
or vapor) concentration at the liquid and gas sides of a water–air interface at
x 0 can be expressed on a molar basis is
yH2O, liquid side (0) y1 and yH2O, gas side (0) y2 (1416) Using Fick’s law, the constant species flux boundary condition for a diffusing species A at a boundary at x 0 is expressed, in the absence of any blowing or suction, as
T(x)
Insulated
surface dT(0)
—— = 0
–
dx
·
Q(0) = 0 x Impermeable
surface CA(x)
dCA(0)
——– = 0
—
dx
· (0) = 0
mA FIGURE 14–14
An impermeable surface in
mass transfer is analogous to an
insulated surface in heat transfer.
Air
92 kPa, 15°C
Saturated air
yH O, air side = 0.0185
2 yH
Lake
15°C 2O, liquid side ≅ 1.0 CDAB dyA
dx ¯
jA, 0 or DAB x0 dwA
dx jA, 0 (1417) x0 where ¯A, 0 and jA, 0 are the specified mole and mass fluxes of species A at the
j
boundary, respectively. The special case of zero mass flux (¯A, 0 jA, 0 0)
j
dwA (0)/
corresponds to an impermeable surface for which dyA(0)/dx
dx 0 (Fig. 14–14).
To apply the specified concentration boundary condition, we must know the
concentration of a species at the boundary. This information is usually obtained from the requirement that thermodynamic equilibrium must exist at the
interface of two phases of a species. In the case of air–water interface, the concentration values of water vapor in the air are easily determined from saturation data, as shown in Example 14–2.
EXAMPLE 14–2 Mole Fraction of Water Vapor
at the Surface of a Lake Determine the mole fraction of the water vapor at the surface of a lake whose
temperature is 15°C and compare it to the mole fraction of water in the lake
(Fig. 14–15). Take the atmospheric pressure at lake level to be 92 kPa. SOLUTION The mole fraction of the water vapor at the surface of a lake and
the mole fraction of water in the lake are to be determined and compared.
Assumptions 1 Both the air and water vapor are ideal gases. 2 The mole fraction of dissolved air in water is negligible.
Properties The saturation pressure of water at 15°C is 1.705 kPa (Table A–9).
Analysis The air at the water surface will be saturated. Therefore, the partial
pressure of water vapor in the air at the lake surface will simply be the saturation pressure of water at 15°C, FIGURE 14–15
Schematic for Example 14–2. Pvapor Psat @ 15°C 1.705 kPa Assuming both the air and vapor to be ideal gases, the mole fraction of water
vapor in the air at the surface of the lake is determined from Eq. 14–11 to be yvapor Pvapor
P 1.705 kPa
92 kPa 0.0185 (or 1.85 percent) cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 729 729
CHAPTER 14 Water contains some dissolved air, but the amount is negligible. Therefore, we
can assume the entire lake to be liquid water. Then its mole fraction becomes ywater, liquid side 1.0 (or 100 percent) Discussion Note that the concentration of water on a molar basis is 100 percent just beneath the air–water interface and 1.85 percent just above it, even
though the air is assumed to be saturated (so this is the highest value at 15°C).
Therefore, huge discontinuities can occur in the concentrations of a species
across phase boundaries. The situation is similar at solid–liquid interfaces. Again, at a given temperature, only a certain amount of solid can be dissolved in a liquid, and the solubility of the solid in the liquid is determined from the requirement that
thermodynamic equilibrium exists between the solid and the solution at the interface. The solubility represents the maximum amount of solid that can be
dissolved in a liquid at a specified temperature and is widely available in
chemistry handbooks. In Table 14–5 we present sample solubility data for
sodium chloride (NaCl) and calcium bicarbonate [Ca(HCO3)2] at various
temperatures. For example, the solubility of salt (NaCl) in water at 310 K is
36.5 kg per 100 kg of water. Therefore, the mass fraction of salt in the brine at
the interface is simply
wsalt, liquid side msalt
m 36.5 kg
(100 36.5) kg 0.267 Pi, gas side
(at interface)
H Solubility of two inorganic
compounds in water at various
temperatures, in kg, in 100 kg of
water [from Handbook of Chemistry
(New York: McGrawHill, 1961)] (or 26.7 percent) Solute whereas the mass fraction of salt in the pure solid salt is w 1.0. Note that
water becomes saturated with salt when 36.5 kg of salt are dissolved in
100 kg of water at 310 K.
Many processes involve the absorption of a gas into a liquid. Most gases are
weakly soluble in liquids (such as air in water), and for such dilute solutions
the mole fractions of a species i in the gas and liquid phases at the interface
are observed to be proportional to each other. That is, yi, gas side yi, liquid side or
Pi, gas side P yi, liquid side since yi, gas side Pi, gas side /P for ideal gas mixtures. This
is known as Henry’s law and is expressed as
yi, liquid side TABLE 14–5 (1418) where H is Henry’s constant, which is the product of the total pressure of the
gas mixture and the proportionality constant. For a given species, it is a function of temperature only and is practically independent of pressure for pressures under about 5 atm. Values of Henry’s constant for a number of aqueous
solutions are given in Table 14–6 for various temperatures. From this table
and the equation above we make the following observations:
1. The concentration of a gas dissolved in a liquid is inversely proportional
to Henry’s constant. Therefore, the larger Henry’s constant, the smaller
the concentration of dissolved gases in the liquid. Temperature, K Salt,
NaCl Calcium
Bicarbonate,
Ca(HCO3)2 273.15
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
373.15 35.7
35.8
35.9
36.2
36.5
36.9
37.2
37.6
38.2
38.8
39.5
39.8 16.15
16.30
16.53
16.75
16.98
17.20
17.43
17.65
17.88
18.10
18.33
18.40 cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 730 730
HEAT TRANSFER TABLE 14–6
Henry’s constant H (in bars) for selected gases in water at low to moderate
pressures (for gas i, H Pi, gas side /yi, water side)
(from Mills, Ref. 13, Table A.21, p. 874)
Solute 290 K 300 K 310 K 320 K 330 K 340 K H2S
CO2
O2
H2
CO
Air
N2 440
1280
38,000
67,000
51,000
62,000
76,000 560
1710
45,000
72,000
60,000
74,000
89,000 700
2170
52,000
75,000
67,000
84,000
101,000 830
2720
57,000
76,000
74,000
92,000
110,000 980
3220
61,000
77,000
80,000
99,000
118,000 1140
—
65,000
76,000
84,000
104,000
124,000 Gas A
yA, gas side
yA, liquid side
Gas: A
Liquid: B yA, gas side yA, liquid side P , gas side
A
————
P yA, liquid side or or
P , gas side = HyA, liquid side
A FIGURE 14–16
Dissolved gases in a liquid can
be driven off by heating the liquid.
Air
Saturated air Lake
17°C Pdry air, gas side
ydry air, liquid side FIGURE 14–17
Schematic for Example 14–3. 2. Henry’s constant increases (and thus the fraction of a dissolved gas
in the liquid decreases) with increasing temperature. Therefore, the
dissolved gases in a liquid can be driven off by heating the liquid
(Fig. 14–16).
3. The concentration of a gas dissolved in a liquid is proportional to the
partial pressure of the gas. Therefore, the amount of gas dissolved in a
liquid can be increased by increasing the pressure of the gas. This can
be used to advantage in the carbonation of soft drinks with CO2 gas.
Strictly speaking, the result obtained from Eq. 14–18 for the mole fraction of
dissolved gas is valid for the liquid layer just beneath the interface and not
necessarily the entire liquid. The latter will be the case only when thermodynamic phase equilibrium is established throughout the entire liquid body.
EXAMPLE 14–3 Mole Fraction of Dissolved Air in Water Determine the mole fraction of air dissolved in water at the surface of a lake
whose temperature is 17°C (Fig. 14–17). Take the atmospheric pressure at lake
level to be 92 kPa. SOLUTION The mole fraction of air dissolved in water at the surface of a lake
is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Both the air and water vapor are ideal gases. 2 Air is weakly soluble in water so that Henry’s law is applicable.
Properties The saturation pressure of water at 17°C is 1.92 kPa (Table A–9).
Henry’s constant for air dissolved in water at 290 K is H 62,000 bar (Table
14–6).
Analysis This example is similar to the previous example. Again the air at the
water surface will be saturated, and thus the partial pressure of water vapor in
the air at the lake surface will be the saturation pressure of water at 17°C,
Pvapor Psat @ 17°C 1.92 kPa Assuming both the air and vapor to be ideal gases, the partial pressure of dry air
is determined to be Pdry air P Pvapor 92 1.92 90.08 kPa 0.9008 bar cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 731 731
CHAPTER 14 Note that with little loss in accuracy (an error of about 2 percent), we could
have ignored the vapor pressure since the amount of vapor in air is so small.
Then the mole fraction of air in the water becomes ydry air, liquid state Pdry air, gas side
H 0.9008 bar
62,000 bar 1.45 10 5 which is very small, as expected. Therefore, the concentration of air in water
just below the air–water interface is 1.45 moles per 100,0000 moles. But obviously this is enough oxygen for fish and other creatures in the lake. Note that
the amount of air dissolved in water will decrease with increasing depth. We mentioned earlier that the use of Henry’s law is limited to dilute gas–
liquid solutions; that is, a liquid with a small amount of gas dissolved in it.
Then the question that arises naturally is, what do we do when the gas is
highly soluble in the liquid (or solid), such as ammonia in water? In this case
the linear relationship of Henry’s law does not apply, and the mole fraction of
a gas dissolved in the liquid (or solid) is usually expressed as a function of the
partial pressure of the gas in the gas phase and the temperature. An approximate relation in this case for the mole fractions of a species on the liquid and
gas sides of the interface is given by Raoult’s law as
Pi, gas side yi, gas side P yi, liquid side Pi, sat(T) (1419) where Pi, sat(T) is the saturation pressure of the species i at the interface temperature and P is the total pressure on the gas phase side. Tabular data are
available in chemical handbooks for common solutions such as the ammonia–
water solution that is widely used in absorptionrefrigeration systems.
Gases may also dissolve in solids, but the diffusion process in this case can
be very complicated. The dissolution of a gas may be independent of the
structure of the solid, or it may depend strongly on its porosity. Some dissolution processes (such as the dissolution of hydrogen in titanium, similar to the
dissolution of CO2 in water) are reversible, and thus maintaining the gas content in the solid requires constant contact of the solid with a reservoir of that
gas. Some other dissolution processes are irreversible. For example, oxygen
gas dissolving in titanium forms TiO2 on the surface, and the process does not
reverse itself.
The concentration of the gas species i in the solid at the interface Ci, solid side
is proportional to the partial pressure of the species i in the gas Pi, gas side on the
gas side of the interface and is expressed as
Ci, solid side Pi, gas side (kmol/m3) (1420) where is the solubility. Expressing the pressure in bars and noting that the
unit of molar concentration is kmol of species i per m3, the unit of solubility is
kmol/m3 · bar. Solubility data for selected gas–solid combinations are given in
Table 14–7. The product of the solubility of a gas and the diffusion coefficient
of the gas in a solid is referred to as the permeability , which is a measure
of the ability of the gas to penetrate a solid. That is,
DAB where DAB is TABLE 14–7
Solubility of selected
gases and solids
(for gas i,
Ci, solid side /Pi, gas side)
(from Barrer, Ref. 2)
Gas Solid T, K O2 Rubber 298
N2 Rubber 298
CO2 Rubber 298
He
SiO2 293
H2
Ni
358 kmol/m3 · bar
0.00312
0.00156
0.04015
0.00045
0.00901 cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 732 732
HEAT TRANSFER the diffusivity of the gas in the solid. Permeability is inversely proportional to
thickness and has the unit kmol/s · bar.
Finally, if a process involves the sublimation of a pure solid (such as ice or
solid CO2) or the evaporation of a pure liquid (such as water) in a different
medium such as air, the mole (or mass) fraction of the substance in the liquid
or solid phase is simply taken to be 1.0, and the partial pressure and thus the
mole fraction of the substance in the gas phase can readily be determined from
the saturation data of the substance at the specified temperature. Also, the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium at the interface is very reasonable for
pure solids, pure liquids, and solutions, except when chemical reactions are
occurring at the interface.
EXAMPLE 14–4 Consider a nickel plate that is in contact with hydrogen gas at 358 K and
300 kPa. Determine the molar and mass density of hydrogen in the nickel at
the interface (Fig. 14–18). Nickel
plate SOLUTION A nickel plate is exposed to hydrogen. The molar and mass density
of hydrogen in the nickel at the interface is to be determined.
Assumptions Nickel and hydrogen are in thermodynamic equilibrium at the
interface.
Properties The molar mass of hydrogen is M 2 kg/kmol (Table A–1). The solubility of hydrogen in nickel at 358 K is 0.00901 kmol/m3 · bar (Table 14–7).
Analysis Noting that 300 kPa
3 bar, the molar density of hydrogen in the
nickel at the interface is determined from Eq. 14–20 to be Air
H2
358 K
300 kPa 0 Diffusion of Hydrogen Gas into a Nickel Plate CH2, solid side Lx FIGURE 14–18
Schematic for Example 14–4. PH2, gas side
(0.00901 kmol/m3 · bar)(3 bar) 0.027 kmol/m3 It corresponds to a mass density of
H2, solid side CH2, solid side MH2
(0.027 kmol/m3)(2) 0.054 kg/m3 That is, there will be 0.027 kmol (or 0.054 kg) of H2 gas in each m3 volume of
nickel adjacent to the interface. TABLE 14–8
Analogy between heat conduction
and mass diffusion in a
stationary medium
Mass Diffusion
Heat
Conduction Mass
Basis Molar
Basis T
k
·
q wi
DAB
ji
DAB
L yi
CDAB
¯
ji
DAB
L L 14–5 I STEADY MASS DIFFUSION
THROUGH A WALL Many practical mass transfer problems involve the diffusion of a species
through a planeparallel medium that does not involve any homogeneous
chemical reactions under onedimensional steady conditions. Such mass
transfer problems are analogous to the steady onedimensional heat conduction problems in a plane wall with no heat generation and can be analyzed
similarly. In fact, many of the relations developed in Chapter 3 can be used
for mass transfer by replacing temperature by mass (or molar) fraction, thermal conductivity by DAB (or CDAB), and heat flux by mass (or molar) flux
(Table 14–8). cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 733 733
CHAPTER 14 Consider a solid plane wall (medium B) of area A, thickness L, and
density . The wall is subjected on both sides to different concentrations of a
species A to which it is permeable. The boundary surfaces at x 0 and x L
are located within the solid adjacent to the interfaces, and the mass fractions
of A at those surfaces are maintained at wA, 1 and wA, 2, respectively, at all times
(Fig. 14–19). The mass fraction of species A in the wall will vary in the
xdirection only and can be expressed as wA(x). Therefore, mass transfer
through the wall in this case can be modeled as steady and onedimensional.
Here we determine the rate of mass diffusion of species A through the wall
using a similar approach to that used in Chapter 3 for heat conduction.
The concentration of species A at any point will not change with time since
operation is steady, and there will be no production or destruction of species
A since no chemical reactions are occurring in the medium. Then the conservation of mass principle for species A can be expressed as the mass flow rate
of species A through the wall at any cross section is the same. That is
·
m diff, A jAA constant jA L dx CA(x) constant wA, 2
wA, 1 DAB dwA wA, 2 DAB A wA, 2 wA, 1
L DAB A A, 1 FIGURE 14–19
Schematic for steady onedimensional
mass diffusion of species A
through a plane wall. (1421) A, 2 L (kg/s) (1422) · T1 – T2
Q = ———
R
T1 T2
R (a) Heat flow This relation can be rearranged as
·
m diff, A, wall x L ·
where the mass transfer rate m diff, A and the wall area A are taken out of the
integral sign since both are constants. If the density and the mass diffusion
coefficient DAB vary little along the wall, they can be assumed to be constant.
The integration can be performed in that case to yield
·
m diff, A, wall ·
mdiff, A dCA 0 dwA
DAB
dx 0 wA, 1 ρ ≅ constant dx Separating the variables in this equation and integrating across the wall from
x 0, where w(0) wA, 1, to x L, where w(L) wA, 2, we get
·
m diff, A
A A (kg/s) Then Fick’s law of diffusion becomes
·
m diff, A
A Medium
B wA, 1 wA, 2
L/ DAB A wA, 1 wA, 2
Rdiff, wall 1– 2
I = ———
Re (1423)
1 where 2 Re Rdiff, wall L
DAB A is the diffusion resistance of the wall, in s/kg, which is analogous to the electrical or conduction resistance of a plane wall of thickness L and area A (Fig.
14–20). Thus, we conclude that the rate of mass diffusion through a plane
wall is proportional to the average density, the wall area, and the concentration difference across the wall, but is inversely proportional to the wall thickness. Also, once the rate of mass diffusion is determined, the mass fraction
wA(x) at any location x can be determined by replacing wA, 2 in Eq. 14–22 by
wA(x) and L by x. (b) Current flow
wA, 1 – wA,
·
—
mdiff, A = ———— 2
Rmass
wA, 2 wA, 1
Rmass
(c) Mass flow FIGURE 14–20
Analogy between
thermal, electrical, and mass
diffusion resistance concepts. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 734 734
HEAT TRANSFER The preceding analysis can be repeated on a molar basis with this result,
·
Ndiff, A, wall
·
mdiff, A
B
r2
r1
wA, 1 wA, 2 FIGURE 14–21
Onedimensional mass diffusion
through a cylindrical or
spherical shell. CDAB A yA, 1 yA, 2
L DAB A CA, 1 CA, 2 yA, 1 L yA, 2 Rdiff, wall (1424) where Rdiff, wall L/CDAB A is the molar diffusion resistance of the wall in
s/kmol. Note that mole fractions are accompanied by molar concentrations
and mass fractions are accompanied by density. Either relation can be used to
determine the diffusion rate of species A across the wall, depending on
whether the mass or molar fractions of species A are known at the boundaries.
Also, the concentration gradients on both sides of an interface are different,
and thus diffusion resistance networks cannot be constructed in an analogous
manner to thermal resistance networks.
In developing these relations, we assumed the density and the diffusion coefficient of the wall to be nearly constant. This assumption is reasonable when
a small amount of species A diffuses through the wall and thus the concentration of A is small. The species A can be a gas, a liquid, or a solid. Also, the
wall can be a plane layer of a liquid or gas provided that it is stationary.
The analogy between heat and mass transfer also applies to cylindrical and
spherical geometries. Repeating the approach outlined in Chapter 3 for heat
conduction, we obtain the following analogous relations for steady onedimensional mass transfer through nonreacting cylindrical and spherical
layers (Fig. 14–21)
wA, 1 wA, 2
ln(r2/r1) ·
m diff, A, cyl 2 L DAB ·
m diff, A, sph 4 r1r2 DAB wA, 1
r2 wA, 2
r1 2 LDAB A, 1 A, 2 (1425) ln(r2/r1) 4 r1r2DAB A, 1 r2 A, 2 r1 (1426) or, on a molar basis,
·
Ndiff, A, cyl
·
Ndiff, A, sph
P ,1
A Solid wall P ,2
A Gas Gas A 0 P ,1 – P ,2
A
A
AB A ————–
L ·
Ndiff, A L x FIGURE 14–22
The diffusion rate of a gas species
through a solid can be determined
from a knowledge of the partial
pressures of the gas on both sides
and the permeability of the solid
to that gas. CA, 1 CA, 2
yA, 1 yA, 2
2 LDAB
ln(r2/r1)
ln(r2/r1)
yA, 1 yA, 2
CA, 1 CA, 2
4 r1r2CDAb r
4 r1r2DAB r
r1
r1
2
2
2 LCDAB (1427) (1428) Here, L is the length of the cylinder, r1 is the inner radius, and r2 is the outer
radius for the cylinder or the sphere. Again, the boundary surfaces at r r1
and r r2 are located within the solid adjacent to the interfaces, and the mass
fractions of A at those surfaces are maintained at wA, 1 and wA, 2, respectively,
at all times. (We could make similar statements for the density, molar concentration, and mole fraction of species A at the boundaries.)
We mentioned earlier that the concentration of the gas species in a solid at
the interface is proportional to the partial pressure of the adjacent gas and was
3
expressed as CA, solid side
AB PA, gas side where AB is the solubility (in kmol/m
bar) of the gas A in the solid B. We also mentioned that the product of solubility and the diffusion coefficient is called the permeability, Ab
AB DAB
(in kmol/m · s · bar). Then the molar flow rate of a gas through a solid under
steady onedimensional conditions can be expressed in terms of the partial
pressures of the adjacent gas on the two sides of the solid by replacing CA in
these relations by AB PA or AB PA /DAB. In the case of a plane wall, for example, it gives (Fig. 14–22) cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 735 735
CHAPTER 14 ·
Ndiff, A, wall DAB AB A PA, 2 PA, 1 AB A L PA, 1 PA, 2
L (kmol/s) (1429) where PA, 1 and PA, 2 are the partial pressures of gas A on the two sides of the
wall. Similar relations can be obtained for cylindrical and spherical walls by
following the same procedure. Also, if the permeability is given on a mass
basis (in kg/m · s · bar), then Eq. 14–29 will give the diffusion mass flow rate.
Noting that 1 kmol of an ideal gas at the standard conditions of 0°C and
1 atm occupies a volume of 22.414 m3, the volume flow rate of the gas
through the wall by diffusion can be determined from
·
Vdiff, A ·
22.414Ndiff, A (standard m3/s, at 0°C and 1 atm) The volume flow rate at other conditions can be determined from the ideal gas
·
·
relation PAV NA RuT. EXAMPLE 14–5 Diffusion of Hydrogen through a
Spherical Container Pressurized hydrogen gas is stored at 358 K in a 4.8mouterdiameter spherical container made of nickel (Fig. 14–23). The shell of the container is 6 cm
thick. The molar concentration of hydrogen in the nickel at the inner surface is
determined to be 0.087 kmol/m3. The concentration of hydrogen in the nickel
at the outer surface is negligible. Determine the mass flow rate of hydrogen by
diffusion through the nickel container. SOLUTION Pressurized hydrogen gas is stored in a spherical container. The kmol
–
CA, 1 = 0.087 ——
m3
CA, 2 = 0
Pressurized
H2 gas
358 K ·
mdiff diffusion rate of hydrogen through the container is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Mass diffusion is steady and onedimensional since the hydrogen concentration in the tank and thus at the inner surface of the container is
practically constant, and the hydrogen concentration in the atmosphere and
thus at the outer surface is practically zero. Also, there is thermal symmetry
about the center. 2 There are no chemical reactions in the nickel shell that result in the generation or depletion of hydrogen.
Properties The binary diffusion coefficient for hydrogen in the nickel at the
specified temperature is 1.2 10 12 m2/s (Table 14–3b).
Analysis We can consider the total molar concentration to be constant (C
CA CB CB constant), and the container to be a stationary medium since
·
there is no diffusion of nickel molecules (NB 0) and the concentration of the
hydrogen in the container is extremely low (CA 1).Then the molar flow rate of
hydrogen through this spherical shell by diffusion can readily be determined
from Eq. 14–28 to be ·
Ndiff 4 r1r2DAB CA, 1
r2 CA, 2
r1 4 (2.34 m)(2.40 m)(1.2
1.228 10 10 kmol/s 10 12 m2/s) (0.087 0) kmol/m3
2.40 2.34 Nickel
container FIGURE 14–23
Schematic for Example 14–5. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 736 736
HEAT TRANSFER The mass flow rate is determined by multiplying the molar flow rate by the
molar mass of hydrogen, which is M 2 kg/kmol, ·
MNdiff ·
m diff (2 kg/kmol)(1.228 10 10 kmol/s) 2.46 10 10 kg/s Therefore, hydrogen will leak out through the shell of the container by diffusion
at a rate of 2.46 10 10 kg/s or 7.8 g/year. Note that the concentration of
hydrogen in the nickel at the inner surface depends on the temperature and
pressure of the hydrogen in the tank and can be determined as explained in
Example 14–4. Also, the assumption of zero hydrogen concentration in nickel
at the outer surface is reasonable since there is only a trace amount of hydrogen in the atmosphere (0.5 part per million by mole numbers). 14–6 Dry
insulation Wet
insulation ·
Q ·
1.25 Q 0%
moisture 5%
moisture FIGURE 14–24
A 5 percent moisture content can
increase heat transfer through wall
insulation by 25 percent. I WATER VAPOR MIGRATION IN BUILDINGS Moisture greatly influences the performance and durability of building materials, and thus moisture transmission is an important consideration in the construction and maintenance of buildings.
The dimensions of wood and other hygroscopic substances change with
moisture content. For example, a variation of 4.5 percent in moisture content
causes the volume of white oak wood to change by 2.5 percent. Such cyclic
changes of dimensions weaken the joints and can jeopardize the structural integrity of building components, causing “squeaking” at the minimum. Excess
moisture can also cause changes in the appearance and physical properties of
materials: corrosion and rusting in metals, rotting in woods, and peeling of
paint on the interior and exterior wall surfaces. Soaked wood with a water
content of 24 to 31 percent is observed to decay rapidly at temperatures 10 to
38°C. Also, molds grow on wood surfaces at relative humidities above 85 percent. The expansion of water during freezing may damage the cell structure of
porous materials.
Moisture content also affects the effective conductivity of porous mediums
such as soils, building materials, and insulations, and thus heat transfer
through them. Several studies have indicated that heat transfer increases almost linearly with moisture content, at a rate of 3 to 5 percent for each percent
increase in moisture content by volume. Insulation with 5 percent moisture
content by volume, for example, increases heat transfer by 15 to 25 percent
relative to dry insulation (ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Ref. 1,
Chap. 20) (Fig. 14–24). Moisture migration may also serve as a transfer mechanism for latent heat by alternate evaporation and condensation. During a hot
and humid day, for example, water vapor may migrate through a wall and condense on the inner side, releasing the heat of vaporization, with the process reversing during a cool night. Moisture content also affects the specific heat and
thus the heat storage characteristics of building materials.
Moisture migration in the walls, floors, or ceilings of buildings and in other
applications is controlled by either vapor barriers or vapor retarders. Vapor
barriers are materials that are impermeable to moisture, such as sheet metals, cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 737 737
CHAPTER 14 heavy metal foils, and thick plastic layers, and they effectively bar the vapor
from migrating. Vapor retarders, on the other hand, retard or slow down the
flow of moisture through the structures but do not totally eliminate it. Vapor
retarders are available as solid, flexible, or coating materials, but they usually
consist of a thin sheet or coating. Common forms of vapor retarders are reinforced plastics or metals, thin foils, plastic films, treated papers, coated felts,
and polymeric or asphaltic paint coatings. In applications such as the building
of walls where vapor penetration is unavoidable because of numerous openings such as electrical boxes, telephone lines, and plumbing passages, vapor
retarders are used instead of vapor barriers to allow the vapor that somehow
leaks in to exit to the outside instead of trapping it in. Vapor retarders with
a permeance of 57.4
10 9 kg/s · m2 are commonly used in residential
buildings.
The insulation on chilled water lines and other impermeable surfaces that
are always cold must be wrapped with a vapor barrier jacket, or such cold
surfaces must be insulated with a material that is impermeable to moisture.
This is because moisture that migrates through the insulation to the cold
surface will condense and remain there indefinitely with no possibility of
vaporizing and moving back to the outside. The accumulation of moisture in
such cases may render the insulation useless, resulting in excessive energy
consumption.
Atmospheric air can be viewed as a mixture of dry air and water vapor, and
the atmospheric pressure is the sum of the pressure of dry air and the pressure
of water vapor, which is called the vapor pressure P . Air can hold a certain
amount of moisture only, and the ratio of the actual amount of moisture in the
air at a given temperature to the maximum amount air can hold at that temperature is called the relative humidity . The relative humidity ranges from
0 for dry air to 100 percent for saturated air (air that cannot hold any more
moisture). The partial pressure of water vapor in saturated air is called the
saturation pressure Psat. Table 14–9 lists the saturation pressure at various
temperatures.
The amount of moisture in the air is completely specified by the temperature and the relative humidity, and the vapor pressure is related to relative humidity by
P Psat (1430) where Psat is the saturation (or boiling) pressure of water at the specified temperature. Then the mass flow rate of moisture through a plain layer of thickness L and normal area A can be expressed as
·
m A P P ,1 L ,2 A 1 Psat, 1 2 L Psat, 2 (kg/s) (1431) where is the vapor permeability of the material, which is usually expressed
on a mass basis in the unit ng/s · m · Pa, where ng 10 12 kg and 1 Pa 10 5
bar. Note that vapor migrates or diffuses from a region of higher vapor pressure toward a region of lower vapor pressure. TABLE 14–9
Saturation pressure of water at
various temperatures
Temperature, °C Saturation
Pressure, Pa 40
36
32
28
24
20
16
12
8
4
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
50
100
200
300 13
20
31
47
70
104
151
218
310
438
611
872
1,228
1,705
2,339
3,169
4,246
5,628
7,384
12,349
101,330
1.55 106
8.58 106 cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 738 738
HEAT TRANSFER The permeability of most construction materials is usually expressed for a
given thickness instead of per unit thickness. It is called the permeance ,
which is the ratio of the permeability of the material to its thickness. That is,
TABLE 14–10 Permeability
Thickness Permeance Typical vapor permeance of common
building materials (from ASHRAE,
Ref. 1, Chap. 22, Table 9)*
Materials and
Its Thickness Permeance
ng/s · m2 · Pa Concrete (1:2:4 mix, 1 m) 4.7
Brick, masonry, 100 mm
46
Plaster on metal lath,
19 mm
860
Plaster on wood lath,
19mm
630
Gypsum wall board,
9.5 mm
2860
Plywood, 6.4 mm
40–109
Still air, 1 m
174
Mineral wool insulation
(unprotected), 1 m
245
Expanded polyurethane
insulation board, 1 m 0.58–2.3
Aluminum foil, 0.025 mm 0.0
Aluminum foil, 0.009 mm 2.9
Polyethylene, 0.051 mm 9.1
Polyethylene, 0.2 mm
2.3
Polyester, 0.19 mm
4.6
Vapor retarder latex paint,
0.070 mm
26
Exterior acrylic house and
trim paint, 0.040 mm
313
Building paper, unit mass
of 0.16–0.68 kg/m2 0.1–2400
*Data vary greatly. Consult manufacturer for more
accurate data. Multiply by 1.41 10 6 to convert
to lbm/s · ft2 · psi. Also, 1 ng 10 12 kg. (kg/s · m2 · Pa) L (1432) The reciprocal of permeance is called (unit) vapor resistance and is expressed as
1
Permeance Vapor resistance 1 R L (s · m2 · Pa/kg) (1433) Note that vapor resistance represents the resistance of a material to water
vapor transmission.
It should be pointed out that the amount of moisture that enters or leaves a
building by diffusion is usually negligible compared to the amount that enters
with infiltrating air or leaves with exfiltrating air. The primary cause of interest in the moisture diffusion is its impact on the performance and longevity of
building materials.
The overall vapor resistance of a composite building structure that consists
of several layers in series is the sum of the resistances of the individual layers
and is expressed as
R , total R R ,1 ,2 ··· R ,n R ,i (1434) Then the rate of vapor transmission through a composite structure can be determined in an analogous manner to heat transfer from
·
m A P
R (kg/s) (1435) , total Vapor permeance of common building materials is given in Table 14–10. EXAMPLE 14–6 Condensation and Freezing of Moisture in Walls The condensation and even freezing of moisture in walls without effective vapor
retarders is a real concern in cold climates, and it undermines the effectiveness
of insulations. Consider a wood frame wall that is built around 38 mm
90 mm (2 4 nominal) wood studs. The 90mmwide cavity between the studs
is filled with glass fiber insulation. The inside is finished with 13mm gypsum
wallboard and the outside with 13mm wood fiberboard and 13mm 200mm
wood bevel lapped siding. Using manufacturer’s data, the thermal and vapor resistances of various components for a unit wall area are determined to be as: cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 739 739
CHAPTER 14 RValue,
m2 · °C/W 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6. Outside surface, 24 km/h wind
Painted wood bevel lapped siding
Wood fiberboard sheeting, 13 mm
Glass fiber insulation, 90 mm
Painted gypsum wallboard, 13 mm
Inside surface, still air
TOTAL R Value,
s · m2 · Pa/ng 0.030
0.14
0.23
2.45
0.079
0.12 —
0.019
0.0138
0.0004
0.012
— 3.05 Construction 0.0452 The indoor conditions are 20°C and 60 percent relative humidity while the
outside conditions are 16°C and 70 percent relative humidity. Determine if
condensation or freezing of moisture will occur in the insulation. SOLUTION The thermal and vapor resistances of different layers of a wall are
given. The possibility of condensation or freezing of moisture in the wall is to be
investigated.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Heat transfer through the
wall is onedimensional. 3 Thermal and vapor resistances of different layers of
the wall and the heat transfer coefficients are constant.
Properties The thermal and vapor resistances are as given in the problem
statement. The saturation pressures of water at 20°C and 16°C are 2339 Pa
and 151 Pa, respectively (Table 14–9).
Analysis The schematic of the wall as well as the different elements used in its
construction are shown in Figure 14–25. Condensation is most likely to occur
at the coldest part of insulation, which is the part adjacent to the exterior
sheathing. Noting that the total thermal resistance of the wall is 3.05
m2 · °C/W, the rate of heat transfer through a unit area A 1 m2 of the wall is
·
Q wall A Ti To
Rtotal (1 m2) [20 ( 16)°C]
3.05 m2 · °C/W 11.8 W The thermal resistance of the exterior part of the wall beyond the insulation is
0.03
0.14
0.23
0.40 m2 · °C/W. Then the temperature of the insulation–outer sheathing interface is TI To ·
Q wall Rext 16°C (11.8 W)(0.40°C/W) 6 11.3°C 3 4 5 2
1 The saturation pressure of water at 11.3°C is 234 Pa, as shown in Table
14–9, and if there is condensation or freezing, the vapor pressure at the insulation–outer sheathing interface will have to be this value. The vapor pressure at
the indoors and the outdoors is P
P ,1 1Psat, 1 ,2 2Psat, 2 0.60
0.70 (2340 Pa) 1404 Pa
(151 Pa) 106 Pa Then the rate of moisture flow through the interior and exterior parts of the wall
becomes FIGURE 14–25
Schematic for Example 14–6. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 740 740
HEAT TRANSFER ·
m ·
m P ,1 P ,l
R , interior
interior
(1404 234) Pa
(1 m2)
(0.012 0.0004) Pa · m2 · s/ng
P ,1 P ,l
P
A
A
R exterior
R , exterior
(234 106) Pa
(1 m2)
(0.019 0.0138) Pa · m2 · s/ng
A , interior , exterior P
R A 94,355 ng/s 3902 ng/s 94.4 g/s 3.9 g/s That is, moisture is flowing toward the interface at a rate of 94.4 g/s but flowing from the interface to the outdoors at a rate of only 3.9 g/s. Noting that the
interface pressure cannot exceed 234 Pa, these results indicate that moisture
is freezing in the insulation at a rate of ·
m , freezing ·
m , interior ·
m , exterior 94.4 3.9 90.5 g/s This corresponds to 7.82 g during a 24h period, which can be absorbed by the
insulation or sheathing, and then flows out when the conditions improve. However, excessive condensation (or frosting at temperatures below 0°C) of moisture
in the walls during long cold spells can cause serious problems. This problem
can be avoided or minimized by installing vapor barriers on the interior side of
the wall, which will limit the moisture flow rate to 3.9 g/s. Note that if there
were no condensation or freezing, the flow rate of moisture through a 1 m2 section of the wall would be 28.7 g/s (can you verify this?). 14–7 Carbonaceous
material
Hardened
surface
Steel shaft
Soft core Carbon FIGURE 14–26
The surface hardening of a mild steel
component by the diffusion of carbon
molecules is a transient mass
diffusion process. I TRANSIENT MASS DIFFUSION The steady analysis discussed earlier is useful when determining the leakage
rate of a species through a stationary layer. But sometimes we are interested in
the diffusion of a species into a body during a limited time before steady operating conditions are established. Such problems are studied using transient
analysis. For example, the surface of a mild steel component is commonly
hardened by packing the component in a carbonaceous material in a furnace
at high temperature. During the short time period in the furnace, the carbon
molecules diffuse through the surface of the steel component, but they penetrate to a depth of only a few millimeters. The carbon concentration decreases
exponentially from the surface to the inner parts, and the result is a steel component with a very hard surface and a relatively soft core region (Fig. 14–26).
The same process is used in the gem industry to color clear stones. For example, a clear sapphire is given a brilliant blue color by packing it in titanium
and iron oxide powders and baking it in an oven at about 2000°C for about a
month. The titanium and iron molecules penetrate less than 0.5 mm in the sapphire during this process. Diffusion in solids is usually done at high temperatures to take advantage of the high diffusion coefficients at high temperatures
and thus to keep the diffusion time at a reasonable level. Such diffusion or
“doping” is also commonly practiced in the production of n or ptype semiconductor materials used in the manufacture of electronic components. Drying processes such as the drying of coal, timber, food, and textiles constitute
another major application area of transient mass diffusion. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 741 741
CHAPTER 14 Transient mass diffusion in a stationary medium is analogous to transient
heat transfer provided that the solution is dilute and thus the density of the
medium is constant. In Chapter 4 we presented analytical and graphical solutions for onedimensional transient heat conduction problems in solids with
constant properties, no heat generation, and uniform initial temperature. The
analogous onedimensional transient mass diffusion problems satisfy these
requirements:
1. The diffusion coefficient is constant. This is valid for an isothermal
medium since DAB varies with temperature (corresponds to constant
thermal diffusivity).
2. There are no homogeneous reactions in the medium that generate or
deplete the diffusing species A (corresponds to no heat generation).
3. Initially (t 0) the concentration of species A is constant throughout
the medium (corresponds to uniform initial temperature). TABLE 14–11
Analogy between the quantities
that appear in the formulation
and solution of transient heat
conduction and transient mass
diffusion in a stationary medium
Heat
Conduction Then the solution of a mass diffusion problem can be obtained directly from
the analytical or graphical solution of the corresponding heat conduction problem given in Chapter 4. The analogous quantities between heat and mass
transfer are summarized in Table 14–11 for easy reference. For the case of a
semiinfinite medium with constant surface concentration, for example, the
solution can be expressed in an analogous manner to Eq. 424 as
CA(x, t) CA, i
CA, s CA, i erfc 2 x
DABt CA(x, t) CA, i
CA, s CA, i A(x, t) A, s A, i
A, i wA(x, t) wA, i
wA, s wA, i yA(x, t) yA, i
yA, s yA, i CA, s CA, i
(dCA/dx)x 0 CA, s
(CA, s CA, i CA, i)/ DABt DABzt C, y, or w DAB
T (x, t ) T
,
Ti T mass T (x, t ) Ts
Ti Ts wA(x, t ) wA, *
wA, i wA,
wA(x, t ) wA
wA, i wA x
2
Bi t hconv L
k mass Bimass 2 x
DABt hmass L
DAB
DABt t
L2 L2 (1437) since the total density or total molar concentration of dilute solutions is usually constant (
constant or C constant). Therefore, other measures of
concentration can be used in Eq. 14–36.
A quantity of interest in mass diffusion processes is the depth of diffusion at
a given time. This is usually characterized by the penetration depth defined
as the location x where the tangent to the concentration profile at the surface
(x 0) intercepts the CA CA, i line, as shown in Figure 14–27. Obtaining the
concentration gradient at x 0 by differentiating Eq. 14–36, the penetration
depth is determined to be
diff T (1436) where CA, i is the initial concentration of species A at time t 0 and CA, s is the
concentration at the inner side of the exposed surface of the medium. By using
the definitions of molar fraction, mass fraction, and density, it can be shown
that for dilute solutions, Mass
Diffusion (1438) Therefore, the penetration depth is proportional to the square root of both the
diffusion coefficient and time. The diffusion coefficient of zinc in copper at
1000°C, for example, is 5.0 10 12 m2/s. Then the penetration depth of zinc
in copper in 10 h is CA, s
CA(x, t)
CA, i 0
δdiff x
Tangent line to
concentration
gradient at x = 0 Semiinfinite
medium
Slope of
tangent line dCA
—–
dx x=0 CA, s – CA, i
= – —–———
δdiff FIGURE 14–27
The concentration profile of species A
in a semiinfinite medium during
transient mass diffusion and the
penetration depth. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 742 742
HEAT TRANSFER
diff DABt (5.0 10 12 m2/s)(10
0.00038 m 0.38 mm 3600 s) That is, zinc will penetrate to a depth of about 0.38 mm in an appreciable
amount in 10 h, and there will hardly be any zinc in the copper block beyond
a depth of 0.38 mm.
The diffusion coefficients in solids are typically very low (on the order of
10 9 to 10 15 m2/s), and thus the diffusion process usually affects a thin layer
at the surface. A solid can conveniently be treated as a semiinfinite medium
during transient mass diffusion regardless of its size and shape when the penetration depth is small relative to the thickness of the solid. When this is not
the case, solutions for onedimensional transient mass diffusion through a
plane wall, cylinder, and sphere can be obtained from the solutions of analogous heat conduction problems using the Heisler charts or oneterm solutions
presented in Chapter 4. EXAMPLE 14–7 The surface of a mild steel component is commonly hardened by packing the
component in a carbonaceous material in a furnace at a high temperature for a
predetermined time. Consider such a component with a uniform initial carbon
concentration of 0.15 percent by mass. The component is now packed in a
carbonaceous material and is placed in a hightemperature furnace. The diffusion coefficient of carbon in steel at the furnace temperature is given to be
4.8
10 10 m2/s, and the equilibrium concentration of carbon in the iron
at the interface is determined from equilibrium data to be 1.2 percent by
mass. Determine how long the component should be kept in the furnace for the
mass concentration of carbon 0.5 mm below the surface to reach 1 percent
(Fig. 14–28). Furnace wA, s = 1.2%
Carbonaceous
material wA(x, t) = 1%
0
0.5 mm Hardening of Steel by the Diffusion of Carbon wA, i = 0.15%
Steel
component Carbon FIGURE 14–28
Schematic for Example 14–7. x SOLUTION A steel component is to be surface hardened by packing it in a
carbonaceous material in a furnace. The length of time the component should
be kept in the furnace is to be determined.
Assumptions Carbon penetrates into a very thin layer beneath the surface of
the component, and thus the component can be modeled as a semiinfinite
medium regardless of its thickness or shape.
Properties The relevant properties are given in the problem statement.
Analysis This problem is analogous to the onedimensional transient heat conduction problem in a semiinfinite medium with specified surface temperature,
and thus can be solved accordingly. Using mass fraction for concentration since
the data are given in that form, the solution can be expressed as
wA(x, t) wA, i
wA, s wA, i erfc 2 x
DABt Substituting the specified quantities gives 0.01
0.012 0.0015
0.0015 0.81 erfc x
2 DABt cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 743 743
CHAPTER 14 The argument whose complementary error function is 0.81 is determined from
Table 4–3 to be 0.17. That is, 2 x
DABt 0.17 Then solving for the time t gives t x2
4DAB(0.17)2 4 (0.0005 m)2
(4.8 10 10 m2/s)(0.17)2 4505 s 1 h 15 min Discussion The steel component in this case must be held in the furnace for
1 h and 15 min to achieve the desired level of hardening. The diffusion coefficient of carbon in steel increases exponentially with temperature, and thus this
process is commonly done at high temperatures to keep the diffusion time at a
reasonable level. 14–8 I DIFFUSION IN A MOVING MEDIUM To this point we have limited our consideration to mass diffusion in a stationary medium, and thus the only motion involved was the creeping motion of
molecules in the direction of decreasing concentration, and there was no motion of the mixture as a whole. Many practical problems, such as the evaporation of water from a lake under the influence of the wind or the mixing of two
fluids as they flow in a pipe, involve diffusion in a moving medium where the
bulk motion is caused by an external force. Mass diffusion in such cases is
complicated by the fact that chemical species are transported both by diffusion
and by the bulk motion of the medium (i.e., convection). The velocities and
mass flow rates of species in a moving medium consist of two components:
one due to molecular diffusion and one due to convection (Fig. 14–29).
Diffusion in a moving medium, in general, is difficult to analyze since various species can move at different velocities in different directions. Turbulence will complicate the things even more. To gain a firm understanding of
the physical mechanism while keeping the mathematical complexities to a
minimum, we limit our consideration to systems that involve only two components (species A and B) in onedimensional flow (velocity and other properties change in one direction only, say the xdirection). We also assume the
total density (or molar concentration) of the medium remains constant. That
constant (or C CA CB constant) but the densities of
is,
A
B
species A and B may vary in the xdirection.
Several possibilities are summarized in Figure 14–30. In the trivial case
(case a) of a stationary homogeneous mixture, there will be no mass transfer
by molecular diffusion or convection since there is no concentration gradient
or bulk motion. The next case (case b) corresponds to the flow of a wellmixed
fluid mixture through a pipe. Note that there is no concentration gradients and
thus molecular diffusion in this case, and all species move at the bulk flow velocity of . The mixture in the third case (case c) is stationary (
0) and
thus it corresponds to ordinary molecular diffusion in stationary mediums,
which we discussed before. Note that the velocity of a species at a location in Air
Convection
Diffusion
Lake FIGURE 14–29
In a moving medium, mass transfer is
due to both diffusion and convection. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 744 744
HEAT TRANSFER
A B Density Species A (a) Homogeneous mixture
without bulk motion
(no concentration gradients
and thus no diffusion) Species ρA = constant ρ = ρA + ρB
ρA = constant B =0 Mass flow rate
·
m =0 =0 ·
mB = 0 =0 A ρB = constant Species A (b) Homogeneous mixture
with bulk motion
(no concentration gradients
and thus no diffusion) Species B
Mixture of
A and B =0 Velocity ·
m=0 = constant
A ρB = constant Species B B ρ = ρA + ρB Mixture of
A and B = ·
mA = ρA A A = ·
mB = ρB B A ·
m=ρ A
·
·
= mA + mB = = constant
(c) Nonhomogeneous mixture
without bulk motion
(stationary medium with
concentration gradients) ρA ≠ constant Species A
=0 Species A ρA ≠ constant diff, A = ·
mA = ρA diff, A A diff, B = ·
mB = ρB diff, B A ·
m=ρ A=0
·
·
(thus mA = – mB) =0 = constant ρB ≠ constant Species B A
B ρ = ρA + ρB Mixture of
A and B
diff, A B ρ = ρA + ρB diff, B (d) Nonhomogeneous mixture
with bulk motion
(moving medium with
concentration gradients) A ρB ≠ constant Species B
Mixture of
A and B diff, A A =
= = constant diff, B = +
+ diff, A ·
mA = ρA diff, A A diff, B ·
mB = ρB diff, B A ·
m=ρ A
·
·
= mA + mB FIGURE 14–30
Various quantities associated with a mixture of two species A and B at a location x under onedimensional flow or noflow
conditions. (The density of the mixture
A
B is assumed to remain constant.) this case is simply the diffusion velocity, which is the average velocity of a
group of molecules at that location moving under the influence of concentration gradient. Finally, the last case (case d) involves both molecular diffusion
and convection, and the velocity of a species in this case is equal to the sum of
the bulk flow velocity and the diffusion velocity. Note that the flow and the
diffusion velocities can be in the same or opposite directions, depending on
the direction of the concentration gradient. The diffusion velocity of a species
is negative when the bulk flow is in the positive xdirection and the concentration gradient is positive (i.e., the concentration of the species increases in
the xdirection).
·
Noting that the mass flow rate at any flow section is expressed as m
A
where is the density, is the velocity, and A is the cross sectional area, the
conservation of mass relation for the flow of a mixture that involves two
species A and B can be expressed as
·
m ·
mA ·
mB or
A Canceling A and solving for A AA gives B BA cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 745 745
CHAPTER 14
A A B B A B
A wA B wB A (1439) B where is called the massaverage velocity of the flow, which is the velocity that would be measured by a velocity sensor such as a pitot tube, a turbine
device, or a hot wire anemometer inserted into the flow.
The special case
0 corresponds to a stationary medium, which can
now be defined more precisely as a medium whose massaverage velocity is
zero. Therefore, mass transport in a stationary medium is by diffusion only,
and zero massaverage velocity indicates that there is no bulk fluid motion.
When there is no concentration gradient (and thus no molecular mass
diffusion) in the fluid, the velocity of all species will be equal to the massaverage velocity of the flow. That is,
A
B. But when there is a concentration gradient, there will also be a simultaneous flow of species in the
direction of decreasing concentration at a diffusion velocity of diff. Then the
average velocity of the species A and B can be determined by superimposing
the average flow velocity and the diffusion velocity as (Fig. 14–31) diff, A
A A diff, A B diff, B (1440)
A Similarly, we apply the superposition principle to the species mass flow rates
to get
·
mA
·
mB A
B AA
BA A(
B( diff, A)A
diff, B)A A
B A
A A
B ·
m conv, A
·
m conv, B diff, A A
diff, B A Using Fick’s law of diffusion, the total mass fluxes j
pressed as
dwA
dx
dwB
DBA
dx A jA A A diff, A jB B B diff, B DAB B wA(jA jB) wB(jA jB) ·
m diff, A
·
m diff, B (1441) diff, B A diff, A A A( A B diff, B A B( B ·
m diff, B 0 ·
→ m diff, A ·
m diff, B → dwA
dx
dwB
DBA
dx A ≠0
=+ diff, A DAB )A
)A ADAB (a) No concentration gradient diff, A (1442) (1443) By substituting the relation from Eq. 14–39 into Eq. 11–43, it can be shown
that at any cross section
·
m diff, A Flow
velocity ·
m /A can be ex Note that the diffusion velocity of a species is negative when the molecular
diffusion occurs in the negative xdirection (opposite to flow direction). The
mass diffusion rates of the species A and B at a specified location x can be expressed as
·
m diff, A
·
m =0
= dwA
dx ADBA dwB
dx
(1444) which indicates that the rates of diffusion of species A and B must be equal
in magnitude but opposite in sign. This is a consequence of the assumption A
diff, A Flow
velocity
(b) Mass concentration gradient and thus
mass diffusion FIGURE 14–31
The velocity of a species at a point is
equal to the sum of the bulk
flow velocity and the diffusion
velocity of that species at that point. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 746 746
HEAT TRANSFER constant, and it indicates that anytime the species A diffuses in
A
B
one direction, an equal amount of species B must diffuse in the opposite direction to maintain the density (or the molar concentration) constant. This
behavior is closely approximated by dilute gas mixtures and dilute liquid
or solid solutions. For example, when a small amount of gas diffuses into a
liquid, it is reasonable to assume the density of the liquid to remain constant.
Note that for a binary mixture, wA wB 1 at any location x. Taking the
derivative with respect to x gives
dwA
dx dwB
dx (1445) Thus we conclude from Eq. 14–44 that (Fig. 14–32) w = wA + wB = 1
1
wA wB DAB w DBA (1446) That is, in the case of constant total concentration, the diffusion coefficient of
species A into B is equal to the diffusion coefficient of species B into A.
We now repeat the analysis presented above with molar concentration C and
·
the molar flow rate N. The conservation of matter in this case is expressed as 0
x ·
N ·
mdiff, B wA = – wB
dwB
dwA
—— = – ——
dx
dx
·
·
m
= –m
diff, A A ·
NB or B A ·
NA A ·
mdiff, A Canceling A and solving for
CA CB A AA B BA (1447) gives
B C CA
C A CB
C B yA A yB (1448) B diff, B DAB = DBA FIGURE 14–32
In a binary mixture of species A and B
with
constant, the rates
A
B
of mass diffusion of species A and B
are equal magnitude and opposite
in direction. where is called the molaraverage velocity of the flow. Note that
unless the mass and molar fractions are the same. The molar flow rates of
species are determined similarly to be
·
NA
·
NB CA
CB AA
BA CA (
CB ( diff, A)A
diff, B)A CA A
CB A CA
CB ·
Nconv, A
·
Nconv, B diff, A A
diff, B A Using Fick’s law of diffusion, the total molar fluxes ¯
j
·
molar flow rates Ndiff can be expressed as
¯
jA CA CA diff, A ¯
jB CB CB diff, B dyA
dx
dyB
CDBA
dx CA
C
C
CB
C
C CDAB yA( ¯A
j ¯)
jB yB( ¯A
j ¯)
jB ·
Ndiff, A
·
Ndiff, B (1449) ·
N /A and diffusion
dyA
dx
dyB
CDBA
dx
CDAB (1450) and
·
Ndiff, A
·
Ndiff, B CA
CB diff, A A
diff, B A CA (
CB ( A
B )A
)A (1451) cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 747 747
CHAPTER 14 By substituting the
be shown that
·
Ndiff, A relation from Eq. 14–48 into these two equations, it can
·
Ndiff, B 0 → ·
Ndiff, A ·
Ndiff, B (1452) which again indicates that the rates of diffusion of species A and B must be
equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.
It is important to note that when working with molar units, a medium is said
to be stationary when the molaraverage velocity is zero. The average velocity of the molecules will be zero in this case, but the apparent velocity of the
mixture as measured by a velocimeter placed in the flow will not necessarily
be zero because of the different masses of different molecules. In a massbased stationary medium, for each unit mass of species A moving in one
direction, a unit mass of species B moves in the opposite direction. In a molebased stationary medium, however, for each mole of species A moving in one
direction, one mole of species B moves in the opposite direction. But this may
result in a net mass flow rate in one direction that can be measured by a
velocimeter since the masses of different molecules are different.
You may be wondering whether to use the mass analysis or molar analysis
in a problem. The two approaches are equivalent, and either approach can be
used in mass transfer analysis. But sometimes it may be easier to use one of
the approaches, depending on what is given. When massaverage velocity is
known or can easily be obtained, obviously it is more convenient to use the
massbased formulation. When the total pressure and temperature of a mixture are constant, however, it is more convenient to use the molar formulation,
as explained next. Special Case: Gas Mixtures
at Constant Pressure and Temperature
Consider a gas mixture whose total pressure and temperature are constant
throughout. When the mixture is homogeneous, the mass density , the molar
density (or concentration) C, the gas constant R, and the molar mass M of the
mixture are the same throughout the mixture. But when the concentration of
one or more gases in the mixture is not constant, setting the stage for mass diffusion, then the mole fractions yi of the species will vary throughout the mixture. As a result, the gas constant R, the molar mass M, and the mass density
of the mixture will also vary since, assuming ideal gas behavior,
M yi Mi, R Ru
,
M and P
RT where Ru 8.314 kJ/kmol · K is the universal gas constant. Therefore, the assumption of constant mixture density (
constant) in such cases will not be
accurate unless the gas or gases with variable concentrations constitute a very
small fraction of the mixture. However, the molar density C of a mixture remains constant when the mixture pressure P and temperature T are constant
since
P RT Ru
T
M CRuT (1453) cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 748 748
HEAT TRANSFER The condition C
constant offers considerable simplification in mass
transfer analysis, and thus it is more convenient to use the molar formulation
when dealing with gas mixtures at constant total pressure and temperature
(Fig. 14–33). Gas
mixture
T constant
P constant Diffusion of Vapor through a Stationary Gas:
Stefan Flow Independent
of composition
of mixture P
RT → C P
RuT → P
(Ru /M)T Depends on
composition
of mixture FIGURE 14–33
When the total pressure P and
temperature T of a binary mixture
of ideal gases is held constant, then
the molar concentration C of the
mixture remains constant. Liquid A L Diffusion of B Bulk flow Diffusion of A Gas mixture
A+B Many engineering applications such as heat pipes, cooling ponds, and the familiar perspiration involve condensation, evaporation, and transpiration in the
presence of a noncondensable gas, and thus the diffusion of a vapor through a
stationary (or stagnant) gas. To understand and analyze such processes, consider a liquid layer of species A in a tank surrounded by a gas of species B,
such as a layer of liquid water in a tank open to the atmospheric air (Fig.
14–34), at constant pressure P and temperature T. Equilibrium exists between
the liquid and vapor phases at the interface (x 0), and thus the vapor pressure at the interface must equal the saturation pressure of species A at the
specified temperature. We assume the gas to be insoluble in the liquid, and
both the gas and the vapor to behave as ideal gases.
If the surrounding gas at the top of the tank (x L) is not saturated, the
vapor pressure at the interface will be greater than the vapor pressure at the
top of the tank (PA, 0 PA, L and thus yA, 0 yA, L since yA PA/P), and this
pressure (or concentration) difference will drive the vapor upward from the
air–water interface into the stagnant gas. The upward flow of vapor will be
sustained by the evaporation of water at the interface. Under steady conditions, the molar (or mass) flow rate of vapor throughout the stagnant gas column remains constant. That is,
¯
jA 0 FIGURE 14–34
Diffusion of a vapor A
through a stagnant gas B. ·
NA/A constant (or jA ·
m A/A constant) The pressure and temperature of the gas–vapor mixture are said to be constant, and thus the molar density of the mixture must be constant throughout
the mixture, as shown earlier. That is, C CA CB constant, and it is more
convenient to work with mole fractions or molar concentrations in this case
instead of mass fractions or densities since
constant.
Noting that yA yB 1 and that yA, 0 yA, L, we must have yB, 0 yB, L. That
is, the mole fraction of the gas must be decreasing downward by the same
amount that the mole fraction of the vapor is increasing. Therefore, gas must
be diffusing from the top of the column toward the liquid interface. However,
the gas is said to be insoluble in the liquid, and thus there can be no net mass
flow of the gas downward. Then under steady conditions, there must be an
upward bulk fluid motion with an average velocity that is just large enough
to balance the diffusion of air downward so that the net molar (or mass) flow
rate of the gas at any point is zero. In other words, the upward bulk motion
offsets the downward diffusion, and for each air molecule that moves downward, there is another air molecule that moves upward. As a result, the air appears to be stagnant (it does not move). That is,
¯
jB ·
NB /A 0 (or jB ·
m B /A 0) The diffusion medium is no longer stationary because of the bulk motion. The
implication of the bulk motion of the gas is that it transports vapor as well as cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 749 749
CHAPTER 14 the gas upward with a velocity of , which results in additional mass flow of
vapor upward. Therefore, the molar flux of the vapor can be expressed as
¯
jA Noting that ¯B
j ·
NA/A ¯
jA, conv ¯
jA, diff yA( ¯A
j ¯)
jB CDAB dyA
dx (1454) 0, it simplifies to
¯
jA yA ¯A
j CDAB dyA
dx (1455) Solving for ¯A gives
j
CDAB dyA
→
1 yA dx ¯
jA 1
1 dyA
yA dx ¯
jA
CDAB constant (1456) since ¯A constant, C constant, and DAB constant. Separating the varij
yA, 0, to x
L, where
ables and integrating from x
0, where yA(0)
yA(L) yA, L gives
yA, L
A, 0 dyA
1 yA L
0 ¯
jA
dx
CDAB (1457) Performing the integrations,
ln 1
1 yA, L
yA, 0 ¯
jA
L
CDAB (1458) Then the molar flux of vapor A, which is the evaporation rate of species A per
unit interface area, becomes
¯
jA CDAB 1
ln
L
1 ·
NA/A yA, L
yA, 0 (kmol/s · m2) (1459) This relation is known as Stefan’s law, and the induced convective flow described that enhances mass diffusion is called the Stefan flow.
An expression for the variation of the mole fraction of A with x can be determined by performing the integration in Eq. 14–57 to the upper limit of x
where yA(x) yA (instead of to L where yA(L) yA, L). It yields
ln 1
1 yA
yA, 0 ¯
jA
x
CDAB (1460) Substituting the ¯A expression from Eq. 14–59 into this relation and rearrangj
ing gives
1
1 yA
yA, 0 1
1 yA, L
yA, 0 x/L and yB
yB, 0 yB, L
yB, 0 x/L (1461) The second relation for the variation of the mole fraction of the stationary
yB since
gas B is obtained from the first one by substituting 1
yA
yA yB 1. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 750 750
HEAT TRANSFER To maintain isothermal conditions in the tank during evaporation, heat must
be supplied to the tank at a rate of
·
Q ·
m A hfg, A ( ¯AMA)As hfg, A
j jA As hfg, A (kJ/s) (1462) where As is the surface area of the liquid–vapor interface, hfg, A is the latent
heat of vaporization, and MA is the molar mass of species A. Equimolar Counterdiffusion
Gas
mixture
A+B
yA > yB A
B
·
NA 0x
T, P ·
NB Gas
mixture
A+B
yA < yB L
T, P FIGURE 14–35
Equimolar isothermal counterdiffusion
of two gases A and B. Consider two large reservoirs connected by a channel of length L, as shown in
Figure 14–35. The entire system contains a binary mixture of gases A and B at
a uniform temperature T and pressure P throughout. The concentrations of
species are maintained constant in each of the reservoirs such that yA, 0 yA, L
and yB, 0 yB, L. The resulting concentration gradients will cause the species A
to diffuse in the positive xdirection and the species B in the opposite direction. Assuming the gases to behave as ideal gases and thus P CRuT, the total
molar concentration of the mixture C will remain constant throughout the
mixture since P and T are constant. That is,
C CA CB (kmol/m3) constant This requires that for each molecule of A that moves to the right, a molecule
of B moves to the left, and thus the molar flow rates of species A and B must
be equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. That is,
·
NA ·
NB ·
NA or ·
NB 0 (kmol/s) This process is called equimolar counterdiffusion for obvious reasons. The
net molar flow rate of the mixture for such a process, and thus the molaraverage velocity, is zero since
·
N ·
NA ·
NB 0 → CA 0 → 0 Therefore, the mixture is stationary on a molar basis and thus mass transfer is
by diffusion only (there is no mass transfer by convection) so that
¯
jA ·
NA/A CDAB dyA
dx ¯
jB and ·
NB /A CDBA dyB
dx (1463) Under steady conditions, the molar flow rates of species A and B can be
determined directly from Eq. 14–24 developed earlier for onedimensional
steady diffusion in a stationary medium, noting that P
CRuT and thus
C
P/RuT for each constituent gas and the mixture. For onedimensional
flow through a channel of uniform cross sectional area A with no homogeneous chemical reactions, they are expressed as
·
Ndiff, A CDAB A ·
Ndiff, B CDBA A yA, 2 yA, 1
L
yB, 1 yB, 2
L DAB A
DBA A CA, 2 DAB PA, 0 PA, L
A
RuT
L CB, 2 CA, 1 DBA PB, 0 PB, L
A
RuT
L L
CB, 1
L (1464) cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 751 751
CHAPTER 14 These relations imply that the mole fraction, molar concentration, and the partial pressure of either gas vary linearly during equimolar counterdiffusion.
It is interesting to note that the mixture is stationary on a molar basis, but
it is not stationary on a mass basis unless the molar masses of A and B are
equal. Although the net molar flow rate through the channel is zero, the net
mass flow rate of the mixture through the channel is not zero and can be
determined from
·
m ·
mA ·
mB ·
NAMA ·
NB MB ·
NA(MA MB) (1465) ·
·
since N B
N A. Note that the direction of net mass flow rate is the flow
direction of the gas with the larger molar mass. A velocity measurement
device such as an anemometer placed in the channel will indicate a velocity
·
of
m / A where is the total density of the mixture at the site of
measurement.
EXAMPLE 14–8 Venting of Helium into the Atmosphere
by Diffusion The pressure in a pipeline that transports helium gas at a rate of 2 kg/s is maintained at 1 atm by venting helium to the atmosphere through a 5mminternaldiameter tube that extends 15 m into the air, as shown in Figure 14–36.
Assuming both the helium and the atmospheric air to be at 25°C, determine
(a) the mass flow rate of helium lost to the atmosphere through an individual
tube, (b) the mass flow rate of air that infiltrates into the pipeline, and (c) the
flow velocity at the bottom of the tube where it is attached to the pipeline that
will be measured by an anemometer in steady operation. Air
1 atm
25°C
Air x He L = 15 m SOLUTION The pressure in a helium pipeline is maintained constant by venting to the atmosphere through a long tube. The mass flow rates of helium and
air through the tube and the net flow velocity at the bottom are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Helium and atmospheric
air are ideal gases. 3 No chemical reactions occur in the tube. 4 Air concentration in the pipeline and helium concentration in the atmosphere are negligible
so that the mole fraction of the helium is 1 in the pipeline and 0 in the atmosphere (we will check this assumption later).
Properties The diffusion coefficient of helium in air (or air in helium) at normal
atmospheric conditions is DAB
7.20 10 5 m2/s (Table 14–2). The molar
masses of air and helium are 29 and 4 kg/kmol, respectively (Table A–1).
Analysis This is a typical equimolar counterdiffusion process since the problem involves two large reservoirs of ideal gas mixtures connected to each other
by a channel, and the concentrations of species in each reservoir (the pipeline
and the atmosphere) remain constant.
(a) The flow area, which is the cross sectional area of the tube, is A D2/4 (0.005 m)2/4 1.963 10 5 m2 Noting that the pressure of helium is 1 atm at the bottom of the tube (x
0)
and 0 at the top (x L), its molar flow rate is determined from Eq. 14–64 to be 5 mm He
0
Helium
(A) Air
2 kg/s 1 atm
25°C FIGURE 14–36
Schematic for Example 14–8 cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 752 752
HEAT TRANSFER ·
Nhelium DAB A PA, 0 PA, L
RuT
L
5
2
(7.20 10 m /s)(1.963 10 5 m2) 1 atm 0 101.3 kPa
1 atm
15 m
(8.314 kPa · m3/kmol · K)(298 K)
12
3.85 10 kmol/s
·
Ndiff, A Therefore, ·
m helium ·
(NM)helium (3.85 12 10 kmol/s)(4 kg/kmol) 1.54 11 10 kg/s which corresponds to about 0.5 g per year.
·
·
(b) Noting that N B
N A during an equimolar counterdiffusion process, the
molar flow rate of air into the helium pipeline is equal to the molar flow rate of
helium. The mass flow rate of air into the pipeline is ·
m air ·
(NM)air (–3.85 10 12 112 kmol/s)(29 kg/kmol) 10 12 5.6 10 11 kg/s The mass fraction of air in the helium pipeline is wair ·
m air
·
m total 112
112 10 (2 10
12 12 kg/s
1.54 10 11 ) kg/s 0 which validates our original assumption of negligible air in the pipeline.
(c) The net mass flow rate through the tube is ·
m net ·
m helium ·
m air 1.54 10 11 112 10 12 9.66 11 10 kg/s The mass fraction of air at the bottom of the tube is very small, as shown above,
and thus the density of the mixture at x 0 can simply be taken to be the density of helium, which is
helium P
RT 101.325 kPa
(2.0769 kPa · m3/kg · K)(298 K) 0.1637 kg/m3 Then the average flow velocity at the bottom part of the tube becomes ·
m
A 9.66 10 11 kg/s
(0.01637 kg/m3)(1.963 10 5 m2) 3.02 10 5 m/s which is difficult to measure by even the most sensitive velocity measurement
devices. The negative sign indicates flow in the negative xdirection (toward the
pipeline). EXAMPLE 14–9 Measuring Diffusion Coefficient by the Stefan
Tube A 3cmdiameter Stefan tube is used to measure the binary diffusion coefficient
of water vapor in air at 20°C at an elevation of 1600 m where the atmospheric cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 753 753
CHAPTER 14 SOLUTION The amount of water that evaporates from a Stefan tube at a specified temperature and pressure over a specified time period is measured. The
diffusion coefficient of water vapor in air is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Water vapor and atmospheric air are ideal gases. 2 The amount
of air dissolved in liquid water is negligible. 3 Heat is transferred to the water
from the surroundings to make up for the latent heat of vaporization so that the
temperature of water remains constant at 20°C.
Properties The saturation pressure of water at 20°C is 2.34 kPa (Table A–9). Analysis The vapor pressure at the air–water interface is the saturation pressure of water at 20°C, and the mole fraction of water vapor (species A) at the
interface is determined from yvapor, 0 yA, 0 Pvapor, 0
P 2.34 kPa
83.5 kPa 0.0280 Dry air is blown on top of the tube and, thus, yvapor, L yA, L 0. Also, the total
molar density throughout the tube remains constant because of the constant
temperature and pressure conditions and is determined to be 83.5 kPa
(8.314 kPa · m3/kmol · K)(293 K) P
RuT C 0.0343 kmol/m3 The crosssectional area of the tube is A D2/4 (0.03 m)2/4 7.069 10 4 m2 The evaporation rate is given to be 1.23 g per 15 days. Then the molar flow rate
of vapor is determined to be ·
NA ·
Nvapor ·
m vapor
Mvapor (15 1.23 10 3 kg
24 3600 s)(18 kg/kmol) 5.27 10 11 kmol/s Finally, substituting the information above into Eq. 14–59 we get 5.27 10 11 kmol/s
7.069 10 4 m2 (0.0343 kmol/m3)DAB
10
ln
0.4 m
1 0.028 which gives DAB 3.06 10 5 m2/s for the binary diffusion coefficient of water vapor in air at 20°C and 83.5 kPa. Air, B
yA, L Water, A Diffusion of air L
Bulk flow of
air and vapor Diffusion of vapor pressure is 83.5 kPa. The tube is partially filled with water, and the distance
from the water surface to the open end of the tube is 40 cm (Fig. 14–37). Dry
air is blown over the open end of the tube so that water vapor rising to the top
is removed immediately and the concentration of vapor at the top of the tube is
zero. In 15 days of continuous operation at constant pressure and temperature,
the amount of water that has evaporated is measured to be 1.23 g. Determine
the diffusion coefficient of water vapor in air at 20°C and 83.5 kPa. yA 0 0 yB yA, 0 1 FIGURE 14–37
Schematic for Example 14–9. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 754 754
HEAT TRANSFER 14–9 ρA,
Concentration
boundary
layer
y
0 ρA, ρA, s x Concentration
profile Species A FIGURE 14–38
The development of a concentration
boundary layer for species A during
external flow on a flat surface.
Concentration
entry length Fully developed
region I MASS CONVECTION So far we have considered mass diffusion, which is the transfer of mass due to
a concentration gradient. Now we consider mass convection (or convective
mass transfer), which is the transfer of mass between a surface and a moving
fluid due to both mass diffusion and bulk fluid motion. We mentioned earlier that fluid motion enhances heat transfer considerably by removing the
heated fluid near the surface and replacing it by the cooler fluid further away.
Likewise, fluid motion enhances mass transfer considerably by removing
the highconcentration fluid near the surface and replacing it by the lowerconcentration fluid further away. In the limiting case of no bulk fluid motion,
mass convection reduces to mass diffusion, just as convection reduces to conduction. The analogy between heat and mass convection holds for both forced
and natural convection, laminar and turbulent flow, and internal and external flow.
Like heat convection, mass convection is also complicated because of the
complications associated with fluid flow such as the surface geometry, flow
regime, flow velocity, and the variation of the fluid properties and composition. Therefore, we will have to rely on experimental relations to determine
mass transfer. Also, mass convection is usually analyzed on a mass basis
rather than on a molar basis. Therefore, we will present formulations in terms
of mass concentration (density or mass fraction w) instead of molar concentration (molar density C or mole fraction y). But the formulations on a molar
basis can be obtained using the relation C
/M where M is the molar mass.
Also, for simplicity, we will restrict our attention to convection in fluids that
are (or can be treated as) binary mixtures.
Consider the flow of air over the free surface of a water body such as a lake
under isothermal conditions. If the air is not saturated, the concentration of
water vapor will vary from a maximum at the water surface where the air is always saturated to the free steam value far from the surface. In heat convection,
we defined the region in which temperature gradients exist as the thermal
boundary layer. Similarly, in mass convection, we define the region of the
fluid in which concentration gradients exist as the concentration boundary
layer, as shown in Figure 14–38. In external flow, the thickness of the concentration boundary layer c for a species A at a specified location on the surface is defined as the normal distance y from the surface at which
A, s
A, s Species A
Concentration boundary layer
Thermal boundary layer
Velocity boundary layer FIGURE 14–39
The development of the velocity,
thermal, and concentration boundary
layers in internal flow. A
A, 0.99 where A, s and A, are the densities of species A at the surface (on the fluid
side) and the free stream, respectively.
In internal flow, we have a concentration entrance region where the
concentration profile develops, in addition to the hydrodynamic and thermal
entry regions (Fig. 14–39). The concentration boundary layer continues to
develop in the flow direction until its thickness reaches the tube center and
the boundary layers merge. The distance from the tube inlet to the location
where this merging occurs is called the concentration entry length Lc, and
the region beyond that point is called the fully developed region, which is
characterized by cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 755 755
CHAPTER 14
A, s x (1466) is the bulk mean density of species A defined as
1
A, b Ac ave Ac A dAc (1467) Therefore, the nondimensionalized concentration difference profile as well as
the mass transfer coefficient remain constant in the fully developed region.
This is analogous to the friction and heat transfer coefficients remaining constant in the fully developed region.
In heat convection, the relative magnitudes of momentum and heat diffusion
in the velocity and thermal boundary layers are expressed by the dimensionless Prandtl number, defined as (Fig. 14–40)
Prandtl number: Momentum diffusivity
Thermal diffusivity Pr Sc Momentum diffusivity
Mass diffusivity DAB (1469) Le Sc
Pr DAB Thermal diffusivity
Mass diffusivity (1470) The relative thicknesses of velocity, thermal, and concentration boundary
layers in laminar flow are expressed as
velocity
thermal Prn, velocity
concentration Scn, and thermal Len (1471) concentration where n 1 for most applications in all three relations. These relations, in
3
general, are not applicable to turbulent boundary layers since turbulent mixing in this case may dominate the diffusion processes. Sc DAB FIGURE 14–40
In mass transfer, the Schmidt number
plays the role of the Prandtl
number in heat transfer. which represents the relative magnitudes of molecular momentum and mass
diffusion in the velocity and concentration boundary layers, respectively.
The relative growth of the velocity and thermal boundary layers in laminar
flow is governed by the Prandtl number, whereas the relative growth of the
velocity and concentration boundary layers is governed by the Schmidt number. A Prandtl number of near unity (Pr 1) indicates that momentum and
heat transfer by diffusion are comparable, and velocity and thermal boundary
layers almost coincide with each other. A Schmidt number of near unity
(Sc 1) indicates that momentum and mass transfer by diffusion are comparable, and velocity and concentration boundary layers almost coincide with
each other.
It seems like we need one more dimensionless number to represent the relative magnitudes of heat and mass diffusion in the thermal and concentration
boundary layers. That is the Lewis number, defined as (Fig. 14–41)
Lewis number: Pr Mass transfer: (1468) The corresponding quantity in mass convection is the dimensionless Schmidt
number, defined as
Schmidt number: Heat transfer: Le Sc
Pr Thermal diffusivity DAB → A, b 0 A, b → where A A, s Mass diffusivity FIGURE 14–41
Lewis number is a measure of heat
diffusion relative to mass diffusion. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 756 756
HEAT TRANSFER wA, wA, Concentration
profile
dwA
—–
dy y Note that species transfer at the surface (y 0) is by diffusion only because
of the noslip boundary condition, and mass flux of species A at the surface
can be expressed by Fick’s law as (Fig. 14–42)
y=0 jA Mass diffusion
wA, s
Species A 0 ∂CA
– DAB —–
∂y = hmass(wA, s – wA, )
y=0 FIGURE 14–42
Mass transfer at a surface occurs by
diffusion because of the noslip
boundary condition, just like heat
transfer occurring by conduction. ·
m A/A DAB wA
y (kg/s · m2) (1472) y0 This is analogous to heat transfer at the surface being by conduction only and
expressing it by Fourier ’s law.
The rate of heat convection for external flow was expressed conveniently by
Newton’s law of cooling as
·
Q conv hconv A(Ts T) where hconv is the average heat transfer coefficient, A is the surface area, and
T is the temperature difference across the thermal boundary layer.
Ts
Likewise, the rate of mass convection can be expressed as
·
m conv hmass A( A, s A, ) hmass A(wA, s wA, ) (kg/s) (1473) where hmass is the average mass transfer coefficient, in m/s; A is the surface
area; A, s
A, is the mass concentration difference of species A across the
concentration boundary layer; and is the average density of the fluid in the
boundary layer. The product hmass , whose unit is kg/m2 · s, is called the mass
transfer conductance. If the local mass transfer coefficient varies in the flow
direction, the average mass transfer coefficient can be determined from
hmass, ave 1
A A hmassdA (1474) In heat convection analysis, it is often convenient to express the heat transfer coefficient in a nondimensionalized form in terms of the dimensionless
Nusselt number, defined as
Nusselt number: Heat transfer: Nu hconv L
k Mass transfer: Sh hmass L
DAB FIGURE 14–43
In mass transfer, the Sherwood
number plays the role the Nusselt
number plays in heat transfer. Nu hconv L
k (1475) where L is the characteristic length of k is the thermal conductivity of the
fluid. The corresponding quantity in mass convection is the dimensionless
Sherwood number, defined as (Fig. 14–43)
Sherwood number: Sh hmass L
DAB (1476) where hmass is the mass transfer coefficient and DAB is the mass diffusivity. The
Nusselt and Sherwood numbers represent the effectiveness of heat and mass
convection at the surface, respectively.
Sometimes it is more convenient to express the heat and mass transfer coefficients in terms of the dimensionless Stanton number as
Heat transfer Stanton number: St hconv
Cp Nu 1
Re Pr (1477) cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 757 757
CHAPTER 14 and
Mass transfer Stanton number: hmass Stmass Sh 1
Re Sc (1478) where is the free steam velocity in external flow and the bulk mean fluid
velocity in internal flow.
For a given geometry, the average Nusselt number in forced convection
depends on the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers, whereas the average Sherwood number depends on the Reynolds and Schmidt numbers. That is,
Nusselt number:
Sherwood number: Nu
Sh f(Re, Pr)
f(Re, Sc) TABLE 14–12 where the functional form of f is the same for both the Nusselt and Sherwood
numbers in a given geometry, provided that the thermal and concentration
boundary conditions are of the same type. Therefore, the Sherwood number
can be obtained from the Nusselt number expression by simply replacing the
Prandtl number by the Schmidt number. This shows what a powerful tool
analogy can be in the study of natural phenomena (Table 14–12).
In natural convection mass transfer, the analogy between the Nusselt and
Sherwood numbers still holds, and thus Sh f(Gr, Sc). But the Grashof number in this case should be determined directly from
Gr g( s)
2 L3
c g( / ) L3
c
2 (1479) which is applicable to both temperature and/or concentrationdriven natural
convection flows. Note that in homogeneous fluids (i.e., fluids with no concentration gradients), density differences are due to temperature differences
only, and thus we can replace / by
T for convenience, as we did in natural convection heat transfer. However, in nonhomogeneous fluids, density
differences are due to the combined effects of temperature and concentration
differences, and / cannot be replaced by
T in such cases even when all
we care about is heat transfer and we have no interest in mass transfer. For example, hot water at the bottom of a pond rises to the top. But when salt is
placed at the bottom, as it is done in solar ponds, the salty water (brine) at the
bottom will not rise because it is now heavier than the fresh water at the top
(Fig. 14–44).
Concentrationdriven natural convection flows are based on the densities of
different species in a mixture being different. Therefore, at isothermal conditions, there will be no natural convection in a gas mixture that is composed of
gases with identical molar masses. Also, the case of a hot surface facing up
corresponds to diffusing fluid having a lower density than the mixture (and
thus rising under the influence of buoyancy), and the case of a hot surface facing down corresponds to the diffusing fluid having a higher density. For example, the evaporation of water into air corresponds to a hot surface facing up
since water vapor is lighter than the air and it will tend to rise. But this will not
be the case for gasoline unless the temperature of the gasoline–air mixture at
the gasoline surface is so high that thermal expansion overwhelms the density
differential due to higher gasoline concentration near the surface. Analogy between the quantities
that appear in the formulation
and solution of heat convection
and mass convection
Heat
Convection Mass
Convection T C, y, , or w hconv hmass thermal Re
Gr concentration Lc Re g (Ts
2 T ) L3
c
, Gr Pr
St Sc
h conv
Cp Stmass Lc
g( s) L3
c 2 D AB
h mass Nu hconv Lc
k Sh hmass Lc
DAB Nu f (Re, Pr) Sh f (Re, Sc) Nu f (Gr, Pr) Sh f (Gr, Sc) 20°C Fresh water No convection
currents
70°C SOLAR
POND
ρbrine > ρwater Brine Salt FIGURE 14–44
A hot fluid at the bottom will rise and
initiate natural convection currents
only if its density is lower. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 758 758
HEAT TRANSFER CA,
T Velocity,
temperature, or
concentration
profile y Tangent line
at y = 0 Analogy between Friction, Heat Transfer,
and Mass Transfer Coefficients
Consider the flow of a fluid over a flat plate of length L with free steam conditions of T , , and wA, (Fig. 14–45). Noting that convection at the surface
(y 0) is equal to diffusion because of the noslip condition, the friction, heat
transfer, and mass transfer conditions at the surface can be expressed as 0 FIGURE 14–45
The friction, heat, and mass transfer
coefficients for flow over a surface are
proportional to the slope of the tangent
line of the velocity, temperature, and
concentration profiles, respectively,
at the surface. Wall friction: s y q·s Heat transfer:
Mass transfer: jA, s y0 T
y y0 wA
y y0 k
DAB f
2 2 (1480) hheat(Ts T) hmass(wA, s (1481) wA, ) (1482) These relations can be rewritten for internal flow by using bulk mean properties instead of free stream properties. After some simple mathematical manipulations, the three relations above can be rearranged as
d( / )
d(y/L) Wall friction: Ts)/(T
Ts)]
d(y/L)
wA, s)/(wA,
wA, s)]
d(y/L) d[(wA Mass transfer: f
Re
2 f
2
hheat L
k Nu (1484) y0 hmass L
DAB Sh (1485) y0 d[(T Heat transfer: L y0 (1483) The left sides of these three relations are the slopes of the normalized velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles at the surface, and the right sides
are the dimensionless numbers discussed earlier. Special Case: Pr wA,
T Normalized
velocity,
temperature, or
concentration
profile Velocity,
temperature, or
concentration
boundary layer f
Re
2
Reynolds analogy
ν = α = DAB Sc 1 (Reynolds Analogy) Now consider the hypothetical case in which the molecular diffusivities of
momentum, heat, and mass are identical. That is,
DAB and thus Pr
Sc Le 1. In this case the normalized velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles will coincide, and thus the slope of these three curves at the
surface (the left sides of Eqs. 14–83 through 14–85) will be identical (Fig.
14–46). Then we can set the right sides of those three equations equal to each
other and obtain Noting that Pr Sc Nu Sh or f
2 L hheat L
k hmass L
DAB (1486) 1, we can also write this equation as (or Pr = Sc = Le) FIGURE 14–46
When the molecular diffusivities of
momentum, heat, and mass are equal
to each other, the velocity,
temperature, and concentration
boundary layers coincide. f
2 Nu
Re Pr Sh
Re Sc or f
2 St Stmass (1487) This relation is known as the Reynolds analogy, and it enables us to determine the seemingly unrelated friction, heat transfer, and mass transfer coefficients when only one of them is known or measured. (Actually the original cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 759 759
CHAPTER 14 Reynolds analogy proposed by O. Reynolds in 1874 is St f /2, which is then
extended to include mass transfer.) However, it should always be remembered
that the analogy is restricted to situations for which Pr Sc 1. Of course
the first part of the analogy between friction and heat transfer coefficients can
always be used for gases since their Prandtl number is close to unity. General Case: Pr Sc 1 (Chilton–Colburn Analogy) The Reynolds analogy is a very useful relation, and it is certainly desirable to
extend it to a wider range of Pr and Sc numbers. Several attempts have been
made in this regard, but the simplest and the best known is the one suggested
by Chilton and Colburn in 1934 as
f
2 St Pr2/3 StmassSc2/3 (1488) for 0.6
Pr
60 and 0.6
Sc
3000. This equation is known as the
Chilton–Colburn analogy. Using the definition of heat and mass Stanton
numbers, the analogy between heat and mass transfer can be expressed more
conveniently as (Fig. 14–47) or St
Stmass
hheat
hmass Sc
Pr
Cp 2/3 hmass Sc
Pr 2/3 2/3 Cp DAB Cp Le2/3 (1489) For air–water vapor mixtures at 298 K, the mass and thermal diffusivities are
2.18 10 5 m2/s and thus the Lewis number
DAB 2.5 10 5 m2/s and
is Le
/DAB 0.872. (We simply use the value of dry air instead of the
moist air since the fraction of vapor in the air at atmospheric conditions is
low.) Then ( /DAB)2/3 0.8722/3 0.913, which is close to unity. Also, the
Lewis number is relatively insensitive to variations in temperature. Therefore,
for air–water vapor mixtures, the relation between heat and mass transfer coefficients can be expressed with a good accuracy as
hheat Chilton–Colburn Analogy
General: Cp hmass (air–water vapor mixtures) (1490) where and Cp are the density and specific heat of air at mean conditions (or
Cp is the specific heat of air per unit volume). Equation 14–90 is known as
the Lewis relation and is commonly used in airconditioning applications.
Another important consequence of Le 1 is that the wetbulb and adiabatic
saturation temperatures of moist air are nearly identical. In turbulent flow, the
Lewis relation can be used even when the Lewis number is not 1 since eddy
mixing in turbulent flow overwhelms any molecular diffusion, and heat and
mass are transported at the same rate.
The Chilton–Colburn analogy has been observed to hold quite well in laminar or turbulent flow over plane surfaces. But this is not always the case for
internal flow and flow over irregular geometries, and in such cases specific relations developed should be used. When dealing with flow over blunt bodies,
it is important to note that f in these relations is the skin friction coefficient, not
the total drag coefficient, which also includes the pressure drag. hheat DAB
Cp DAB 1
f
2
Special case:
hmass 2/3 2/3 DAB
hheat
Cp 1
f
2 FIGURE 14–47
When the friction or heat transfer
coefficient is known, the mass transfer
coefficient can be determined directly
from the Chilton–Colburn analogy. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 760 760
HEAT TRANSFER Limitation on the Heat–Mass Convection Analogy Air
Saturated
air Evaporation Lake FIGURE 14–48
Evaporation from the free surface of
water into air. Caution should be exercised when using the analogy in Eq. 14–88 since there
are a few factors that put some shadow on the accuracy of that relation. For
one thing, the Nusselt numbers are usually evaluated for smooth surfaces, but
many mass transfer problems involve wavy or roughened surfaces. Also,
many Nusselt relations are obtained for constant surface temperature situations, but the concentration may not be constant over the entire surface because of the possible surface dryout. The blowing or suction at the surface
during mass transfer may also cause some deviation, especially during high
speed blowing or suction.
Finally, the heat–mass convection analogy is valid for low mass flux cases
in which the flow rate of species undergoing mass flow is low relative to the
total flow rate of the liquid or gas mixture so that the mass transfer between
the fluid and the surface does not affect the flow velocity. (Note that convection relations are based on zero fluid velocity at the surface, which is true only
when there is no net mass transfer at the surface.) Therefore, the heat–mass
convection analogy is not applicable when the rate of mass transfer of a
species is high relative to the flow rate of that species.
Consider, for example, the evaporation and transfer of water vapor into air
in an air washer, an evaporative cooler, a wet cooling tower, or just at the free
surface of a lake or river (Fig. 14–48). Even at a temperature of 40°C, the
vapor pressure at the water surface is the saturation pressure of 7.4 kPa, which
corresponds to a mole fraction of 0.074 or a mass fraction of wA, s 0.047 for
the vapor. Then the mass fraction difference across the boundary layer will be,
0.047 0 0.047. For the evaporation of
at most, w wA, s wA,
water into air, the error involved in the low mass flux approximation is
roughly w/2, which is 2.5 percent in the worst case considered above. Therefore, in processes that involve the evaporation of water into air, we can use the
heat–mass convection analogy with confidence. However, the mass fraction
of vapor approaches 1 as the water temperature approaches the saturation temperature, and thus the low mass flux approximation is not applicable to mass
transfer in boilers, condensers, and the evaporation of fuel droplets in combustion chambers. In this chapter we limit our consideration to low mass flux
applications. Mass Convection Relations
Under low mass flux conditions, the mass convection coefficients can be determined by either (1) determining the friction or heat transfer coefficient and
then using the Chilton–Colburn analogy or (2) picking the appropriate Nusselt
number relation for the given geometry and analogous boundary conditions,
replacing the Nusselt number by the Sherwood number and the Prandtl number by the Schmidt number, as shown in Table 14–13 for some representative
cases. The first approach is obviously more convenient when the friction or
heat transfer coefficient is already known. Otherwise, the second approach
should be preferred since it is generally more accurate, and the Chilton–
Colburn analogy offers no significant advantage in this case. Relations for
convection mass transfer in other geometries can be written similarly using
the corresponding heat transfer relation in Chapters 6 and 7. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 761 761
CHAPTER 14 TABLE 14–13
Sherwood number relations in mass convection for specified concentration at the surface corresponding to the Nusselt
number relations in heat convection for specified surface temperature
Convective Heat Transfer Convective Mass Transfer 1. Forced Convection over a Flat Plate
(a) Laminar flow (Re 5 105)
Nu 0.664 Re0.5 Pr1/3,
Pr 0.6
L Sh 0.664 Re0.5 Sc1/3,
L Sc 0.5 Sh 0.037 Re0.8 Sc1/3,
L Sc 0.5 Sh 3.66 160 Sh 0.023 Re0.8 Sc0.4, 3. Natural Convection over Surfaces
(a) Vertical plate
Nu 0.59(Gr Pr)1/4,
105 Gr Pr 109
1/3
Nu 0.1(Gr Pr) ,
109 Gr Pr 1013 Sh
Sh 0.59(Gr Sc)1/4,
0.1(Gr Sc)1/3, (b) Turbulent flow (5 105 Re 107)
Nu 0.037 Re0.8 Pr1/3,
Pr 0.6
L
2. Fully Developed Flow in Smooth Circular Pipes
(a) Laminar flow (Re 2300)
Nu 3.66
(b) Turbulent flow (Re 10,000)
Nu 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.4,
0.7 Pr 0.7 Sc 160 105 Gr Sc 109
109 Gr Sc 1013 (b) Upper surface of a horizontal plate
Surface is hot (Ts T )
Nu 0.54(Gr Pr)1/4,
104 Gr Pr
Nu 0.15(Gr Pr)1/3,
107 Gr Pr 107
1011 Fluid near the surface is light ( s
)
Sh 0.54(Gr Sc)1/4,
104 Gr Sc
Sh 0.15(Gr Sc)1/3,
107 Gr Sc 107
1011 (c) Lower surface of a horizontal plate
Surface is hot (Ts T )
Nu 0.27(Gr Pr)1/4,
105 Gr Pr 1011 Fluid near the surface is light ( s
)
Sh 0.27(Gr Sc)1/4,
105 Gr Sc 1011 EXAMPLE 14–10 Mass Convection inside a Circular Pipe Consider a circular pipe of inner diameter D 0.015 m whose inner surface is
covered with a layer of liquid water as a result of condensation (Fig. 14–49). In
order to dry the pipe, air at 300 K and 1 atm is forced to flow through it with an
average velocity of 1.2 m/s. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer,
determine the mass transfer coefficient inside the pipe for fully developed flow. SOLUTION The liquid layer on the inner surface of a circular pipe is dried by
blowing air through it. The mass transfer coefficient is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The low mass flux model and thus the analogy between heat
and mass transfer is applicable since the mass fraction of vapor in the air is low
(about 2 percent for saturated air at 300 K). 2 The flow is fully developed.
Properties Because of low mass flux conditions, we can use dry air properties
for the mixture at the specified temperature of 300 K and 1 atm, for which
1.58 10 5 m2/s (Table A–15). The mass diffusivity of water vapor in the air at
300 K is determined from Eq. 14–15 to be
DAB DH2Oair 1.87 10 10 T 2.072
P 1.87 10 10 3002.072
1 2.54 10 5 m2/s Wet pipe
Air
300 K
1 atm = 1.2 m/s FIGURE 14–49
Schematic for Example 14–10. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 762 762
HEAT TRANSFER Analysis The Reynolds number for this internal flow is D Re (1.2 m/s)(0.015 m)
1.58 10 5 m2/s 1139 which is less than 2300 and thus the flow is laminar. Therefore, based on the
analogy between heat and mass transfer, the Nusselt and the Sherwood numbers in this case are Nu Sh 3.66. Using the definition of Sherwood number, the mass transfer coefficient is determined to be hmass ShDAB
D (3.66)(2.54 10
0.015 m 5 m2/s) 0.00620 m/s The mass transfer rate (or the evaporation rate) in this case can be determined
by defining the logarithmic mean concentration difference in an analogous
manner to the logarithmic mean temperature difference. EXAMPLE 14–11 Naphthalene
vapor
Air
1 atm
T = 25°C
= 2 m /s Body covered
with a layer of
naphthalene FIGURE 14–50
Schematic for Example 14–11. 0.3 m2 Analogy between Heat and Mass Transfer Heat transfer coefficients in complex geometries with complicated boundary
conditions can be determined by mass transfer measurements on similar
geometries under similar flow conditions using volatile solids such as naphthalene and dichlorobenzene and utilizing the Chilton–Colburn analogy between
heat and mass transfer at low mass flux conditions. The amount of mass transfer during a specified time period is determined by weighing the model or measuring the surface recession.
During a certain experiment involving the flow of dry air at 25°C and 1 atm at
a free stream velocity of 2 m/s over a body covered with a layer of naphthalene,
it is observed that 12 g of naphthalene has sublimated in 15 min (Fig. 14–50).
The surface area of the body is 0.3 m2. Both the body and the air were kept at
25°C during the study. The vapor pressure of naphthalene at 25°C is 11 Pa and
the mass diffusivity of naphthalene in air at 25°C is DAB 0.61 10 5 m2/s.
Determine the heat transfer coefficient under the same flow conditions over the
same geometry. SOLUTION Air is blown over a body covered with a layer of naphthalene, and
the rate of sublimation is measured. The heat transfer coefficient under the
same flow conditions over the same geometry is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The low mass flux conditions exist so that the Chilton–Colburn
analogy between heat and mass transfer is applicable (will be verified). 2 Both
air and naphthalene vapor are ideal gases.
Properties The molar mass of naphthalene is 128.2 kg/kmol. Because of low
mass flux conditions, we can use dry air properties for the mixture at the specified temperature of 25°C and 1 atm, at which
1.184 kg/m3, CP
1007
5
2
J/kg · K, and
2.141 10 m /s (Table A–15).
Analysis The incoming air is free of naphthalene, and thus the mass fraction
of naphthalene at free stream conditions is zero, wA,
0. Noting that the
vapor pressure of naphthalene at the surface is 11 Pa, its mass fraction at the
surface is determined to be cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 763 763
CHAPTER 14 wA, s PA, s MA
P Mair 128.2 kg/kmol
11 Pa
101,325 Pa 29 kg/kmol 4.8 10 4 which confirms that the low mass flux approximation is valid. The rate of evaporation of naphthalene in this case is m
t ·
m evap 0.012 kg
(15 60 s) 1.33 10 5 kg/s Then the mass convection coefficient becomes ·
m hmass As(wA, s wA, ) 1.33 10 5 kg/s
(1.184 kg/m3)(0.3 m2)(4.8 10 4 0) 0.0780 m/s Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer, the average heat transfer
coefficient is determined from Eq. 14–89 to be
2/3 hheat Cp hmass DAB (1.184 kg/m3)(1007 J/kg · °C)(0.0776 m/s) 2.141
0.61 10 5 m2/s
10 5 m2/s 2/3 215 W/m2 · °C
Discussion Because of the convenience it offers, naphthalene has been
used in numerous heat transfer studies to determine convection heat transfer
coefficients. 14–10 I SIMULTANEOUS HEAT AND
MASS TRANSFER Many mass transfer processes encountered in practice occur isothermally, and
thus they do not involve any heat transfer. But some engineering applications
involve the vaporization of a liquid and the diffusion of this vapor into the surrounding gas. Such processes require the transfer of the latent heat of vaporization hfg to the liquid in order to vaporize it, and thus such problems involve
simultaneous heat and mass transfer. To generalize, any mass transfer problem
involving phase change (evaporation, sublimation, condensation, melting,
etc.) must also involve heat transfer, and the solution of such problems needs
to be analyzed by considering simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Some examples of simultaneous heat and mass problems are drying, evaporative cooling, transpiration (or sweat) cooling, cooling by dry ice, combustion of fuel
droplets, and ablation cooling of space vehicles during reentry, and even ordinary events like rain, snow, and hail. In warmer locations, for example, the
snow melts and the rain evaporates before reaching the ground (Fig. 14–51).
To understand the mechanism of simultaneous heat and mass transfer, consider the evaporation of water from a swimming pool into air. Let us assume
that the water and the air are initially at the same temperature. If the air is
saturated (a relative humidity of
100 percent), there will be no heat or
mass transfer as long as the isothermal conditions remain. But if the air is not Plastic
or glass Heat Evaporation
Heat Space vehicle
during reentry (a) Ablation Evaporation (b) Evaporation of
rain droplet
Heat
rejection
Condensation
Vapor
Liquid
Evaporation Heat (c) Drying of clothes Heat
absorption
(d) Heat pipes FIGURE 14–51
Many problems
encountered in practice involve
simultaneous heat and mass transfer. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 764 764
HEAT TRANSFER Surroundings
20°C Air
20°C ·
Qrad
Evaporation
·
(Qlatent ) ·
Qconv 18°C
·
Qcond Water
20°C saturated (
100 percent), there will be a difference between the concentration of water vapor at the water–air interface (which is always saturated)
and some distance above the interface (the concentration boundary layer).
Concentration difference is the driving force for mass transfer, and thus this
concentration difference will drive the water into the air. But the water must
vaporize first, and it must absorb the latent heat of vaporization in order to vaporize. Initially, the entire heat of vaporization will come from the water near
the interface since there is no temperature difference between the water and
the surroundings and thus there cannot be any heat transfer. The temperature
of water near the surface must drop as a result of the sensible heat loss, which
also drops the saturation pressure and thus vapor concentration at the interface.
This temperature drop creates temperature differences within the water at
the top as well as between the water and the surrounding air. These temperature differences drive heat transfer toward the water surface from both the air
and the deeper parts of the water, as shown in Figure 14–52. If the evaporation
rate is high and thus the demand for the heat of vaporization is higher than the
amount of heat that can be supplied from the lower parts of the water body
and the surroundings, the deficit will be made up from the sensible heat of the
water at the surface, and thus the temperature of water at the surface will drop
further. The process will continue until the latent heat of vaporization is equal
to the rate of heat transfer to the water at the surface. Once the steady operation conditions are reached and the interface temperature stabilizes, the energy
balance on a thin layer of liquid at the surface can be expressed as
·
Q sensible, transferred Lake FIGURE 14–52
Various mechanisms of heat transfer
involved during the evaporation of
water from the surface of a lake. ·
Q latent, absorbed or ·
Q ·
m hfg (1491) ·
where m is the rate of evaporation and hfg is the latent heat of vaporization of
·
water at the surface temperature. Various expressions for m under various approximations are given in Table 14–14. The mixture properties such as the
specific heat Cp and molar mass M should normally be evaluated at the mean
film composition and mean film temperature. However, when dealing with
air–water vapor mixtures at atmospheric conditions or other low mass flux situations, we can simply use the properties of the gas with reasonable accuracy.
TABLE 14–14
Various expressions for evaporation rate of a liquid into a gas through an
interface area As under various approximations (subscript stands for vapor,
s for liquid–gas interface, and away from surface)
Assumption Evaporation Rate
·
m
hmass As( , s General
Assuming vapor to be an ideal gas,
P
RT ·
m Using Chilton–Colburn analogy,
hheat
CphmassLe2/3 ·
m 1
Ts
and P Using 1
T
RT 1
, where T
T
(Ru /M)T T Ts
2 ·
m , hmass As P , s
Ts
R
hmass As
CpLe2/3R ) P,
T P ,s
Ts P,
T hmass As M P , s P ,
P
CpLe2/3 M cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 765 765
CHAPTER 14 ·
The Q in Eq. 14–91 represents all forms of heat from all sources transferred
to the surface, including convection and radiation from the surroundings and
conduction from the deeper parts of the water due to the sensible energy of the
water itself or due to heating the water body by a resistance heater, heating
coil, or even chemical reactions in the water. If heat transfer from the water
body to the surface as well as radiation from the surroundings is negligible,
which is often the case, then the heat loss by evaporation must equal heat gain
by convection. That is,
·
Q conv ·
m hfg or hconv As(T hconv As hfg M P
Cp Le2/3 M Ts) P ,s , P Canceling hconv As from both sides of the second equation gives
Ts T hfg MP
Cp Le2/3 M P ,s , P (1492) which is a relation for the temperature difference between the liquid and the
surrounding gas under steady conditions. EXAMPLE 14–12 Evaporative Cooling of a Canned Drink During a hot summer day, a canned drink is to be cooled by wrapping it in a
cloth that is kept wet continually, and blowing air to it with a fan (Fig. 14–53).
If the environment conditions are 1 atm, 30°C, and 40 percent relative humidity, determine the temperature of the drink when steady conditions are reached. 1 atm
30°C
40% RH
Wet
cloth SOLUTION Air is blown over a canned drink wrapped in a wet cloth to cool it
by simultaneous heat and mass transfer. The temperature of the drink when
steady conditions are reached is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The low mass flux conditions exist so that the Chilton–Colburn
analogy between heat and mass transfer is applicable since the mass fraction of
vapor in the air is low (about 2 percent for saturated air at 300 K). 2 Both air
and water vapor at specified conditions are ideal gases (the error involved in this
assumption is less than 1 percent). 3 Radiation effects are negligible.
Properties Because of low mass flux conditions, we can use dry air properties
for the mixture at the average temperature of (T
Ts)/2 which cannot be determined at this point because of the unknown surface temperature Ts. We know
that Ts T and, for the purpose of property evaluation, we take Ts to be 20°C.
Then the properties of water at 20°C and the properties of dry air at the average
temperature of 25°C and 1 atm are (Tables A–9 and A–15) Water: hfg
Dry air: CP 2454 kJ/kg, P
2.34 kPa; also, P
4.25 kPa at 30°C
5
2
1.007 kJ/kg · °C,
2.141 10 m /s The molar masses of water and air are 18 and 29 kg/kmol, respectively (Table
A–1). Also, the mass diffusivity of water vapor in air at 25°C is DH2Oair 2.50
10 5 m2/s (Table 14–4).
Analysis Utilizing the Chilton–Colburn analogy, the surface temperature of the
drink can be determined from Eq. 14–92, FIGURE 14–53
Schematic for Example 14–12. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 766 766
HEAT TRANSFER Ts T hfg
2/3 Cp Le MP
M P ,s , P where the Lewis number is Le DAB 2.141 10 5 m2/s
2.5 10 5 m2/s 0.856 Note that we could take the Lewis number to be 1 for simplicity, but we chose
to incorporate it for better accuracy.
The air at the surface is saturated, and thus the vapor pressure at the surface is simply the saturation pressure of water at the surface temperature
(2.34 kPa). The vapor pressure of air far from the surface is determined from P , Psat @ T (0.40)Psat @ 30°C (0.40)(4.25 kPa) Noting that the atmospheric pressure is 1 atm Ts 30°C 1.70 kPa 101.3 kPa, substituting gives 2454 kJ/kg
18 kg/kmol (2.34 1.70) kPa
2/3 29 kg/kmol
101.3 kPa
(1.007 kJ/kg · °C)(0.872) 19.4°C
Therefore, the temperature of the drink can be lowered to 19.4°C by this
process. EXAMPLE 14–13 Surrounding
surfaces
20°C
·
Qrad ·
Qevap ·
Qconv Air
25°C
92 kPa
52% RH Aerosol
can Water
bath
50°C Heat supplied Resistance heater FIGURE 14–54
Schematic for Example 14–13. Heat Loss from Uncovered Hot Water Baths Hot water baths with open tops are commonly used in manufacturing facilities
for various reasons. In a plant that manufactures spray paints, the pressurized
paint cans are temperature tested by submerging them in hot water at 50°C in
a 40cmdeep rectangular bath and keeping them there until the cans are
heated to 50°C to ensure that the cans can withstand temperatures up to 50°C
during transportation and storage (Fig. 14–54). The water bath is 1 m wide and
3.5 m long, and its top surface is open to ambient air to facilitate easy observation for the workers. If the average conditions in the plant are 92 kPa, 25°C,
and 52 percent relative humidity, determine the rate of heat loss from the top
surface of the water bath by (a) radiation, (b) natural convection, and (c) evaporation. Assume the water is well agitated and maintained at a uniform temperature of 50°C at all times by a heater, and take the average temperature of the
surrounding surfaces to be 20°C. SOLUTION Spray paint cans are temperature tested by submerging them in an
uncovered hot water bath. The rates of heat loss from the top surface of the
bath by radiation, natural convection, and evaporation are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The low mass flux conditions exist so that the Chilton–Colburn
analogy between heat and mass transfer is applicable since the mass fraction of
vapor in the air is low (about 2 percent for saturated air at 300 K). 2 Both air
and water vapor at specified conditions are ideal gases (the error involved in this
assumption is less than 1 percent). 3 Water is maintained at a uniform temperature of 50°C. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 767 767
CHAPTER 14 Properties Relevant properties for each mode of heat transfer are determined
below in respective sections.
Analysis (a) The emissivity of liquid water is given in Table A–18 to be
0.95. Then the radiation heat loss from the water to the surrounding surfaces
becomes ·
Q rad 4
As (Ts4 Tsurr)
2
(0.95)(3.5 m )(5.67
663 W 10 8 W/m2 K4)[(323 K)4 (293K)4] (b) The air–water vapor mixture is dilute and thus we can use dry air properties
for the mixture at the average temperature of (T
Ts)/2
(25
50)/2
37.5°C. Noting that the total atmospheric pressure is 92/101.3 0.9080 atm,
the properties of dry air at 37.5°C and 0.908 atm are k 0.02644 W/m · °C,
Pr 0.7261 (independent of pressure)
(2.311 10 5 m2/s)/0.9080 2.545 10 5 m2/s
(1.678 10 5 m2/s)/0.9080 1.848 10 5 m2/s The properties of water at 50°C are hfg 2383 kJ/kg and P 12.35 kPa The air at the surface is saturated, and thus the vapor pressure at the surface is
simply the saturation pressure of water at the surface temperature (12.35 kPa).
The vapor pressure of air far from the water surface is determined from P Psat @ T , (0.52)Psat @ 25°C (0.52)(3.17 kPa) 1.65 kPa Treating the water vapor and the air as ideal gases and noting that the total atmospheric pressure is the sum of the vapor and dry air pressures, the densities
of the water vapor, dry air, and their mixture at the water–air interface and far
from the surface are determined to be At the
surface: ,s a, s
S P ,s
R Ts
Pa, s
RaTs
,s 12.35 kPa
0.0828 kg/m3
(0.4615 kPa · m3/kg · K)(323 K)
(92 12.35) kPa
0.8592 kg/m3
(0.287 kPa · m3/kg · K)(323 K)
a, s 0.0828 0.8592 0.9420 kg/m3 and Away from
the surface: , a, P,
RT
Pa,
RaT
, 1.65 kPa
0.0120 kg/m3
(0.4615 kPa · m3/kg · K)(298 K)
(92 1.65) kPa
1.0564 kg/m3
(0.287 kPa · m3/kg · K)(298 K)
a, 0.0120 1.0564 1.0684 kg/m3 The area of the top surface of the water bath is As (3.5 m)(1 m) 3.5 m2 and
its perimeter is p
2(3.5
1)
9 m. Therefore, the characteristic length is cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 768 768
HEAT TRANSFER As
p Lc 3.5 m2
9m 0.3889 m Then using densities (instead of temperatures) since the mixture is not homogeneous, the Grashof number is determined to be
3
S)Lc g( Gr 2 (9.81 m/s2)(1.0684 0.9420 kg/m3)(0.3889 m)3
[(0.9420 1.0684)/2 kg/m3](1.848 10 5 m2/s)2
2.125 108
Recognizing that this is a natural convection problem with hot horizontal surface facing up, the Nusselt number and the convection heat transfer coefficients are determined to be 0.15(Gr Pr)1/3 Nu 0.15(2.125 108 0.7261)1/3 80.45 and hconv Nuk
L (80.45)(0.02644 W/m · °C)
0.3889 m 5.47 W/m2 · °C Then the natural convection heat transfer rate becomes ·
Q conv hconv As(Ts T )
(5.47 W/m2 · °C)(3.5 m2)(50 25)°C 479 W Note that the magnitude of natural convection heat transfer is comparable to
that of radiation, as expected.
(c) Utilizing the analogy between heat and mass convection, the mass transfer
coefficient is determined the same way by replacing Pr by Sc. The mass diffusivity of water vapor in air at the average temperature of 310.5 K is determined
from Eq. 14–15 to be DAB DH2O–air
3.00 1.87
10 5 10 10 T 2.072
P 1.87 10 10 310.52.072
0.908 m2/s The Schmidt number is determined from its definition to be Sc DAB 1.848
3.00 10 5 m2/s
10 5 m2/s 0.616 The Sherwood number and the mass transfer coefficients are determined to be Sh 0.15(Gr Sc)1/3 0.15(2.125 108 0.616)1/3 76.2 and hmass ShDAB
Lc (76.2)(3.00 10
0.3889 m 5 m2/s) 0.00588 m/s cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:05 AM Page 769 769
CHAPTER 14 Then the evaporation rate and the rate of heat transfer by evaporation become ·
m hmass As( , s
,)
(0.00588 m/s)(3.5 m2)(0.0828
0.00146 kg/s 5.25 kg/h 0.0120)kg/m3 and ·
Q evap ·
m hfg (0.00146 kg/s)(2383 kJ/kg) 3.479 kW 3479 W which is more than seven times the rate of heat transfer by natural convection.
Finally, noting that the direction of heat transfer is always from high to low
temperature, all forms of heat transfer determined above are in the same direction, and the total rate of heat loss from the water to the surrounding air and
surfaces is ·
Q total ·
Q rad ·
Q conv ·
Q evap 663 479 3479 4621 W Discussion Note that if the water bath is heated electrically, a 4.6 kW resistance heater will be needed just to make up for the heat loss from the top surface. The total heater size will have to be larger to account for the heat losses
from the side and bottom surfaces of the bath as well as the heat absorbed by
the spray paint cans as they are heated to 50°C. Also note that water needs to
be supplied to the bath at a rate of 5.25 kg/h to make up for the water loss by
evaporation. Also, in reality, the surface temperature will probably be a little
lower than the bulk water temperature, and thus the heat transfer rates will be
somewhat lower than indicated here. SUMMARY
Mass transfer is the movement of a chemical species from a
high concentration region toward a lower concentration one
relative to the other chemical species present in the medium.
Heat and mass transfer are analogous to each other, and several
parallels can be drawn between them. The driving forces are
the temperature difference in heat transfer and the concentration difference in mass transfer. Fick’s law of mass diffusion is
of the same form as Fourier ’s law of heat conduction. The
species generation in a medium due to homogeneous reactions
is analogous to heat generation. Also, mass convection due to
bulk fluid motion is analogous to heat convection. Constant
surface temperature corresponds to constant concentration at
the surface, and an adiabatic wall corresponds to an impermeable wall. However, concentration is usually not a continuous
function at a phase interface.
The concentration of a species A can be expressed in
terms of density A or molar concentration CA. It can also be
expressed in dimensionless form in terms of mass or molar
fraction as Mass fraction of species A: wA mA
m Mole fraction of species A: yA NA
N mA /V
m /V
NA /V
N/V A CA
C In the case of an ideal gas mixture, the mole fraction of a gas is
equal to its pressure fraction. Fick’s law for the diffusion of a
species A in a stationary binary mixture of species A and B in a
specified direction x is expressed as
Mass basis: jdiff, A ·
m diff, A
A
DAB Mole basis: ¯
jdiff, A ·
Ndiff, A
A
CDAB DAB d( A/ )
dx CDAB d(CA/c)
dx dwA
dx dyA
dx cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:06 AM Page 770 770
HEAT TRANSFER where DAB is the diffusion coefficient (or mass diffusivity) of
the species in the mixture, jdiff, A is the diffusive mass flux of
species A, and ¯diff, A is the molar flux.
j
The mole fractions of a species i in the gas and liquid phases
at the interface of a dilute mixture are proportional to each
other and are expressed by Henry’s law as A where H is Henry’s constant. When the mixture is not dilute, an
approximate relation for the mole fractions of a species on the
liquid and gas sides of the interface are expressed approximately by Raoult’s law as
yi, gas side P yi, liquid side Pi, sat(T) where Pi, sat(T) is the saturation pressure of the species i at the
interface temperature and P is the total pressure on the gas
phase side.
The concentration of the gas species i in the solid at the interface Ci, solid side is proportional to the partial pressure of the
species i in the gas Pi, gas side on the gas side of the interface and
is expressed as
Pi, gas side Ci, solid side where is the solubility. The product of the solubility of a gas
and the diffusion coefficient of the gas in a solid is referred to
as the permeability , which is a measure of the ability of the
gas to penetrate a solid.
In the absence of any chemical reactions, the mass transfer
·
rates m diff, A through a plane wall of area A and thickness L and
cylindrical and spherical shells of inner and outer radii r1 and r2
under onedimensional steady conditions are expressed as
wA, 1 ·
m diff, A, wall DAB A ·
m diff, A, cyl 2 L DAB ·
m diff, A, sph 4 r1r2 DAB wA, 2 wA, 1 wA, 2
ln(r2/r1) 4 r1r2DAB wA, 1
r2
A, 1 r2 A, 1 DAB A L 2 LDAB DAB wA, 2
r1 AB A A A diff, A wA( jA jB) jB B B diff, B wB( jA jB) L
PA, 2 PA, 1
L dwA
dx
dwB
DBA
dx
DAB The rate of mass convection of species A in a binary mixture
is expressed in an analogous manner to Newton’s law of cooling as
·
m conv hmass As( A, s A, ) hmass As(wA, s wA, ) where hmass is the average mass transfer coefficient, in m/s.
The counterparts of the Prandtl and Nusselt numbers in mass
convection are the Schmidt number Sc and the Sherwood number Sh, defined as
DAB Momentum diffusivity
Mass diffusivity and Sh hmass L
DAB The relative magnitudes of heat and mass diffusion in the thermal and concentration boundary layers are represented by the
Lewis number, defined as
Le PA, 2 B jA A, 2 PA, 1 wB The special case
0 corresponds to a stationary medium.
·
Using Fick’s law of diffusion, the total mass fluxes j m /A in
a moving medium are expressed as r1 AB A A A, 2 ln(r2/r1) The mass flow rate of a gas through a solid plane wall under
steady onedimensional conditions can also be expressed in
terms of the partial pressures of the adjacent gas on the two
sides of the solid as
·
m diff, A, wall wA Sc A, 1 diff, B where
is the massaverage velocity of the flow. It is the
velocity that would be measured by a velocity sensor and is
expressed as A, 2 L diff, A B Pi, gas side
H yi, liquid side Pi, gas side where PA, 1 and PA, 2 are the partial pressures of gas A on the
two sides of the wall.
During mass transfer in a moving medium, chemical species
are transported both by molecular diffusion and by the bulk
fluid motion, and the velocities of the species are expressed as Sc
Pr DAB Thermal diffusivity
Mass diffusivity Heat and mass transfer coefficients are sometimes expressed in
terms of the dimensionless Stanton number, defined as
Stheat hconv
Cp Nu 1
Re Pr and Stmass hconv Sh 1
Re Sc where is the freestream velocity in external flow and the
bulk mean fluid velocity in internal flow. For a given geometry
and boundary conditions, the Sherwood number in natural or cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:06 AM Page 771 771
CHAPTER 14 forced convection can be determined from the corresponding
Nusselt number expression by simply replacing the Prandtl
number by the Schmidt number. But in natural convection, the
Grashof number should be expressed in terms of density difference instead of temperature difference.
When the molecular diffusivities of momentum, heat,
and mass are identical, we have
DAB, and thus Pr
Sc
Le
1. The similarity between momentum, heat, and
mass transfer in this case is given by the Reynolds analogy,
expressed as
f
Re
2
f
2 L Nu Sh hheat L
k or
hmass L
DAB For the general case of Pr
f
2 Sc St Pr2/3 or f
2 St which is known as the Chilton–Colburn analogy. The analogy
between heat and mass transfer is expressed more conveniently as
hheat CpLe2/3 hmass Cp( /DAB)2/3hmass For air–water vapor mixtures, Le 1, and thus this relation
simplifies further. The heat–mass convection analogy is limited
to low mass flux cases in which the flow rate of species undergoing mass flow is low relative to the total flow rate of the
liquid or gas mixture. The mass transfer problems that involve
phase change (evaporation, sublimation, condensation, melting, etc.) also involve heat transfer, and such problems are analyzed by considering heat and mass transfer simultaneously. Stmass 1, it is modified as
StmassSc2/3 REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READING
1. American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air
Conditioning Engineers. Handbook of Fundamentals.
Atlanta: ASHRAE, 1993. 11. W. M. Kays and M. E. Crawford. Convective Heat and
Mass Transfer. 2nd ed. New York: McGrawHill, 1980. 2. R. M. Barrer. Diffusion in and through Solids. New York:
Macmillan, 1941. 12. T. R. Marrero and E. A. Mason. “Gaseous Diffusion
Coefficients.” Journal of Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1 (1972),
pp. 3–118. 3. R. B. Bird. “Theory of Diffusion.” Advances in Chemical
Engineering 1 (1956), p. 170. 13. A. F. Mills. Basic Heat and Mass Transfer. Burr Ridge,
IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1995. 4. R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot. Transport
Phenomena. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1960. 14. J. H. Perry, ed. Chemical Engineer ’s Handbook. 4th ed.
New York: McGrawHill, 1963. 5. C. J. Geankoplis. Mass Transport Phenomena. New York:
Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1972. 15. R. D. Reid, J. M. Prausnitz, and T. K. Sherwood. The
Properties of Gases and Liquids. 3rd ed. New York:
McGrawHill, 1977. 6. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 56th ed. Cleveland,
OH: Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., 1976.
7. J. O. Hirshfelder, F. Curtis, and R. B. Bird. Molecular
Theory of Gases and Liquids. New York: John Wiley &
Sons, 1954. 16. A. H. P. Skelland. Diffusional Mass Transfer. New York:
John Wiley & Sons, 1974.
17. D. B. Spalding. Convective Mass Transfer. New York:
McGrawHill, 1963. 8. J. P. Holman. Heat Transfer. 7th ed. New York:
McGrawHill, 1990. 18. W. F. Stoecker and J. W. Jones. Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning. New York: McGrawHill, 1982. 9. F. P. Incropera and D. P. De Witt. Fundamentals of Heat
and Mass Transfer. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley &
Sons, 1985. 19. L. C. Thomas. Mass Transfer Supplement—Heat Transfer.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991. 10. International Critical Tables. Vol. 3. New York:
McGrawHill, 1928. 20. L. Van Black. Elements of Material Science and
Engineering. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley, 1980. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:06 AM Page 772 772
HEAT TRANSFER PROBLEMS*
Analogy between Heat and Mass Transfer
14–1C How does mass transfer differ from bulk fluid flow?
Can mass transfer occur in a homogeneous medium?
14–2C How is the concentration of a commodity defined?
How is the concentration gradient defined? How is the diffusion rate of a commodity related to the concentration gradient?
14–3C Give examples for (a) liquidtogas, (b) solidtoliquid, (c) solidtogas, and (d) gastoliquid mass transfer.
14–4C Someone suggests that thermal (or heat) radiation can
also be viewed as mass radiation since, according to Einstein’s
formula, an energy transfer in the amount of E corresponds to
a mass transfer in the amount of m E/c2. What do you think?
14–5C What is the driving force for (a) heat transfer,
(b) electric current flow, (c) fluid flow, and (d) mass transfer?
14–6C What do (a) homogeneous reactions and (b) heterogeneous reactions represent in mass transfer? To what do they
correspond in heat transfer? Mass Diffusion
14–7C Both Fourier ’s law of heat conduction and Fick’s law
·
of mass diffusion can be expressed as Q
kA(dT/dx). What
·
do the quantities Q , k, A, and T represent in (a) heat conduction
and (b) mass diffusion?
14–8C Mark these statements as being True or False for a
binary mixture of substances A and B.
(a) The density of a mixture is always equal to the sum
of the densities of its constituents.
(b) The ratio of the density of component A to the density of component B is equal to the mass fraction of
component A.
(c) If the mass fraction of component A is greater than
0.5, then at least half of the moles of the mixture are
component A.
(d) If the molar masses of A and B are equal to each
other, then the mass fraction of A will be equal to the
mole fraction of A.
(e) If the mass fractions of A and B are both 0.5, then the
molar mass of the mixture is simply the arithmetic
average of the molar masses of A and B. 14–9C Mark these statements as being True or False for a
binary mixture of substances A and B.
(a) The molar concentration of a mixture is always
equal to the sum of the molar concentrations of its
constituents.
(b) The ratio of the molar concentration of A to the molar
concentration of B is equal to the mole fraction of
component A.
(c) If the mole fraction of component A is greater than
0.5, then at least half of the mass of the mixture is
component A.
(d) If both A and B are ideal gases, then the pressure fraction of A is equal to its mole fraction.
(e) If the mole fractions of A and B are both 0.5, then the
molar mass of the mixture is simply the arithmetic
average of the molar masses of A and B.
14–10C Fick’s law of diffusion is expressed on the mass
·
·
and mole basis as m diff, A
ADAB(dwA/dx) and Ndiff, A
CADAB(dyA/dx), respectively. Are the diffusion coefficients
DAB in the two relations the same or different?
14–11C How does the mass diffusivity of a gas mixture
change with (a) temperature and (b) pressure?
14–12C At a given temperature and pressure, do you think
the mass diffusivity of air in water vapor will be equal to the
mass diffusivity of water vapor in air? Explain.
14–13C At a given temperature and pressure, do you think
the mass diffusivity of copper in aluminum will be equal to the
mass diffusivity of aluminum in copper? Explain.
14–14C In a mass production facility, steel components are
to be hardened by carbon diffusion. Would you carry out the
hardening process at room temperature or in a furnace at a high
temperature, say 900°C? Why?
14–15C Someone claims that the mass and the mole fractions for a mixture of CO2 and N2O gases are identical. Do you
agree? Explain.
14–16 The composition of moist air is given on a molar basis
to be 78 percent N2, 20 percent O2, and 2 percent water vapor.
Determine the mass fractions of the constituents of air.
Answers: 76.4 percent N2, 22.4 percent O2, 1.2 percent H2O *Problems designated by a “C” are concept questions, and
students are encouraged to answer them all. Problems designated
by an “E” are in English units, and the SI users can ignore them.
Problems with an EESCD icon
are solved using EES, and
complete solutions together with parametric studies are included
on the enclosed CD. Problems with a computerEES icon
are
comprehensive in nature, and are intended to be solved with a
computer, preferably using the EES software that accompanies
this text. 14–17E A gas mixture consists of 5 lbm of O2, 8 lbm of N2,
and 10 lbm of CO2. Determine (a) the mass fraction of each
component, (b) the mole fraction of each component, and
(c) the average molar mass of the mixture.
14–18 A gas mixture consists of 8 kmol of H2 and 2 kmol of
N2. Determine the mass of each gas and the apparent gas constant of the mixture. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:06 AM Page 773 773
CHAPTER 14 14–19 The molar analysis of a gas mixture at 290 K and
250 kPa is 65 percent N2, 20 percent O2, and 15 percent CO2.
Determine the mass fraction and partial pressure of each gas.
14–20 Determine the binary diffusion coefficient of CO2
in air at (a) 200 K and 1 atm, (b) 400 K and 0.8 atm, and
(c) 600 K and 3 atm.
14–21 Repeat Problem 14–20 for O2 in N2. 14–22E The relative humidity of air at 80°F and 14.7 psia is
increased from 30 percent to 90 percent during a humidification process at constant temperature and pressure. Determine
the percent error involved in assuming the density of air to
have remained constant.
Answer: 2.1 percent 80°F
14.7 psia
30% RH
Humidifier FIGURE P14–22E
14–23 The diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in steel is given
as a function of temperature as
DAB 1.65 10 6 exp(–4630/T) (m2/s) where T is in K. Determine the diffusion coefficients from
200 K to 1200 K in 200 K increments and plot the results.
14–24 Reconsider Problem 14–23. Using EES (or
other) software, plot the diffusion coefficient as
a function of the temperature in the range of 200 K to 1200 K. the same as the mole fraction of water in the lake (which is
nearly 1)?
14–28C When prescribing a boundary condition for mass
transfer at a solid–gas interface, why do we need to specify the
side of the surface (whether the solid or the gas side)? Why did
we not do it in heat transfer?
14–29C Using properties of saturated water, explain how
you would determine the mole fraction of water vapor at the
surface of a lake when the temperature of the lake surface and
the atmospheric pressure are specified.
14–30C Using solubility data of a solid in a specified liquid,
explain how you would determine the mass fraction of the
solid in the liquid at the interface at a specified temperature.
14–31C Using solubility data of a gas in a solid, explain how
you would determine the molar concentration of the gas in the
solid at the solid–gas interface at a specified temperature.
14–32C Using Henry’s constant data for a gas dissolved in a
liquid, explain how you would determine the mole fraction of
the gas dissolved in the liquid at the interface at a specified
temperature.
14–33C What is permeability? How is the permeability of a
gas in a solid related to the solubility of the gas in that solid?
14–34E Determine the mole fraction of the water vapor at
the surface of a lake whose temperature at the surface is 60°F,
and compare it to the mole fraction of water in the lake. Take
the atmospheric pressure at lake level to be 13.8 psia.
14–35 Determine the mole fraction of dry air at the surface of
a lake whose temperature is 15°C. Take the atmospheric presAnswer: 98.3 percent
sure at lake level to be 100 kPa.
14–36
Reconsider Problem 14–35. Using EES (or
other) software, plot the mole fraction of dry air
at the surface of the lake as a function of the lake temperature
as the temperatue varies from 5°C to 25°C, and discuss the
results.
14–37 Consider a rubber plate that is in contact with nitrogen
gas at 298 K and 250 kPa. Determine the molar and mass densities of nitrogen in the rubber at the interface.
Answers: 0.0039 kmol/m3, 0.1092 kg/m3
Rubber
plate Boundary Conditions
14–25C Write three boundary conditions for mass transfer
(on a mass basis) for species A at x
0 that correspond to
specified temperature, specified heat flux, and convection
boundary conditions in heat transfer.
14–26C What is an impermeable surface in mass transfer?
How is it expressed mathematically (on a mass basis)? To what
does it correspond in heat transfer?
14–27C Consider the free surface of a lake exposed to the
atmosphere. If the air at the lake surface is saturated, will the
mole fraction of water vapor in air at the lake surface be N2
298 K
250 kPa ρN2 = ? FIGURE P14–37 cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:06 AM Page 774 774
HEAT TRANSFER 14–38 A wall made of natural rubber separates O2 and N2
gases at 25°C and 500 kPa. Determine the molar concentrations of O2 and N2 in the wall. (d) Other things being equal, doubling the mass fraction
of the diffusing species at the high concentration side
will double the rate of mass transfer. 14–39 Consider a glass of water in a room at 20°C and
97 kPa. If the relative humidity in the room is 100 percent and
the water and the air are in thermal and phase equilibrium, determine (a) the mole fraction of the water vapor in the air and
(b) the mole fraction of air in the water. 14–44C Consider onedimensional mass diffusion of species
A through a plane wall of thickness L. Under what conditions
will the concentration profile of species A in the wall be a
straight line? 14–40E Water is sprayed into air at 80°F and 14.3 psia, and
the falling water droplets are collected in a container on the
floor. Determine the mass and mole fractions of air dissolved
in the water.
14–41 Consider a carbonated drink in a bottle at 27°C and
130 kPa. Assuming the gas space above the liquid consists of a
saturated mixture of CO2 and water vapor and treating the
drink as water, determine (a) the mole fraction of the water
vapor in the CO2 gas and (b) the mass of dissolved CO2 in a
Answers: (a) 2.77 percent, (b) 0.36 g
200ml drink. 14–45C Consider onedimensional mass diffusion of species
A through a plane wall. Does the species A content of the wall
change during steady mass diffusion? How about during transient mass diffusion?
14–46 Helium gas is stored at 293 K in a 3mouterdiameter
spherical container made of 5cmthick Pyrex. The molar concentration of helium in the Pyrex is 0.00073 kmol/m3 at the
inner surface and negligible at the outer surface. Determine
the mass flow rate of helium by diffusion through the Pyrex
Answer: 7.2 10 15 kg/s
container. 5 cm
CO2
H2O Pyrex He gas
293 K Air He
diffusion FIGURE P14–46
27°C
130 kPa FIGURE P14–41
Steady Mass Diffusion through a Wall
14–42C Write down the relations for steady onedimensional
heat conduction and mass diffusion through a plane wall, and
identify the quantities in the two equations that correspond to
each other.
14–43C Consider steady onedimensional mass diffusion
through a wall. Mark these statements as being True or False.
(a) Other things being equal, the higher the density of the
wall, the higher the rate of mass transfer.
(b) Other things being equal, doubling the thickness of
the wall will double the rate of mass transfer.
(c) Other things being equal, the higher the temperature,
the higher the rate of mass transfer. 14–47 A thin plastic membrane separates hydrogen from air.
The molar concentrations of hydrogen in the membrane at the
inner and outer surfaces are determined to be 0.065 and 0.003
kmol/m3, respectively. The binary diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in plastic at the operation temperature is 5.3 10 10
m2/s. Determine the mass flow rate of hydrogen by diffusion
through the membrane under steady conditions if the thickness
of the membrane is (a) 2 mm and (b) 0.5 mm.
14–48 The solubility of hydrogen gas in steel in terms of its
mass fraction is given as wH2 2.09 10 4 exp(–3950/T)P0,5
H2
where PH2 is the partial pressure of hydrogen in bars and T is
the temperature in K. If natural gas is transported in a 1cmthick, 3minternaldiameter steel pipe at 500 kPa pressure and
the mole fraction of hydrogen in the natural gas is 8 percent,
determine the highest rate of hydrogen loss through a 100mlong section of the pipe at steady conditions at a temperature
of 293 K if the pipe is exposed to air. Take the diffusivity of hydrogen in steel to be 2.9 10 13 m2/s.
Answer: 3.98 10 14 kg/s cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:06 AM Page 775 775
CHAPTER 14 14–49 Reconsider Problem 14–48. Using EES (or
other) software, plot the highest rate of hydrogen loss as a function of the mole fraction of hydrogen in natural gas as the mole fraction varies from 5 to 15 percent, and
discuss the results. 14–50 Helium gas is stored at 293 K and 500 kPa in a 1cmthick, 2minnerdiameter spherical tank made of fused silica
(SiO2). The area where the container is located is well ventilated. Determine (a) the mass flow rate of helium by diffusion
through the tank and (b) the pressure drop in the tank in one
week as a result of the loss of helium gas.
14–51 You probably have noticed that balloons inflated with
helium gas rise in the air the first day during a party but they
fall down the next day and act like ordinary balloons filled with
air. This is because the helium in the balloon slowly leaks out
through the wall while air leaks in by diffusion.
Consider a balloon that is made of 0.1mmthick soft rubber
and has a diameter of 15 cm when inflated. The pressure and
temperature inside the balloon are initially 110 kPa and 25°C.
The permeability of rubber to helium, oxygen, and nitrogen
10 13, and 2.6
10 13
at 25°C are 9.4
10 13, 7.05
kmol/m · s · bar, respectively. Determine the initial rates of diffusion of helium, oxygen, and nitrogen through the balloon
wall and the mass fraction of helium that escapes the balloon
during the first 5 h assuming the helium pressure inside the balloon remains nearly constant. Assume air to be 21 percent oxygen and 79 percent nitrogen by mole numbers and take the
room conditions to be 100 kPa and 25°C. 110 kPa
25°C
He Air determine how long it will take for the pressure inside the
balloon to drop to 100 kPa.
14–53 Pure N2 gas at 1 atm and 25°C is flowing through a
10mlong, 3cminner diameter pipe made of 1mmthick
rubber. Determine the rate at which N2 leaks out of the pipe if
the medium surrounding the pipe is (a) a vacuum and (b) atmospheric air at 1 atm and 25°C with 21 percent O2 and
79 percent N2.
Answers: (a) 4.48 10 10 kmol/s, (b) 9.4 10 11 kmol/s Vacuum
N2 N2 gas 1 atm
25°C Rubber pipe FIGURE P14–53
Water Vapor Migration in Buildings
14–54C Consider a tank that contains moist air at 3 atm and
whose walls are permeable to water vapor. The surrounding air
at 1 atm pressure also contains some moisture. Is it possible for
the water vapor to flow into the tank from surroundings?
Explain.
14–55C Express the mass flow rate of water vapor through a
wall of thickness L in terms of the partial pressure of water
vapor on both sides of the wall and the permeability of the wall
to the water vapor.
14–56C How does the condensation or freezing of water
vapor in the wall affect the effectiveness of the insulation in the
wall? How does the moisture content affect the effective thermal conductivity of soil?
14–57C Moisture migration in the walls, floors, and ceilings
of buildings is controlled by vapor barriers or vapor retarders.
Explain the difference between the two, and discuss which is
more suitable for use in the walls of residential buildings.
14–58C What are the adverse effects of excess moisture
on the wood and metal components of a house and the paint on
the walls?
14–59C Why are the insulations on the chilled water lines
always wrapped with vapor barrier jackets? FIGURE P14–51
14–52 Reconsider the balloon discussed in Problem 14–51.
Assuming the volume to remain constant and disregarding
the diffusion of air into the balloon, obtain a relation for the
variation of pressure in the balloon with time. Using the results
obtained and the numerical values given in the problem, 14–60C Explain how vapor pressure of the ambient air is
determined when the temperature, total pressure, and relative
humidity of the air are given.
14–61 The diffusion of water vapor through plaster boards
and its condensation in the wall insulation in cold weather are
of concern since they reduce the effectiveness of insulation.
Consider a house that is maintained at 20°C and 60 percent cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:06 AM Page 776 776
HEAT TRANSFER
25°C
88 kPa
50% RH Plaster
board Moisture
migration 9.5 mm
Room
Outdoors
20°C
97 kPa
60% RH Aluminum
foil Vapor
diffusion Milk
25°C FIGURE P14–61
FIGURE P14–66
relative humidity at a location where the atmospheric pressure
is 97 kPa. The inside of the walls is finished with 9.5mmthick
gypsum wallboard. Taking the vapor pressure at the outer side
of the wallboard to be zero, determine the maximum amount of
water vapor that will diffuse through a 3m 8m section of a
wall during a 24h period. The permeance of the 9.5mmthick
gypsum wallboard to water vapor is 2.86 10 9 kg/s · m2 · Pa.
14–62 Reconsider Problem 14–61. In order to reduce the
migration of water vapor through the wall, it is proposed to use
a 0.2mmthick polyethylene film with a permeance of 2.3
10 12 kg/s · m2 · Pa. Determine the amount of water vapor that
will diffuse through the wall in this case during a 24h period.
Answer: 6.7 g 14–63 The roof of a house is 15 m 8 m and is made of a
20cmthick concrete layer. The interior of the house is maintained at 25°C and 50 percent relative humidity and the local
atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa. Determine the amount of
water vapor that will migrate through the roof in 24 h if the average outside conditions during that period are 3°C and 30 percent relative humidity. The permeability of concrete to water
vapor is 24.7 10 12 kg/s · m · Pa.
14–64 Reconsider Problem 14–63. Using EES (or
other) software, investigate the effects of temperature and relative humidity of air inside the house on the
amount of water vapor that will migrate through the roof. Let
the temperature vary from 15°C to 30°C and the relative humidity from 30 to 70 percent. Plot the amount of water vapor
that will migrate as functions of the temperature and the relative humidity, and discuss the results. permeance is 2.9 10 12 kg/s · m2 · Pa. The inner diameter of
the glass is 12 cm. Assuming the air in the glass to be saturated
at all times, determine how much the level of the milk in the
Answer: 0.00079 mm
glass will recede in 12 h. Transient Mass Diffusion
14–67C In transient mass diffusion analysis, can we treat the
diffusion of a solid into another solid of finite thickness (such
as the diffusion of carbon into an ordinary steel component) as
a diffusion process in a semiinfinite medium? Explain.
14–68C Define the penetration depth for mass transfer, and
explain how it can be determined at a specified time when the
diffusion coefficient is known.
14–69C When the density of a species A in a semiinfinite
medium is known at the beginning and at the surface, explain
how you would determine the concentration of the species A at
a specified location and time.
14–70 A steel part whose initial carbon content is 0.12 percent by mass is to be casehardened in a furnace at 1150 K by
exposing it to a carburizing gas. The diffusion coefficient of
carbon in steel is strongly temperature dependent, and at the
furnace temperature it is given to be DAB 7.2 10 12 m2/s. 1150 K
Carbon 14–65 Reconsider Problem 14–63. In order to reduce the migration of water vapor, the inner surface of the wall is painted
with vapor retarder latex paint whose permeance is 26 10 12
kg/s · m2 · Pa. Determine the amount of water vapor that will
diffuse through the roof in this case during a 24h period.
14–66 A glass of milk left on top of a counter in the kitchen
at 25°C, 88 kPa, and 50 percent relative humidity is tightly
sealed by a sheet of 0.009mmthick aluminum foil whose Steel part FIGURE P14–70 cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:06 AM Page 777 777
CHAPTER 14 Also, the mass fraction of carbon at the exposed surface of the
steel part is maintained at 0.011 by the carbonrich environment in the furnace. If the hardening process is to continue
until the mass fraction of carbon at a depth of 0.7 mm is raised
to 0.32 percent, determine how long the part should be held in
Answer: 9 h
the furnace.
14–71 Repeat Problem 14–70 for a furnace temperature of
500 K at which the diffusion coefficient of carbon in steel is
DAB 2.1 10 20 m2/s.
14–72 A pond with an initial oxygen content of zero is to be
oxygenated by forming a tent over the water surface and filling
the tent with oxygen gas at 25°C and 130 kPa. Determine the
mole fraction of oxygen at a depth of 2 cm from the surface
after 12 h.
Tent
O2 gas
25°C
130 kPa
O2 diffusion
Pond (a) The rates of mass diffusion of species A and B are
equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.
(b) DAB DBA.
(c) During equimolar counterdiffusion through a tube,
equal numbers of moles of A and B move in opposite
directions, and thus a velocity measurement device
placed in the tube will read zero.
(d) The lid of a tank containing propane gas (which is
heavier than air) is left open. If the surrounding air
and the propane in the tank are at the same temperature and pressure, no propane will escape the tank
and no air will enter.
14–78C What is Stefan flow? Write the expression for
Stefan’s law and indicate what each variable represents.
14–79E The pressure in a pipeline that transports helium gas
at a rate of 5 lbm/s is maintained at 14.5 psia by venting helium
to the atmosphere through a 1 in. internal diameter tube that
4
extends 30 ft into the air. Assuming both the helium and the
atmospheric air to be at 80°F, determine (a) the mass flow rate
of helium lost to the atmosphere through an individual tube,
(b) the mass flow rate of air that infiltrates into the pipeline,
and (c) the flow velocity at the bottom of the tube where it is
attached to the pipeline that will be measured by an anemometer in steady operation. FIGURE P14–72 Air
80°F 14–73 A long nickel bar with a diameter of 5 cm has been
stored in a hydrogenrich environment at 358 K and 300 kPa
for a long time, and thus it contains hydrogen gas throughout
uniformly. Now the bar is taken into a wellventilated area so
that the hydrogen concentration at the outer surface remains at
almost zero at all times. Determine how long it will take for the
hydrogen concentration at the center of the bar to drop by half.
The diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the nickel bar at the
room temperature of 298 K can be taken to be DAB 1.2
Answer: 3.3 years
10 12 m2/s. Diffusion in a Moving Medium
14–74C Define the following terms: massaverage velocity,
diffusion velocity, stationary medium, and moving medium.
14–75C What is diffusion velocity? How does it affect the
massaverage velocity? Can the velocity of a species in a moving medium relative to a fixed reference point be zero in a
moving medium? Explain.
14–76C What is the difference between massaverage velocity and moleaverage velocity during mass transfer in a moving
medium? If one of these velocities is zero, will the other also
necessarily be zero? Under what conditions will these two velocities be the same for a binary mixture?
14–77C Consider onedimensional mass transfer in a moving
medium that consists of species A and B with
A
B
constant. Mark these statements as being True or False. He Air 0.25 in.
30 ft
He
Helium Air
14.5 psia
80°F 5 lbm/s FIGURE P14–79E
14–80E Repeat Problem 14–79E for a pipeline that transports carbon dioxide instead of helium.
14–81 A tank with a 2cm thick shell contains hydrogen gas
at the atmospheric conditions of 25°C and 90 kPa. The charging valve of the tank has an internal diameter of 3 cm and extends 8 cm above the tank. If the lid of the tank is left open so
that hydrogen and air can undergo equimolar counterdiffusion
through the 10cmlong passageway, determine the mass flow
rate of hydrogen lost to the atmosphere through the valve at the
Answer: 4.20 10 8 kg/s
initial stages of the process. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:06 AM Page 778 778
HEAT TRANSFER 14–82 Reconsider Problem 14–81. Using EES (or
other) software, plot the mass flow rate of
hydrogen lost as a function of the diameter of the charging
valve as the diameter varies from 1 cm to 5 cm, and discuss the
results.
14–83E A 1in.diameter Stefan tube is used to measure the
binary diffusion coefficient of water vapor in air at 70°F and
13.8 psia. The tube is partially filled with water with a distance
from the water surface to the open end of the tube of 10 in. Dry
air is blown over the open end of the tube so that water vapor
rising to the top is removed immediately and the concentration
of vapor at the top of the tube is zero. During 10 days of continuous operation at constant pressure and temperature, the
amount of water that has evaporated is measured to be 0.0015
lbm. Determine the diffusion coefficient of water vapor in air
at 70°F and 13.8 psia. 14–84 An 8cminternaldiameter, 30cmhigh pitcher half
filled with water is left in a dry room at 15°C and 87 kPa with
its top open. If the water is maintained at 15°C at all times also,
determine how long it will take for the water to evaporate
Answer: 1125 days
completely.
Room
15°C
87 kPa Water
vapor 14–87C What is a concentration boundary layer? How is it
defined for flow over a plate?
14–88C What is the physical significance of the Schmidt
number? How is it defined? To what dimensionless number
does it correspond in heat transfer? What does a Schmidt number of 1 indicate?
14–89C What is the physical significance of the Sherwood
number? How is it defined? To what dimensionless number
does it correspond in heat transfer? What does a Sherwood
number of 1 indicate for a plain fluid layer?
14–90C What is the physical significance of the Lewis
number? How is it defined? What does a Lewis number of 1
indicate?
14–91C In natural convection mass transfer, the Grashof
number is evaluated using density difference instead of temperature difference. Can the Grashof number evaluated this
way be used in heat transfer calculations also?
14–92C Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer,
explain how the mass transfer coefficient can be determined
from the relations for the heat transfer coefficient.
14–93C It is well known that warm air in a cooler environment rises. Now consider a warm mixture of air and gasoline
(C8H18) on top of an open gasoline can. Do you think this gas
mixture will rise in a cooler environment?
14–94C Consider two identical cups of coffee, one with no
sugar and the other with plenty of sugar at the bottom. Initially,
both cups are at the same temperature. If left unattended, which
cup of coffee will cool faster?
14–95C Under what conditions will the normalized velocity,
thermal, and concentration boundary layers coincide during
flow over a flat plate? Water
15°C FIGURE P14–84
14–85 A large tank containing ammonia at 1 atm and 25°C is
vented to the atmosphere through a 3mlong tube whose internal diameter is 1 cm. Determine the rate of loss of ammonia
and the rate of infiltration of air into the tank. Mass Convection
14–86C Heat convection is expressed by Newton’s law of
·
cooling as Q
hA(Ts T ). Express mass convection in an
analogous manner on a mass basis, and identify all the quantities in the expression and state their units. 14–96C What is the relation ( f/2) Re Nu Sh known as?
Under what conditions is it valid? What is the practical importance of it?
14–97C What is the name of the relation f/2
St Pr2/3
StmassSc2/3 and what are the names of the variables in it? Under
what conditions is it valid? What is the importance of it in
engineering?
Cp hmass known as? For
14–98C What is the relation hheat
what kind of mixtures is it valid? What is the practical importance of it?
14–99C What is the low mass flux approximation in mass
transfer analysis? Can the evaporation of water from a lake be
treated as a low mass flux process?
14–100E Consider a circular pipe of inner diameter D
0.5 in. whose inner surface is covered with a thin layer of
liquid water as a result of condensation. In order to dry the
pipe, air at 540 R and 1 atm is forced to flow through it with an
average velocity of 4 ft/s. Using the analogy between heat and cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:06 AM Page 779 779
CHAPTER 14 mass transfer, determine the mass transfer coefficient inside the
Answer: 0.024 ft/s
pipe for fully developed flow.
14–101 The average heat transfer coefficient for air flow
over an oddshaped body is to be determined by mass transfer
measurements and using the Chilton–Colburn analogy between
heat and mass transfer. The experiment is conducted by blowing dry air at 1 atm at a free stream velocity of 2 m/s over a
body covered with a layer of naphthalene. The surface area of
the body is 0.75 m2, and it is observed that 100 g of naphthalene has sublimated in 45 min. During the experiment, both
the body and the air were kept at 25°C, at which the vapor
pressure and mass diffusivity of naphthalene are 11 Pa and
0.61
10 5 m2/s, respectively. Determine the heat
DAB
transfer coefficient under the same flow conditions over the
same geometry.
0.75 m2 Air
1 atm
2 m /s
25°C Body
25°C
Naphthalene
vapor 14–105 Consider a 5m
5m wet concrete patio with an
average water film thickness of 0.3 mm. Now wind at 50 km/h
is blowing over the surface. If the air is at 1 atm, 15°C, and
35 percent relative humidity, determine how long it will take
Answer: 18.6 min
for the patio to dry completely.
14–106E A 2in.diameter spherical naphthalene ball is suspended in a room at 1 atm and 80°F. Determine the average
mass transfer coefficient between the naphthalene and the air
if air is forced to flow over naphthalene with a free stream velocity of 15 ft/s. The Schmidt number of naphthalene in air at
Answer: 0.0525 ft/s
room temperature is 2.35.
14–107 Consider a 3mmdiameter raindrop that is falling
freely in atmospheric air at 25°C. Taking the temperature of the
raindrop to be 9°C, determine the terminal velocity of the raindrop at which the drag force equals the weight of the drop and
the average mass transfer coefficient at that time.
14–108 In a manufacturing facility, wet brass plates coming
out of a water bath are to be dried by passing them through a
section where dry air at 1 atm and 25°C is blown parallel to
their surfaces. If the plates are at 20°C and there are no dry
spots, determine the rate of evaporation from both sides of
a plate. FIGURE P14–101
14–102 Consider a 15cminternaldiameter, 10mlong circular duct whose interior surface is wet. The duct is to be dried
by forcing dry air at 1 atm and 15°C through it at an average
velocity of 3 m/s. The duct passes through a chilled room, and
it remains at an average temperature of 15°C at all times. Determine the mass transfer coefficient in the duct.
14–103 Reconsider Problem 14–102. Using EES (or
other) software, plot the mass transfer coefficient as a function of the air velocity as the velocity varies from
1 m/s to 8 m/s, and discuss the results.
14–104 Dry air at 15°C and 92 kPa flows over a 2mlong
wet surface with a free stream velocity of 4 m/s. Determine the
average mass transfer coefficient.
Answer: 0.00514 m/s
Dry air
15°C, 92 kPa
4 m /s Air
25°C
4 m/s 40 cm 40 cm
Brass plate
20°C FIGURE P14–108
14–109E Air at 80°F, 1 atm, and 30 percent relative humidity is blown over the surface of a 15in. 15in. square pan
filled with water at a free stream velocity of 10 ft/s. If the water
is maintained at a uniform temperature of 80°F, determine the
rate of evaporation of water and the amount of heat that needs
to be supplied to the water to maintain its temperature constant.
14–110E Repeat Problem 14–109E for temperature of 60°F
for both the air and water. Evaporation
Wet FIGURE P14–104 Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer
14–111C Does a mass transfer process have to involve heat
transfer? Describe a process that involves both heat and mass
transfer.
14–112C Consider a shallow body of water. Is it possible for
this water to freeze during a cold and dry night even when the
ambient air and surrounding surface temperatures never drop
to 0°C? Explain. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:06 AM Page 780 780
HEAT TRANSFER 14–113C During evaporation from a water body to air, under
what conditions will the latent heat of vaporization be equal to
convection heat transfer from the air?
14–114 Jugs made of porous clay were commonly used to
cool water in the past. A small amount of water that leaks out
keeps the outer surface of the jug wet at all times, and hot and
relatively dry air flowing over the jug causes this water to
evaporate. Part of the latent heat of evaporation comes from the
water in the jug, and the water is cooled as a result. If the environment conditions are 1 atm, 30°C, and 35 percent relative
humidity, determine the temperature of the water when steady
conditions are reached. the emissivities of sheet metal and water to be 0.61 and 0.95,
respectively.
Answers: (a) 61,337 W, (b) 1480 W, (c) 3773 W, (d ) 79,960 W,
44.9 kg/h 14–118 Repeat Problem 14–117 for a water bath temperature
of 50°C.
14–119 One way of increasing heat transfer from the head on
a hot summer day is to wet it. This is especially effective in
windy weather, as you may have noticed. Approximating the
head as a 30cmdiameter sphere at 30°C with an emissivity of
0.95, determine the total rate of heat loss from the head at ambient air conditions of 1 atm, 25°C, 40 percent relative humidity, and 25 km/h winds if the head is (a) dry and (b) wet. Take
the surrounding temperature to be 25°C.
Answers: (a) 40.6 W, (b) 352 W Water that
leaks out Evaporation Hot, dry air
30°C
35% RH Wet
30°C 1 atm
25°C
40% RH 25 km/h FIGURE P14–114 14–115 Reconsider Problem 14–114. Using EES (or
other) software, plot the water temperature as a
function of the relative humidity of air as the relative humidity
varies from 10 to 100 percent, and discuss the results.
14–116E During a hot summer day, a 2L bottle drink is to be
cooled by wrapping it in a cloth kept wet continually and blowing air to it with a fan. If the environment conditions are 1 atm,
80°F, and 30 percent relative humidity, determine the temperature of the drink when steady conditions are reached.
14–117 A glass bottle washing facility uses a wellagitated hot water bath at 55°C with an open
top that is placed on the ground. The bathtub is 1 m high, 2 m
wide, and 4 m long and is made of sheet metal so that the outer
side surfaces are also at about 55°C. The bottles enter at a rate
of 800 per minute at ambient temperature and leave at the water temperature. Each bottle has a mass of 150 g and removes
0.6 g of water as it leaves the bath wet. Makeup water is supplied at 15°C. If the average conditions in the plant are 1 atm,
25°C, and 50 percent relative humidity, and the average temperature of the surrounding surfaces is 15°C, determine (a) the
amount of heat and water removed by the bottles themselves
per second; (b) the rate of heat loss from the top surface of the
water bath by radiation, natural convection, and evaporation;
(c) the rate of heat loss from the side surfaces by natural convection and radiation; and (d) the rate at which heat and water
must be supplied to maintain steady operating conditions. Disregard heat loss through the bottom surface of the bath and take FIGURE P14–119
14–120 A 2mdeep 20m 20m heated swimming pool is
maintained at a constant temperature of 30°C at a location
where the atmospheric pressure is 1 atm. If the ambient air is at
20°C and 60 percent relative humidity and the effective sky
temperature is 0°C, determine the rate of heat loss from the top
surface of the pool by (a) radiation, (b) natural convection, and
(c) evaporation. (d) Assuming the heat losses to the ground to
be negligible, determine the size of the heater.
14–121 Repeat Problem 14–120 for a pool temperature
of 25°C. Review Problems
14–122C Mark these statements as being True or False.
(a) The units of mass diffusivity, heat diffusivity, and
momentum diffusivity are all the same.
(b) If the molar concentration (or molar density) C of a
mixture is constant, then its density must also be
constant.
(c) If the massaverage velocity of a binary mixture is
zero, then the moleaverage velocity of the mixture
must also be zero.
(d) If the mole fractions of A and B of a mixture are both
0.5, then the molar mass of the mixture is simply the
arithmetic average of the molar masses of A and B.
14–123 Using Henry’s law, show that the dissolved gases in
a liquid can be driven off by heating the liquid. cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:06 AM Page 781 781
CHAPTER 14 14–124 Show that for an ideal gas mixture maintained at a
constant temperature and pressure, the molar concentration C
of the mixture remains constant but this is not necessarily the
case for the density of the mixture.
CO2
Water 14–125E A gas mixture in a tank at 600 R and 20 psia consists of 1 lbm of CO2 and 3 lbm of CH4. Determine the volume
of the tank and the partial pressure of each gas.
14–126 Dry air whose molar analysis is 78.1 percent N2, 20.9
percent O2, and 1 percent Ar flows over a water body until it is
saturated. If the pressure and temperature of air remain constant at 1 atm and 25°C during the process, determine (a) the
molar analysis of the saturated air and (b) the density of air
before and after the process. What do you conclude from your
results?
14–127 Consider a glass of water in a room at 25°C and
100 kPa. If the relative humidity in the room is 70 percent and
the water and the air are at the same temperature, determine
(a) the mole fraction of the water vapor in the room air, (b) the
mole fraction of the water vapor in the air adjacent to the water
surface, and (c) the mole fraction of air in the water near the
surface.
Answers: (a) 2.22 percent, (b) 3.17 percent, (c) 1.34
percent 10 5 25°C
100 kPa
70% RH
Airwater
interface FIGURE P14–129 14–130 Consider a brick house that is maintained at 20°C
and 60 percent relative humidity at a location where the atmospheric pressure is 85 kPa. The walls of the house are made of
20cm thick brick whose permeance is 23 10 9 kg/s · m2 ·
Pa. Taking the vapor pressure at the outer side of the wallboard
to be zero, determine the maximum amount of water vapor that
will diffuse through a 4m 7m section of a wall during a
24h period.
14–131E Consider a masonry cavity wall that is built around
6in.thick concrete blocks. The outside is finished with 4in.
1
face brick with 2 in. cement mortar between the bricks and
concrete blocks. The inside finish consists of 1 in. gypsum
2
wallboard separated from the concrete block by 3 in.thick
4
air space. The thermal and vapor resistances of various components for a unit wall area are as follows: Water
25°C FIGURE P14–127
14–128 The diffusion coefficient of carbon in steel is
given as
DAB 2.67 10 5 exp(–17,400/T) m2/s where T is in K. Determine the diffusion coefficient from
300 K to 1500 K in 100 K increments and plot the results.
14–129 A carbonated drink is fully charged with CO2 gas at
17°C and 600 kPa such that the entire bulk of the drink is in
thermodynamic equilibrium with the CO2–water vapor mixture. Now consider a 2L soda bottle. If the CO2 gas in that bottle were to be released and stored in a container at 25°C and
100 kPa, determine the volume of the container.
Answer: 12.7 L 4
2
1 FIGURE P14–131E 3 5 6 7 cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:06 AM Page 782 782
HEAT TRANSFER RValue,
h · ft2 · °F/Btu Construction
1. Outside surface,
15 mph wind
2. Face brick, 4 in.
3. Cement mortar,
0.5 in.
4. Concrete block,
6in.
5. Air space,
3 in.
4
6. Gypsum wallboard,
0.5 in.
7. Inside surface,
still air R Value,
s · ft2 · psi/lbm 0.17
0.43 —
15,000 0.10 1930 4.20 23,000 1.02 77.6 0.45 332 0.68 — The indoor conditions are 70°F and 65 percent relative humidity while the outdoor conditions are 32°F and 40 percent relative humidity. Determine the rates of heat and water vapor
transfer through a 9ft 25ft section of the wall. 14–134 Consider a 30cmdiameter pan filled with water at
15°C in a room at 20°C, 1 atm, and 30 percent relative humidity. Determine (a) the rate of heat transfer by convection, (b)
the rate of evaporation of water, and (c) the rate of heat transfer to the water needed to maintain its temperature at 15°C.
Disregard any radiation effects.
14–135 Repeat Problem 14–134 assuming a fan blows air
over the water surface at a velocity of 3 m/s. Take the radius of
the pan to be the characteristic length.
14–136 Naphthalene is commonly used as a repellent against
moths to protect clothing during storage. Consider a 1cmdiameter spherical naphthalene ball hanging in a closet at 25°C
and 1 atm. Considering the variation of diameter with time, determine how long it will take for the naphthalene to sublimate
completely. The density and vapor pressure of naphthalene at
25°C are 0.11 Pa and 1100 kg/m3 and 11 Pa, respectively, and
the mass diffusivity of naphthalene in air at 25°C is DAB 0.61
10 5 m2/s.
Answer: 45.7 days Answers: 1436 Btu/h, 4.03 lbm/h 14–132 The oxygen needs of fish in aquariums are usually
met by forcing air to the bottom of the aquarium by a compressor. The air bubbles provide a large contact area between the
water and the air, and as the bubbles rise, oxygen and nitrogen
gases in the air dissolve in water while some water evaporates
into the bubbles. Consider an aquarium that is maintained at
room temperature of 25°C at all times. The air bubbles are observed to rise to the free surface of water in 2 s. If the air entering the aquarium is completely dry and the diameter of the air
bubbles is 4 mm, determine the mole fraction of water vapor at
the center of the bubble when it leaves the aquarium. Assume
no fluid motion in the bubble so that water vapor propagates in
the bubble by diffusion only.
Answer: 3.13 percent
1 atm
25°C Air bubbles
Aquarium
25°C Closet
25°C
1 atm
Naphthalene
25°C FIGURE P14–136
14–137E A swimmer extends his wet arms into the windy air
outside at 1 atm, 40°F, 50 percent relative humidity, and 20
mph. If the average skin temperature is 80°F, determine the
rate at which water evaporates from both arms and the corresponding rate of heat transfer by evaporation. The arm can be
modeled as a 2ftlong and 3in.diameter cylinder with adiabatic ends.
14–138 A thick part made of nickel is put into a room filled
with hydrogen at 3 atm and 85°C. Determine the hydrogen
concentration at a depth of 2mm from the surface after 24 h.
Answer: 4.1 FIGURE P14–132
14–133 Oxygen gas is forced into an aquarium at 1 atm and
25°C, and the oxygen bubbles are observed to rise to the free
surface in 2 s. Determine the penetration depth of oxygen into
water from a bubble during this time period. Sublimation 10 7 kmol/m3 14–139 A membrane made of 0.1mmthick soft rubber separates pure O2 at 1 atm and 25°C from air at 1.2 atm pressure.
Determine the mass flow rate of O2 through the membrane per
unit area and the direction of flow.
14–140E The top section of an 8ftdeep 100ft
100ft
heated solar pond is maintained at a constant temperature of
80°F at a location where the atmospheric pressure is 1 atm. If
the ambient air is at 70°F and 100 percent relative humidity cen58933_ch14.qxd 9/9/2002 10:06 AM Page 783 783
CHAPTER 14 and wind is blowing at an average velocity of 40 mph, determine the rate of heat loss from the top surface of the pond by
(a) forced convection, (b) radiation, and (c) evaporation. Take
the average temperature of the surrounding surfaces to be 60°F.
14–141E Repeat Problem 14–140E for a solar pond surface
temperature of 90°F.
Answers: (a) 299,400 Btu/h, (b) 1,057,000 Btu/h, (c) 3,396,000
Btu/h Computer, Design, and Essay Problems
14–142 Write an essay on diffusion caused by effects other
than the concentration gradient such as thermal diffusion, pressure diffusion, forced diffusion, knodsen diffusion, and surface
diffusion.
14–143 Write a computer program that will convert the mole
fractions of a gas mixture to mass fractions when the molar
masses of the components of the mixture are specified.
14–144 One way of generating electricity from solar energy
involves the collection and storage of solar energy in large artificial lakes of a few meters deep, called solar ponds. Solar energy is stored at the bottom part of the pond at temperatures
close to boiling, and the rise of hot water to the top is prevented
by planting salt to the bottom of the pond. Write an essay on
the operation of solar pond power plants, and find out how
much salt is used per year per m2. If the cost is not a factor, can
sugar be used instead of salt to maintain the concentration gradient? Explain.
14–145 The condensation and even freezing of moisture in
building walls without effective vapor retarders is a real con cern in cold climates as it undermines the effectiveness of the
insulation. Investigate how the builders in your area are coping
with this problem, whether they are using vapor retarders or
vapor barriers in the walls, and where they are located in the
walls. Prepare a report on your findings and explain the reasoning for the current practice.
14–146 You are asked to design a heating system for a swimming pool that is 2 m deep, 25 m long, and 25 m wide. Your
client desires that the heating system be large enough to raise
the water temperature from 20°C to 30°C in 3 h. The heater
must also be able to maintain the pool at 30°C at the outdoor
design conditions of 15°C, 1 atm, 35 percent relative humidity,
40 mph winds, and effective sky temperature of 10°C. Heat
losses to the ground are expected to be small and can be disregarded. The heater considered is a natural gas furnace whose
efficiency is 80 percent. What heater size (in Btu/h input)
would you recommend that your client buy? Evaporation 15°C
1 atm
35% RH
30°C Heating
fluid FIGURE P14–146 Pool Heat
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