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Unformatted text preview: 高雄㊩㈻大㈻㈨㈩㆒㈻年度㈻士後㊩㈻系招生考試試題 科目:普通生物㈻ 考試時間: 80 分鐘 共 5 頁第 1 頁 說明:㆒.選擇題用 2B 鉛筆在「答案卡」㆖作答,修正時應以橡皮擦拭,切勿使 用修正液(帶),未遵照正確作答方法而致無法判讀者,考生㉂行負責。 ㆓.試題應隨同試卷繳回,不得攜出試場。 I. 單選題:1-30 題,每題 1 分。30% 說明:每題選出㆒個最㊜當的選㊠,標示在答案卡㆖。每題答對得1分,答錯倒扣0.25分,未作答者 ,不給分亦不扣分。 1. Imagine a tree is attacked by fungus that parasitizes and destroys phloem. What would be a likely cause of the tree’s death? (A) inability to capture water from the soil (B) inability to transport water to the leaves (C) starvation of the roots (D) inhibition of photosynthesis (E) A and B 2. How does the immune system produce so many different antibodies? (A) vertebrates inherit millions of different antibody genes (B) each antibody is the product of several different genes that are shuffled to produce new combinations (C) meiotic recombination and independent assortment lead to antibody variations (D) the immune system creates new B cells each time it is exposed to a new antigen (E) all of the above 3. Which of the following is true for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression? (A) after transcription, a 3’poly-A tail and a 5’ cap are added to mRNA (B) transcription of mRNA can begin before transcription is completed (C) RNA polymerase may recognize a promoter region upstream from the gene (D) mRNA is synthesized in the 3’→5’direction (E) the mRNA transcript is the exact complement of the gene from which it was copied 4. During cellular respiration, pyruvate must be transported across (A) the cell membrane into intercellular space (B) both mitochondria membranes into the matrix (C) the outer mitochondria membrane into the stroma (D) the outer mitochondria membrane into the cytosol (E) the nuclear envelop into nucleus 5. Which of the following statements about nonspecific defenses is false? (A) they include inflammatory responses (B) they include physical and chemical barriers (C) they must be primed by the presence of antigen (D) they may involve the formation of membrane attack complexes (E) marcophages and natural killer cells are participants in the process 6. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have double membranes because (A) their DNA is light-sensitive (B) they need protection from lysosomes (C) they are derived from eukaryotes (D) the double membrane is required to maintain a hydrogen ion gradient (E) they originated from endosymbiosis 7. A flower without sepals and petals is most likely pollinated by (A) bees (B) moths (C) bats (D) wind (E) insects 8. A species concept defined by phenotypic characters is referred as (A) biological species concept (B) ecological species concept (C) evolutionary species concept (D) morphological species concept (E) recognition species concept are generally characterized by sporophyte with vascular system and without seed production in life cycle. 9. (A) Mosses (B) Ferns (C) Gymnosperms (D) Angiosperms (E) Algae 10. A structure in seed, which is equivalent to a leaf, is (A) seed coat (B) plumule (C) endosperm (D) coleoptile (E) cotyledon 11. A biodiversity hot spot is (A) a low species diversity in a small area (B) a low species diversity in a large area (C) a high species abundance in a large area (D) a high species diversity in a small area (E) a large species population size in a small area 【背面㈲試題】 共 5 頁第 2 頁 12. Which of the following is an INCORRECT statement about plants? (A) they are sometimes referred to as embryophytes (B) they are all eukaryotic (C) they are mostly terrestrial (D) they are polyphyletic (E) they have two dimorphic generations 13. Which of the following responses that plants cope with water deficit is INCORRECT? (A) reducing the rate of transpiration (B) stimulating increased synthesis and release of abscisic acid (C) increasing defoliation (D) rolling the leaves (E) altering the lipid composition of their cell membranes 14. An eutrophic lake is usually characterized by its (A) shallow water depth and high nutrient content (B) shallow water depth and low nutrient content (C) deep water depth and high nutrient content (D) deep water depth and low nutrient content (E) medium water depth and moderate nutrient content 15. Which of the following correctly matches an organelle with its function? (A) mitochondria - photosynthesis (B) nucleus - cellular respiration (C) ribosome - manufacture of lipids (D) lysosome - movement (E) central vacuole - storage 16. Scientists think that some birds may find their way during migration by (A) imprinting on faint odors (B) listening to high-pitched sounds (C) sensing the magnetism of the Earth (D) seeing wavelengths of light that we cannot see (E) sensing the gravitational pull of the sun and moon 17. The part of a neuron that carries nerve impulses toward the cell body is called (A) a nerve (B) white matter (C) a neurotransmitter (D) a dendrite (E) an axon 18. Nitrogen fixation is (A) using nitrogen to build molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids (B) converting nitrogen in the air into a form usable by plants (C) recycling nitrogen from organic matter in the soil (D) absorbing N2 from the soil (E) an unhealthy interest in nitrogen 19. DNA fingerprints were used to determine whether Sam could be the father of Becky's baby. Which of the following would show that Sam is not the father? If ____ genetic fingerprint showed some bands not in ____ genetic fingerprint. (A) Sam's . . . the baby's (B) Becky’s .. . the baby's (C) the baby's . . . Sam's (D) the baby's . . . Becky's (E) the baby's .. . Sam's or Becky's 20. Which of the following hormones has the broadest range of targets? (A) ADH (B) oxytocin (C) TSH (D) epinephrine (E) ACTH 21. Two of the most common second messengers are (A) calcium ion and cAMP (B) GTP and GDP (C) kinase and phosphate (D) G proteins and calmodulin (E) kinase and phosphatase 22. Whales and dolphins are known to send out clicking sounds and listen to the echoes. This suggests that they might find their prey in the same way that (A)a rattlesnake finds a mouse in total darkness (B) a salmon locates its home stream (C) an owl locates a mouse in a dark barn (D) an electric eel finds its prey in a muddy river (E) bats navigate in dark caves 23. The concentration of calcium in a cell is 0.3%. The concentration of calcium in the surrounding fluid is 0.1%. How could the cell obtain more calcium? (A) passive transport (B) diffusion (C) active transport (D) osmosis (E) all of the above 24. What is a key difference between mitosis and meiosis? (A) only mitosis has a metaphase (B) sister chromatids separate during mitosis but not meiosis (C) DNA synthesis does not occur during anaphase of mitosis (D) only in mitosis are daughter cells genetically identical to parent cell (E) only mitosis has DNA replication 25. How does AZT (azidothymidine) block DNA replication? (A) AZT forms base pair with any other nucleotide (B) AZT forms no base pairs with other nucleotide (C) AZT causes a T-T dimmer mutation (D) AZT cannot form a bond to the phosphate of another nucleotide (E) AZT prevents cytokinesis 26. What happens to a tRNA molecule during and after its participation in protein synthesis? (A) it is stripped of its amino acid and released from the ribosome (B) it is covalently bound to the growing mRNA strand (C) it is charged with ATP (D) it is split from its DNA strand by enzymes (E) A and D 共 5 頁第 3 頁 27. Which organ system is present in flatworms? (A) muscular (B) digestive (C) reproductive (D) excretory (E) all of the above 28. The function of a mature B cell is to (A) make antibodies against several different antigens (B) make antibodies against only a single antigen (C) leave the lymph node to search out and destroy invaders (D) differentiate into a killer T cell (E) differentiate into a macrophage 29. Which part of a bone is likely to have the greatest concentration of cells? (A) compact bone (B) spongy bone (C) diaphysis (D) marrow (E) epiphysis 30. Which plant hormone induces and maintains dormancy? (A) gibberellins (B) auxins (C) cytokinins (D) abscisic acid (E) phytochrome II. 單選題:31-65 題,每題 2 分。70% 說明:每題選出㆒個最㊜當的選㊠,標示在答案卡㆖。每題答對得2分,答錯倒扣0.5分,未作答者 ,不給分亦不扣分。 31. A nursing infant is able to obtain disease-fighting antibodies, which are large protein molecules, from its mother's milk. These molecules probably enter the cells lining the baby's digestive tract via (A) osmosis (B) passive transport (C) exocytosis (D) active transport (E) endocytosis 32. During a secondary immune response, (A) selected B cell generates antibody-producing effector B cells called plasma cells (B) the stricken individual may become ill (C) about 10 to 17 days are required from exposure to maximum effector response (D) the generation of effector cells begins with memory cells produced during the primary immune response (E) all of the above 33. Which gland and organ work together to regulate the sodium level in the blood? (A) adrenal gland and kidney (B) thyroid gland and bone (C) hypothalamus and pituitary (D) pancreas and gall bladder (E) parathyroid and kidney 34. What happens at the nodes of Ranvier? (A) ions flow through the plasma membrane (B) the myelin sheath insulates the axon from dendrites (C) giant axons connect to one another (D) action potentials can jump from one axon to another (E) neurotransmitters are released 35. Unlike animals, in plants (A) cell division requires the formation of a cell plate (B) mitosis involves separation of chromatids during anaphase (C) mitosis is accomplished by binary fission (D) mitosis does not involve microtubules (E) cells can move about within a developing organ 36. A geneticist found that a particular mutation had no effect on the polypeptide coded by a gene. This mutation probably involved (A) deletion of one nucleotide (B) alteration of the start codon (C) insertion of one nucleotide (D) deletion of the entire gene (E) substitution of one nucleotide 37. The tendency for characteristics to be more different in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of the same two species is called (A) competitive exclusion (B) character displacement (C) niche shift (D) speciation (E) dynamic equilibrium 38. Which of the following is an INCORRECT statement about cyanobacteria? (A) they are photoautotrophic (B) they were formerly known as blue-green algae (C) they belong to Domain Bacteria (D) some of their members produce specialized heterocysts for nitrogen fixation (E) their cells contain chloroplasts 39. Noncyclic photophosphorylation is different from cyclic photophosphorylation in that (A) noncyclic photophosphorylation produces ATP (B) cyclic photophosphorylation produces ATP (C) noncyclic photophosphorylation produces NADPH (D) cyclic photophosphorylation produces NADPH (E) noncyclic photophosphorylation includes dark reactions 40. What is the function of calcium ions in muscle contraction? (A) They cause actin and myosin filaments to shorten. (B) They make membranes permeable. (C) They allow cross-bridges to form between actin and myosin. (D) They increase the action potential of the fiber. (E) They decrease the action potential of the fiber. 【背面㈲試題】 共 5 頁第 4 頁 , so the graduate student 41. A graduate student growing plant cells in a laboratory dish wanted to cause them to treated them with cytokinins. (A) enlarge (B) become dormant (C) grow roots (D) produce auxins (E) divide 42. Which of the following structures is incorrectly paired with its function? (A) epididymis – maturation and storage of sperm (B) uterus – fertilization of an egg (C) seminal vesicles – add sugar and mucus to semen (D) placenta – maternal/fetal exchange organ; progesterone producing (E) prostate gland – adds alkaline substances to semen 43. An area of habitat where a population’s reproductive success exceeds mortality is (A) the results of edge effect (B) going to occur speciation very soon (C) a source habitat to the population (D) going to decrease population size (E) the effective size of the population 44. Which of the following is an INCORRECT statement about fungi? (A) they are heterotrophs (B) most of their bodies are constructed of hyphae (C) their cell walls mainly consist of cellulose (D) they are more closely related to animals than plants (E) they serve as decomposers in communities 45. Fermentation is essentially glycolysis plus an extra step in which pyruvic acid is reduced to form lactic acid or alcohol and carbon dioxide. This last step (A) removes poisonous oxygen from the environment (B) extracts a bit more energy from glucose + (C) enables the cell to recycle NAD (D) inactivates toxic pyruvic acid (E) enables the cell to make pyruvic acid into substances it can use 46. A biologist isolated a gene from a human cell, attached it to a plasmid, and inserted the plasmid into a bacterium. The bacterium made a new protein, but it was nothing like the protein normally produced in a human cell. Why? (A) the bacterium had undergone transformation (B) the gene did not have sticky ends (C) the gene contained introns (D) the gene did not come from a genomic library (E) the biologist should have cloned the gene first 47. During kidney dialysis, blood and a dialyzing solution are separated by a semipermeable membrane. For kidney dialysis to work properly, the dialyzing solution should contain (A) a lower solute concentration than blood (B) a higher concentration of urea than blood (C) a lower glucose concentration than blood (D) a lower concentration of urea than blood (E) a much smaller volume of fluid than the blood passing through it 48. It takes much longer for sex hormones and other steroids to produce their effects than it takes for nonsteroid hormones. Why? (A) steroids are bigger, slower molecules (B) steroids usually must be carried longer distances by the blood (C) steroids cause target cells to make new proteins, which takes time (D) steroids must relay their message via a second messenger (E) it takes longer for endocrine cells to make and secrete steroids 49. A peak in ______ triggers ovulation on about the ______ day of the monthly cycle. (A) progesterone … fourteenth (B) LH … seventh (C) FSH … second (D) LH …fourteenth (E) estrogen … twentieth 50. Mitosis and cytokinesis result in the formation of ______, meiosis and cytokinesis result in the formation of ________. (A) 4 diploid cells … 4 haploid cells (B) 2 diploid cells … 2 haploid cells (C) 2 diploid cells … 4 haploid cells (D) 2 diploid cells … 2 diploid cells (E) 4 haploid cells … 2 diploid cells 51. During the early development of a human embryo the ____ eventually forms ____. (A) blastocoel … archenteron (B) epiblast … ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal tissues (C) epiblast … placenta (D) trophoblast … embryo proper (E) hypoblast … amniotic cavity 52. You would expect a cell with an extensive Golgi apparatus to (A) make a lot of ATP (B) secrete a lot of material (C) move actively (D) perform photosynthesis (E) store large quantities of food 53. In a laboratory, a scientist feeds yeast cells sugar made with radioactive carbon and keeps oxygen gas out of the container. In which substance will the radioactive carbon appear first? (A) water (B) phospholipids (C) pyruvate (D) carbon dioxide (E) electron transport molecules 54. Which of the following people would probably be making the most antidiuretic hormone? (A) a person drinking beer (B) a person swimming in a cold lake (C) a person eating salty potato chips (D) a person drinking acidic lemonade (E) none of the above ― the production of antidiuretic hormone is constant 共 5 頁第 5 頁 55. The brain perceives the brightness of light by sensing (A) the voltage of action potentials in the optic nerve (B) the frequency of action potentials in the optic nerve (C) which specific rod cells are stimulated (D) how many hair cells are stimulated (E) action potentials from brightness-sensing neurons 56. In what symptoms may be resulted by damage to the corpus callosum? (A) loss of short-term memory (B) inability to integrate information from the two sides of the body (C) inability to form long-term memory (D) sleeplessness (E) loss of fine motor control 57. What does the Hardy-Weinberg expression 2pq represent? (A) the gene frequency of the dominant allele (B) the gene frequency of the recessive allele (C) the frequency of the dominant phenotype (D) the frequency of the recessive phenotype (E) the frequency of heterozygotes 58. Which developmental sequence is correct? (A) fertilization→gastrulation→blastula formation→morula formation→cleavage (B) cleavage→fertilization→blastula formation→morula formation→gastrulation (C) fertilization→cleavage→blastula formation→morula formation→gastrulation (D) fertilization→cleavage→morula formation→blastula formation→gastrulation (E) fertilization→cleavage→morula formation→gastrulation→blastula formation 59. Which of the following best represents the path of a signal that causes muscle contraction? (A) motor neuron→sarcoplasmic reticulum→sarcolemma→transverse tubules (B) transverse tubules→sarcoplasmic reticulum→sarcolemma→motor neuron (C) motor neuron→transverse tubules→sarcolemma→sarcoplasmic reticulum (D) sarcoplasmic reticulum→transverse tubules→sarcolemma→motor neuron (E) motor neuron→sarcolemma→transverse tubules→sarcoplasmic reticulum 60. What prevents an action potential from propagating in both directions along an axon? (A) During the refractory period, a patch of membrane cannot conduct another action potential. (B) The sodium channels allow the passage of ions in only one direction. (C) ATP stores are temporarily exhausted following an action potential. (D) The sodium-potassium pumps are temporarily disabled by an action potential. (E) All of the above 61. In the atmosphere, the partial pressure of oxygen is 0.21 atmosphere; of carbon dioxide, 0.0003. Which of the following statements is not true? (A) The partial pressure of oxygen in lung capillary is greater than 0.21. (B) In the pulmonary vein, the partial pressure of oxygen is greater than in the inferior vena cava. (C) In the pulmonary artery, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is greater than 0.0003. (D) The partial pressure of oxygen in muscle capillaries is less than 0.21. (E) In the renal artery, the partial pressure of oxygen is greater than in the renal vein. 62. The following sequence shows a “gene” encoding a small peptide. The three stop codons are UAA, UAG, and UGA. How many amino acids will be encoded by this “gene”? The promoter region is underlined. 5’(ATGACGTATAA)TGACCGTACATGAGTAATACATAAATGAG 3’ (A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 7 (D) 8 (E) 12 63. Which of the following statements regarding transposons is false? (A) Transposons have a specific target site within the genome. (B) Transponses are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (C) Transposons can move from a plasmid to the chromosome of the bacterium. (D) Transposons may replicate at the original site and insert the copy at another site. (E) Transposons may carry only the genes necessary for insertion. 64. Which of the following statements is correct about Gram-negative bacteria? (A) Penicillins are effective antibiotics against them. (B) They often possess an outer cell membrane containing toxic lipopolysaccharides. (C) On cell-to-cell basis, they possess more DNA than the cells of any taxonomically higher organism do. (D) Their chromosomes are composed of DNA tightly wrapped around histone protein. (E) Their cell walls are primarily composed of peptidoglycan. 65. Which of the following statements is true about arteries? (A) arteries always carry deoxygenated blood (B) arteries always carry oxygenated blood (C) arteries always carry blood toward the heart (D) arteries always carry blood away from the eart (E) B and D ...
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